Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.844
Filtrar
1.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(2): e22432, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851403

RESUMO

New polymeric microspheres containing azomethine (1a-1c and 2a-2c) were synthesized by condensation to compare the enzymatic properties of the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) and to investigate antimutagenic and antimicrobial activities. The polymeric microspheres were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The catalytic activity of the glucose oxidase enzyme follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Influence of temperature, reusability, and storage capacity of the free and immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme were investigated. It is determined that immobilized enzymes exhibit good storage stability and reusability. After immobilization of GOx in polymeric supports, the thermal stability of the enzyme increased and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax ) decreased. The activity of the immobilized enzymes was preserved even after 5 months. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the polymeric microspheres were evaluated by well-diffusion method against some selected pathogenic microorganisms. The antimutagenic properties of all compounds were also examined against sodium azide in human lymphocyte cells by micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange tests.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas Imobilizadas/farmacocinética , Glucose Oxidase/farmacocinética , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microesferas , Compostos Azo/química , Células Cultivadas , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Feminino , Glucose Oxidase/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/efeitos dos fármacos , Azida Sódica/efeitos adversos , Azida Sódica/farmacologia , Temperatura , Tiossemicarbazonas/química
2.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104672, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629897

RESUMO

Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that is widely used in treatments of human malignancies such as ovaries,' testes,' and solid tumors of the head and neck. However, the use of cisplatin in the treatments can be associated with DNA damage and high risk to the development of secondary malignancies. Vitamin E is a strong lipophilic antioxidant that has the ability to protect normal cells from chromosomal damage and promote the repair of the damaged DNA. In the current study, the possible protective effect of vitamin E on DNA damage induced by cisplatin was investigated. For that, chromosomal aberrations (CAs) frequency and the number of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were measured in cultured human lymphocytes. Results showed that cisplatin statistically significant increases in the number of cells with CAs (P < 0.05) and in the frequency of SCEs (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. These increases were significantly lowered by pretreatment of cells with vitamin E. Additionally, cisplatin reduced mitotic index at used concentrations (P < 0.05), which was normalized by vitamin E. Therefore, we conclude that vitamin E can prevent the genotoxicity of cisplatin on cultured human lymphocyte.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Troca de Cromátide Irmã , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 237, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice husk, a waste material produced during milling, contains numerous phytochemicals that may be sources of cancer chemopreventive agents. Various biological activities of white and colored rice husk have been reported. However, there are few comparative studies of the cancer chemopreventive effects of white and colored rice husk. METHODS: This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive activities of two different colors of rice husk using in vitro and in vivo models. A bacterial mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 was performed; enzyme induction activity in murine hepatoma cells was measured, and a liver micronucleus test was performed in male Wistar rats. RESULTS: The white rice husk (WRHE) and purple rice husk (PRHE) extracts were not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. However, the extracts exhibited antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and 2-amino-3,4 dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (MeIQ) in a Salmonella mutation assay. The extracts also induced anticarcinogenic enzyme activity in a murine Hepa1c1c7 hepatoma cell line. Interestingly, PRHE but not WRHE exhibited antigenotoxicity in the rat liver micronucleus test. PRHE significantly decreased the number of micronucleated hepatocytes in AFB1-initiated rats. PRHE contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds and vitamin E than WRHE in both tocopherols and tocotrienols as well as polyphenol such as cyanidin-3-glucoside, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid. Furthermore, PRHE increased CYP1A1 and 1A2 activities while decreasing CYP3A2 activity in the livers of AFB1-treated rats. PRHE also enhanced various detoxifying enzyme activities, including glutathione S-transferase, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase. CONCLUSIONS: PRHE showed potent cancer chemopreventive activity in a rat liver micronucleus assay through modulation of phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes involved in AFB1 metabolism. Vitamin E and phenolic compounds may be candidate antimutagens in purple rice husk.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes para Micronúcleos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323993

RESUMO

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorder in the world. Many antiepileptic drugs cause multiple adverse effects. Moreover, multidrug resistance is a serious problem in epilepsy treatment. In the present study we evaluated the safety profile of three (1-3) new chiral N-aminoalkyl derivatives of trans-2-aminocyclohexan-1-ol demonstrating anticonvulsant activity. Our aim was also to determine differences between the enantiomeric compounds with respect to their safety profile. The results of the study indicated that compounds 1-3 are non-cytotoxic for astrocytes, although they exhibit cytotoxic activity against human glioblastoma cells. Moreover, 1-3 did not affect the viability of HepG2 cells and did not produce adducts with glutathione. Compounds 1-3 demonstrated no mutagenic activity either in the Salmonella typhimurium or in Vibrio harveyi tests. Additionally, the compounds displayed a strong or moderate antimutagenic effect. Finally, the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATPase assay demonstrated that both enantiomers are potent P-gp inhibitors. To sum up, our results indicate that the newly synthesized derivatives may be considered promising candidates for further research on anticonvulsant drug discovery and development. Our study indicated the similar safety profile of the enantiomeric N-aminoalkyl derivatives of trans-2-aminocyclohexan-1-ol, although in the previous studies both enantiomers differ in their biotransformation pathways and pharmacological activity.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Cicloexanóis/química , Cicloexanóis/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Ativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticonvulsivantes/toxicidade , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexanóis/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Mutagênicos/química , Mutagênicos/farmacologia
5.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 19(20): 1666-1680, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaves of Spinacia oleracea have been widely used as vegetarian foods. Some studies on the chemical composition of spinach have shown that it contains a high content of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and has an important economic value with some agronomic advantages. S. oleracea in traditional medicine is reported to cure more than one health problem. OBJECTIVE: This review focuses on the ethnopharmacological uses and pharmacological and phytochemical studies of Spinacia oleracea. METHODS: Information on S. oleracea was obtained via electronic search of scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scirus, Science Direct, Scielo, Web of Science, Medline, Springerlink, BioMed Central (BMC), and SciFinder for publications on this plant. In addition, books on medicinal herbs were also consulted. RESULTS: Approximately 100 chemical compounds were isolated and characterized from S. oleracea. The major active components of the plant are flavones, flavanols, methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides, glucuronides, and carotenoids, which were extensively investigated. This review revealed potential pharmacological properties of these isolated compounds such as anti-obesity, anti-α-amylase, bileacid binding capacity, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cognitive and mood effect, hypoglycemic, and anti-hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSION: S. oleracea is an important edible plant also used for ethnomedical therapy of obesity, inflammation of lungs, lumbago, flatulence, and treatment of urinary calculi. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies of this plant including bioactives, which have been adequately studied, support its uses in traditional medicine. Additionally, prospects and future trends of this plant are proposed.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Spinacia oleracea/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Nat Med ; 73(4): 727-734, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104253

RESUMO

From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Lansium domesticum, three new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids X-XII and a new cycloartane-type triterpene, lansium acid XIII, were isolated. The chemical structures of the isolated new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical/physicochemical evidence. For new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, the absolute configurations were established by comparison of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. The isolated onoceranoid-type triterpenoids showed antimutagenic effects in the Ames assay against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1).


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Meliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 114-123, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853643

RESUMO

Ethnopharmacological relevance; Several plant species of Miconia genus are commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine as anti-inflammatory agents and for the treatment of infectious diseases. Infusions and extracts of Miconia species are also reported as analgesic, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, and antitumoral. Aim of the study; To determine the phytochemical composition of an aqueous extract of Miconia latecrenata leaves and to evaluate its antioxidant, antibacterial, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities. Materials and Methods; The following methods were used for the different effects: I) antioxidant - ß-carotene/linoleic acid, lipid peroxidation, and DPPH• radical scavenging; II) antibacterial - agar well diffusion and MIC methods); III) antimutagenic assays - Ames Test; and IV) antigenotoxic - Plasmid cleavage test. The phytochemical analysis and phenolic quantification were carried out by UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and colorimetry, respectively. In addition, statistical correlation analysis was performed aiming to evaluate the Pearson correlation between phenolic compounds and biological assays. Results; A high content of tannins was observed and the ellagitannin isomers of 1,2,3,5-tris-galloyl-4,6-HHDP-glucose were identified as the main constituents of the leaves aqueous extract. High antioxidant effect, in different tests, high antibacterial activity to gram-positive and negative strains, as well as high antimutagenic activity were observed. Statistical analysis showed a high Pearson correlation for the tannin content in relation to the results of the antioxidant and antibacterial tests. In general, the antioxidant action of the aqueous extract showed low correlation with the antimutagenic activity. Conclusions; The present results confirmed the expectations regarding the pharmacological profile of M. latecrenata supporting its therapeutic potential in relation to ROS/RNS related disorders. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds of M. latecrenata can act, in turn, minimizing or inhibiting the biological macromolecules damage, especially DNA.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Melastomataceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antimutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917556

RESUMO

Polyphenols are one of the largest and most widespread groups of secondary metabolites in the plants world. These compounds are of particular interest due to their occurrence and the properties they possess. The main sources of phenolic compounds are fruits and vegetables, but lately, more and more studies refer to woody vascular plants, especially to bark, as an important source of phenolic compounds with a potential biological effect. This study aims to bring together information on the phenolic compounds present in the bark of woody vascular plants by discussing extraction methods, the chemical composition of the extracts and potential biological effects. The literature data used in this paper were collected via PubMed (2004⁻2019). Search terms were: bark, rhytidome, woody vascular plant, polyphenols, phenolic compounds, biologic activity, antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumoral. This paper intends to highlight the fact that the polyphenolic extracts obtained from the bark of woody vascular plants represent sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, immunostimulatory, antimutagenic, antibacterial properties, etc. Future research directions should be directed towards identification and isolation of bioactive compounds. Consequently, biologically active compounds obtained from the bark of woody plants could be exploited on an industrial scale.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/farmacologia , Traqueófitas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química
9.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(3): 312-319, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603963

RESUMO

The ability of fermentates of two potential probiotic strains, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933, to lower the SOS response in bacteria was evaluated using Escherichia coli-based Lux biosensors (pRecA-lux) and the tested bacilli fermentates obtained through solid-state fermentation. The SOS response was stimulated by the addition of ciprofloxacine. Preparations of both Bacillus fermentates demonstrated SOS-inhibitory activity (up to 54.21%). The strain КATMIRA1933 was characterized by higher SOS-inhibitory activity. The active components of the fermentates were stable against heating, proteinase, and RNase action.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Probióticos/farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Antimutagênicos/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Probióticos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Topoisomerase II/toxicidade
10.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; 42(5): 502-508, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482370

RESUMO

In the present study, coffee (CF) was evaluated for its protective effects against genotoxic damage and oxidative stress induced by the chemotherapeutic drug, cyclophosphamide (CPH). The sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test was employed to study the induction of mutations in the larvae as well as in all the successive germ cell stages of treated males. Control and treated third instar larvae were used to monitor the biomarkers of oxidative stress response such as glutathione content (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (MDA content). Our results demonstrated that co-administration of CF (2%) with CPH (3 mM) has significantly reduced CPH-induced lethal mutations in the germ cells of larvae and adult flies. The reductions observed in mutation frequencies were: 75% in larvae and 62.4% in the adult. Significant enhancement in antioxidant enzymatic levels: CAT (46.6%) > SOD (43.0%) > GST (42.4%) > GSH (31.6%) and reduction in MDA levels (32.05%) in the pretreated third instar larvae demonstrated the antioxidant activity of CF against CPH-induced oxidative stress. The findings from the present study suggest that the Drosophila model is an ideal one for evaluating the antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity of complex mixtures like CF.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Café/química , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Células Germinativas/patologia , Masculino , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(6): 862-865, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183163

RESUMO

Pinocembrin (1) and cardamonin (2) from Sozuku showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 against the mutagen furylfuramide. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed 52% and 36% of SOS-inducing activity at a concentration of 0.20 µmol/mL. The ID50 value of 1 was 0.18 µmol/mL. These compounds showed the suppression of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinolone (MeIQ) and UV irradiation-induced SOS response. Pinostrobin (3) and 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone (4), methyl ethers of 1, showed similar activity to 1 against MeIQ-induced SOS response, but that of furylfuramide and UV irradiation were decreased. On the other hand, compounds 1-4 did not show the suppression of activated MeIQ-induced SOS response. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 showed potent antimutagenic activity against MeIQ mutagenesis in Ames test using the S. typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Antimutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Chalconas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Furilfuramida , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quinolinas , Sementes/química
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(2): 624-631, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) is a typical Amazonian fruit and has high antioxidant capacity due to its high levels of vitamin C and phenolic compounds. This study aimed to determine the phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic effects of camu-camu fruits with different maturity stages grown in dry (commercial cultivation) or flooded environments (native cultivation, Amazon). RESULTS: Total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and in vitro antioxidant capacity levels were higher in ripe fruits grown in a commercial cultivation. The extracts from ripe camu-camu grown in a commercial cultivation exerted antioxidant effects and high percentage of protection against doxorubicin and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in all tested systems (liver, bone marrow and gut), for three camu-camu extract concentrations (17, 85 and 170 mg kg-1 body weight), as follows: bone marrow minocronucleus (37.91%, 41.75%, 43.95%); micronucleus gut test (61.01%, 64.40%, 50.28%); apoptosis index (60.26%, 62.44%, 58.22%); comet assay through the tail moment (71.64%, 72.31%, 70.70%), percent DNA in the tail (64.54%, 68.75%, 76.79%) and tail intensity (76.43%, 81.02%, 68.33%). CONCLUSION: The results of this study contribute to increasing the production of camu-camu fruits grown in dry environments and their use as a health-promoting food. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antimutagênicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Camundongos , Myrtaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise
13.
Vopr Pitan ; 87(1): 92-97, 2018.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592847

RESUMO

The aim of the work was to determine the possibility of using the powder from the leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides L. for enriching flour confectionery and to evaluate the antimutagenic and antioxidant activity of the product. The experiment was carried out on 24 white Wistar rats with initial body weight (b.w.) 180-200 g. The animals of the experimental group (n=8) received confection containing sea buckthorn powder at a rate of 20 mg per 100 g b.w. for 14 days on the background of a standard vivarium diet. The animals of the control and intact groups received confection containing no bioactive supplement at the same dose. Antimutagenic and antioxidant effects were estimated in a day after a single injection of cyclophosphamide at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. The number of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of white rats was counted and the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the level of reduced glutathione and the concentration of TBA-active products in blood were evaluated. The intake of the confectionery containing the powdered H. rhamnoides leaves resulted in the 45% decrease of the number of damaged cells, 50% decrease of the proportion of cells with multiple chromosome breaks and 52% decrease of the number of achromatic gaps as compared to animals of the control group (n=8). The cake intake increased the activity of catalase (by 52%) and SOD (by 33%) and glutathione content (by 26%) in blood.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos , Doces/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Hippophae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antimutagênicos/química , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 122: 172-180, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316843

RESUMO

Previously we demonstrated the anti-tumorigenic, anti-mutagenic and anti-inflammatory effects of the juice of Vitis coignetiae (yamabudo), and identified caftaric acid as an anti-mutagenic component from the juice. In the present study, we investigated the isolation of anti-inflammatory components in yamabudo juice supposing that the anti-inflammatory components in yamabudo are also responsible for the anti-tumorigenic activity. The suppressing effect on nitric oxide production in mouse leukemic monocyte with LPS was used as a separation marker. Three components comprising 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ), fertaric acid and caftaric acid were isolated and identified from the juice of V. coignetiae as anti-inflammatory ingredients. Inhibitory effects were found of DBQ on the mutagenicity of dimethylbenzo[a]anthracene, aflatoxin B1, 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2) and amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the Ames test. Topical application of DBA significantly inhibited TPA-induced edema of mouse ears. The anti-tumorigenic effect of DBQ on the promotion and initiation stages of mouse skin tumorigenesis was investigated, and topical administration of DBQ on the promotion stage significantly decreased tumor development in mice skin. DBQ is a potential candidate for the chemopreventive effect of V. coignetiae.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticarcinógenos/isolamento & purificação , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Animais , Benzoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 122: 234-241, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321573

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the genotoxic potential of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, (PhIP); 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, (IQ); 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) on human freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by the comet assay. The preventive ability of three different phenolic extracts derived from olive (O-PE), virgin olive oil (OO-PE) and olive leaf (OL-PE) on PhIP induced DNA damage was also investigated. PhIP and IQ induced a significant DNA damage at the lowest concentration tested (100 µM), while the genotoxic effect of MeIQx and DiMeIQx become apparent only in the presence of DNA repair inhibitors Cytosine b-D-arabinofuranoside and Hydroxyurea (AraC/HU). The inclusion of metabolic activation (S9-mix) in the culture medium increased the genotoxicity of all HCAs tested. All three phenolic extracts showed an evident DNA damage preventive activity in a very low concentration range (0.1-1.0 µM of phenols) which could be easily reached in human tissues "in vivo" under a regular intake of virgin olive oil. These data further support the observation that consumption of olive and virgin olive oil may prevent the initiation step of carcinogenesis. The leaf waste could be an economic and simple source of phenolic compounds to be used as food additives or supplements.


Assuntos
Aminas/toxicidade , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos/toxicidade , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Olea/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ativação Metabólica , Aminas/farmacocinética , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Mutagênicos/farmacocinética , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
16.
J Nat Prod ; 81(10): 2187-2194, 2018 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335380

RESUMO

A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Lansium domesticum showed antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5 H-pyrido[4,3- b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- bI]pyridine (PhIP) using the Ames assay. Nine new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids I-IX (1-9), and nine known compounds (10-16) were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined via their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Several isolated onoceranoid-type triterpeneoids showed antimutagenic effects in an in vitro Ames assay. Moreover, oral intake of a major constituent, lansionic acid (10), showed antimutagenic effects against PhIP in an in vivo micronucleus test.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Meliaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Estrutura Molecular , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Estereoisomerismo , Triterpenos/química
17.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 50(3): 108-115, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Silymarin, extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle), is traditionally used for treating various illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and renal problems. Acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies have been reported with ambiguous outcomes; however, its relevant anticlastogenic potential is not yet evaluated. This study was aimed to evaluate in vivo subacute anticlastogenic properties of silymarin to validate its use as a medicinal agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silymarin was isolated from seeds of milk thistle. Various genotoxicity bioassays of silymarin were performed using mice. First, the bone marrow cell proliferation was estimated by calculating mitotic index. Second, the chromosomal abnormalities in mice bone marrow cells were studied. Third, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPE) test and in vivo activation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were carried out in mice bone marrow cells. Finally, primary spermatocytes were analyzed to estimate genotoxic effect of silymarin on germ cells. RESULTS: We found that silymarin is capable of inducing a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in cell proliferation of bone marrow cells. There is no increase in chromosomal aberrations following silymarin treatments. Results clearly showed that it significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the MPE. Likewise, it was found to be a negative inducer of SCEs. It decreased in total abnormal metaphase, SCEs, MPE, and aberrant diakinesis. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that silymarin has a strong anticlastogenic activity upon mice genome in somatic and germ cells, indicating its safe use as a medicinal substance. Furthermore, it is not only safe but also has protective effect from clastogens.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Cardo-Mariano/química , Silimarina/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Índice Mitótico , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177614

RESUMO

In this era of urbanization and environmental pollution, antioxidants and antimutagens derived from plants are promising safeguards for human health. In the current investigation, we analyzed the antioxidant and antimutagenic effects of the hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. leaves and determined their chemical composition. The different fractions inhibited lipid peroxidation, repressed the production of nitric oxide radicals, and prevented deoxyribose degradation. The antimutagenic activity of the leaf fractions was analyzed against 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide and 2-aminofluorene mutagens in two test strains (TA-98 and TA-100) of Salmonella typhimurium. The experiment was conducted using pre- and co-incubation modes. The best results were obtained in the pre-incubation mode, and against indirect acting mutagen. The presence of a number of bioactive constituents was confirmed in the different fractions by GC-MS analysis. The study reveals the strong antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of R. arboreum leaves. We propose that those activities of R. arboreum might correspond to the combined effect of the phytochemicals identified by GC-MS analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antimutagenic activity of R. arboreum leaves.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhododendron/química , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Clorofórmio/química , Clorofórmio/farmacologia , Desoxirribose/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexanos/química , Hexanos/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(16): 805-818, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999476

RESUMO

Plant extracts exist as a complex matrix which serves as a source of numerous bioactive metabolites. The ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection-coupled electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technique was used to characterize the aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (EAG), a species popularly used to treat gastrointestinal problems as an antiulcer agent. Quantification of phenolic derivatives was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3) methods. In addition, antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH•] radical scavenging, ß-carotene-linoleic acid, and lipid peroxidation), antibacterial (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration), antimutagenic (Ames test), and antigenotoxic (plasmid cleavage) assays were also performed on this plant extract. The ellagitannin tris-galloyl-hexahydroxydiphenic acid-glucose was identified as the predominant compound along with tannins as majority metabolites. EAG showed high antioxidant activity accompanied by moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The highest antimutagenic activity was observed for TA97 strain without metabolic activation (S9) and with metabolic activation, TA100 and TA102 were completely inhibited. In addition, EAG exhibited potential signs of antigenotoxic action. The high antioxidant and antimutagenic activity observed for EAG suggests important therapeutic uses that still need to be verified in future studies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 51(9): e7404, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020319

RESUMO

DNA repair pathways, cell cycle checkpoints, and redox protection systems are essential factors for securing genomic stability. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of Ilex paraguariensis (Ip) infusion and one of its polyphenolic components rutin on cellular and molecular damage induced by ionizing radiation. Ip is a beverage drank by most inhabitants of Argentina, Paraguay, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC7Klys 2-3) was used as the eukaryotic model. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to gamma rays (γ) in the presence or absence of Ip or rutin. The concentrations used simulated those found in the habitual infusion. Surviving fractions, mutation frequency, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) were determined after treatments. A significant increase in surviving fractions after gamma irradiation was observed following combined exposure to γ+R, or γ+Ip. Upon these concomitant treatments, mutation and DSB frequency decreased significantly. In the mutant strain deficient in MEC1, a significant increase in γ sensitivity and a low effect of rutin on γ-induced chromosomal fragmentation was observed. Results were interpreted in the framework of a model of interaction between radiation-induced free radicals, DNA repair pathways, and checkpoint controls, where the DNA damage that induced activation of MEC1 nodal point of the network could be modulated by Ip components including rutin. Furthermore, ionizing radiation-induced redox cascades can be interrupted by rutin potential and other protectors contained in Ip.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , DNA Fúngico/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Raios gama , Espectrometria de Massas , Mutagênese , Taxa de Mutação , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA