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1.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2877-2883, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422463

RESUMO

Anthelmintic resistance in equine cyathostomin parasites is widespread. A surveillance-based parasite control program using fecal egg counts (FECs) and fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) to decrease anthelmintic use and monitor treatment efficacy is recommended. The purpose of this study was to examine shifts in equine parasite control program management practices via a short course presented by the Penn State Extension, and to highlight how data collected from these programs is useful for monitoring anthelmintic efficacy on a large scale. Horse owners were enrolled after participating in a short course and filled out questionnaire surveys about their parasite management programs pre and post study, horse information, and farm information. FECs were performed at three time points, and horses above a 300 strongyle eggs per gram cut-off were treated with pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole, or ivermectin. Two weeks post-treatment, FECRTs were performed to determine treatment efficacy, which included 29 farms with 513 individual treatments. Prior to the study, only 30.6% of farms used FECs, but after the study, 97.3% of farms said they would use FECs in the future. Horses were given an average of 4.1 anthelmintic treatments per year before the study, and post study 89.2% of farms were able to reduce the number of anthelmintic treatments used. Fenbendazole was effective on zero farms, pyrantel pamoate on 7.4% of farms, and ivermectin on 92.9% of farms. This outreach project helped generate information about anthelmintic efficacy levels, causing a shift in practices on participating farms, and collected useful anthelmintic resistance data.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 293, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogene, which upregulates in approximately 70% of human cancers. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process which maintains cellular homeostasis and eliminates damaged cellular components. Moreover, the STAT3 signaling pathway, which may be triggered by cancer cells, has been implicated in the autophagic process. METHODS: In this study, we found that the anthelmintic flubendazole exerts potent antitumor activity in three human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and in the nude mouse model. The inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro by flubendazole was evaluated using a clonogenic assay and the MTT assay. Western blot analysis, flow cytometry analysis, siRNA growth experiment and cytoplasmic and nuclear protein extraction were used to investigate the mechanisms of inhibiting STAT3 signaling and activation of autophagy induced by flubendazole. Additionally, the expression of STAT3 and mTOR was analyzed in paired colorectal cancer and normal tissues collected from clinical patients. RESULTS: Flubendazole blocked the IL6-induced nuclear translocation of STAT3, which led to inhibition of the transcription of STAT3 target genes, such as MCL1, VEGF and BIRC5. In addition, flubendazole also reduced the expression of P-mTOR, P62, BCL2, and upregulated Beclin1 and LC3-I/II, which are major autophagy-related genes. These processes induced potent cell apoptosis in CRC cells. In addition, flubendazole displayed a synergistic effect with the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil in the treatment of CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that flubendazole exerts antitumor activities by blocking STAT3 signaling and inevitably affects the autophagy pathway. Flubendazole maybe a novel anticancer drug and offers a distinctive therapeutic strategy in neoadjuvant chemotherapy of CRC.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transfecção
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
5.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(9): 805-808, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073620

RESUMO

Cutaneous larva migrans is a dermatitis, typically acquired in warm tropical or sub-tropical countries, caused by migration of the larvae of nematodes (hookworm; mainly Ancylostoma braziliense and, occasionally, Ancylostoma caninum or Uncinaria stenocephala), which are parasitic on animals such as cats and dogs, into the patient's skin. The larvae penetrate the skin after contact with infected soil and cause a typical creeping eruption. Patients with cutaneous larva migrans seen in Europe have usually acquired the disease following a stay in a tropical or sub-tropical area. How-ever, some cases of cutaneous larval migrans are acquired in Europe. We report here 5 autochthonous cases in France and give an overview of European autochthonous cases.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Larva Migrans/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Adulto , Ancylostoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , França , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Larva Migrans/tratamento farmacológico , Larva Migrans/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Aust Vet J ; 97(6): 185-190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the impact of a single drench with a label dose of injectable doramectin subsequent to weaning on the growth and performance of heifers and steers in central Queensland beef herds. METHODS: Three studies were undertaken on recently-weaned Bos indicus-cross beef calves with ≥ 75% B. indicus content on two farms in central Queensland, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Farm 1 was located 50 km north and Farm 2 75 km north-west of Rockhampton. In each study, half of a group of recently-weaned beef calves were treated by random allocation with 0.2 mg/kg of injectable doramectin, and the remainder acting as untreated controls. Study 1 (Farm 1) enrolled 250 heifers, while studies 2 and 3 (Farm 2) both enrolled 200 steers and 200 heifers. The farms involved did not historically use macrocyclic lactone-based drenches on their cattle. There were varying periods of follow-up, with treated and control cattle pastured as one group throughout the study period. Worm burdens were monitored using standard faecal egg counts and larval differentiation procedures. In all studies, the worm genera present were a mix of Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. RESULTS: In study 1, conducted on Farm 1 beginning 9 July 2012, doramectin-treated cattle gained an average of 0.27 kg/day while control cattle gained 0.19 kg/day over a monitoring period of 121 days (P < 0.0001). In study 2, conducted on Farm 2 beginning 28 July 2015, doramectin-treated cattle gained an average of 0.15 kg/day versus 0.145 kg/day in the control group (P = 0.44) over a 231-day study period. In study 3, conducted on Farm 2 beginning 4 August 2016, doramectin-treated steers and heifers gained an average of 0.431 and 0.402 kg/day versus 0.342 and 0.311 kg/day in the control group, respectively, over the first 91 days of the study (P < 0.0001 in both cases). The differences in average daily gain (ADG) in subsequent time periods were not statistically significant for steers or heifers. However, overall differences in ADG from day 0 remained statistically significant out to day 258, when the study ended for the heifers. By day 594, when the study ended for the steers, the difference in ADG was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Treatment with injectable doramectin soon after weaning resulted in improved weight gain in the 3 months after weaning in two of the three studies.


Assuntos
Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Queensland , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Acta Trop ; 196: 72-75, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082364

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of MBZ oily suspension (MBZ-OS) in experimentally Echinococcus multilocularis-infected mice. MBZ-OS was prepared and administered to mice infected with E. multilocularis at 12.5 and 25 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days. Then, the cysts were collected, weighed and histologically examined. The results showed that the reduction rate of cyst weight induced by MBZ-OS at two doses was 95.23% and 92.67%, which was significantly higher than that of MBZ-1% tragacanth (positive control) at corresponding concentrations (87.41% and 69.47%), indicating that the treatment of alveolar echinococcosis at lower doses could be achieved by the use of MBZ-OS. This finding shows that MBZ-OS is also a promising formulation for alveolar echinococcosis as well as cystic echinococcosis and deserves to be investigated in clinical applications against echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Echinococcus multilocularis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Composição de Medicamentos , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/química , Camundongos
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959907

RESUMO

Lymphangiogenesis is an important biological process associated with cancer metastasis. The development of new drugs that block lymphangiogenesis represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Marine fungus-derived compound phomaketide A, isolated from the fermented broth of Phoma sp. NTOU4195, has been reported to exhibit anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its anti-lymphangiogenic activity has not been clarified to date. In this study, we showed that phomaketide A inhibited cell growth, migration, and tube formation of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) without an evidence of cytotoxicity. Mechanistic investigations revealed that phomaketide A reduced LECs-induced lymphangiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signalings. Furthermore, human proteome array analysis indicated that phomaketide A significantly enhanced the protein levels of various protease inhibitors, including cystatin A, serpin B6, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Importantly, phomaketide A impeded tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by decreasing the expression of LYVE-1, a specific marker for lymphatic vessels, in tumor xenograft animal model. These results suggest that phomaketide A may impair lymphangiogenesis by suppressing VEGFR-3, PKCδ, and eNOS signaling cascades, while simultaneously activating protease inhibitors in human LECs. We document for the first time that phomaketide A inhibits lymphangiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that this natural product could potentially treat cancer metastasis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Linfangiogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Inibidores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antinematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Vasos Linfáticos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Policetídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 268: 67-72, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981308

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a strategic deworming program on Ascaris suum infection levels and technical performance parameters in fattening pigs. Eighteen fattening stables were selected and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 9 stables in which the fattening pigs tested seropositive for Ascaris, indicative for the presence of Ascaris eggs in the stable, whereas group 2 consisted of 9 stables in which the fattening pigs tested seronegative for Ascaris, indicating of a low or absent environmental contamination with Ascaris eggs. The production in each stable was monitored for a period of 7 consecutive fattening rounds. The first of these 7 fattening rounds (i.e. round 0), during which no intervention took place in the deworming strategy applied in the stable, served as a historical control. A deworming program using 200 mg/ml fenbendazole oral suspension in drinking water for 2 days every 6 weeks was implemented for a period of 6 consecutive fattening rounds. For each fattening round and for each stable, technical performance parameters including average daily growth, feed conversion ratio, days in fattening and the percentage of affected livers were obtained from the producers. Blood was collected from 10 randomly selected animals per stable at the end of each fattening round and evaluated for the presence of anti-Ascaris antibodies using 2 different serological tests, namely the AsHb- and the L3-Lung ELISA. The serological results obtained indicated a lower exposure of the animals to Ascaris after the implementation of a strategic deworming program. A significant decline in anti-Ascaris antibody levels was detectable in the stables that originally tested positive for Ascaris and was already visible after one treatment round. The outcomes of hierarchical linear mixed models indicated that the level of L3-Lung antibody reactivity was a significant predictor of decreased ADG, increased FCR and prolonged DIF for the Ascaris-positive herds, indicating an effect of Ascaris infections on productivity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/veterinária , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaris suum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/parasitologia , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gado/parasitologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes Sorológicos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/parasitologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 114, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveys conducted in 1991-1992 in the Mbam Valley (Cameroon) revealed that onchocerciasis was highly endemic, with community microfilarial loads (CMFL) > 100 microfilariae/snip in some villages. Also in 1991-1992, a survey of suspected cases of epilepsy (SCE) found 746 SCE using a questionnaire administered to individuals identified by key informants, with prevalences reaching 13.6% in some communities. From 1998, annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) was implemented to control onchocerciasis. In 2017, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in three of the villages visited in 1991-1992, using a standardized 5-item epilepsy screening questionnaire. RESULTS: In 2017, a total of 2286 individuals living in 324 households were screened (582 in Bayomen, 553 in Ngongol and 1151 in Nyamongo) and 112 SCE were identified (4.9%). Neurologists examined 92 of these SCE and confirmed the diagnosis of epilepsy for 81 of them (3.5%). Between the surveys in 1991-1992 and 2017, the prevalence of SCE decreased from 13.6% to 2.5% in Bayomen (P = 0.001), from 8.7% to 6.6% in Ngongol (P = 0.205) and from 6.4% to 5.4% in Nyamongo (P = 0.282). The median age of SCE shifted from 20 (IQR: 12-23) to 29 years (IQR: 18-33; P = 0.018) in Bayomen, from 16 (IQR: 12-21) to 26 years (IQR: 21-39; P < 0.001) in Ngongol and from 16 (IQR: 13-19) to 24 years (IQR: 19-32; P < 0.001) in Nyamongo. The proportions of SCE aged < 10, 10-19, 20-29 and ≥ 30 years shifted from 9.5, 58.3, 25.0 and 7.1% in 1991-1992 to 2.7, 20.5, 39.3 and 37.5% in 2017, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SCE prevalence decreased overall between 1991-1992 and 2017. The age shift observed is probably due to a decrease in the number of new cases of epilepsy resulting from the dramatic reduction of Onchocerca volvulus transmission after 19 years of CDTI.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Oncocercose/complicações , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(3): 367-376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926933

RESUMO

We assessed the level of regular, periodic deworming and awareness of National Deworming Day in the local population in the endemic region of Kashmir by conducting a cross-sectional survey in the local population of patients (or their attendants for patients 18 years of age or younger) who visited the hospital as outpatients or were admitted as inpatients. The study team presented questionnaires with simple questions about deworming and child immunization to 1150 participants, noted responses, and then compiled the data. We found that the level of regular deworming was very low: only 3.7% (43/1150) of respondents regularly dewormed themselves and 16.34% (188/1150) dewormed their children at least once in a year. None of 1150 participants was aware of national deworming day despite having adequate knowledge about the immunization infrastructure. The immunization infrastructure can be used to improve public health in such circumstances.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Ascaríase/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 199: 52-58, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831078

RESUMO

Ascaris suum is a widespread parasitic nematode that causes infection in pigs with high prevalence rates. Oxfendazole (OFZ) is effective against A. suum when used at a single high oral dose of 30 mg/kg. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of distribution/accumulation of OFZ and its metabolites, in bloodstream (plasma), mucosal tissue and contents from small and large intestine and adult specimens of A. suum collected from infected and treated pigs. The activity of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) in A. suum was also investigated. Infected pigs were orally treated with OFZ (30 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h after treatment. Samples of blood, mucosa and contents from both small and large intestine as well as adult worms were obtained and processed for quantification of OFZ/metabolites by HPLC. OFZ was the main analyte measured in all of the evaluated matrixes. The highest drug concentrations were determined in small (AUC0-t 718.7 ±â€¯283.5 µg h/g) and large (399.6 ±â€¯110.5 µg h/g) intestinal content. Concentrations ranging from 1.35 to 2.60 µg/g (OFZ) were measured in adult A. suum. GSTs activity was higher after exposure to OFZ both in vivo and ex vivo. The data obtained here suggest that the pattern of OFZ accumulation in A. suum would be more related to the concentration achieved in the fluid and mucosa of the small intestine than in other tissues/fluids. It is expected that increments in the amount of drug attained in the tissues/fluids of parasite location will correlate with increased drug concentration within the target parasite, and therefore with the resultant treatment efficacy. The results are particularly relevant considering the potential of OFZ to be used for soil transmitted helminths (STH) control programs and the advantages of pigs as a model to assess drug treatment to be implemented in humans.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacocinética , Ascaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ascaris suum/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Ascaríase/metabolismo , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citosol/enzimologia , Dinitroclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fenbendazol/análise , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Espectrofotometria , Suínos
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 267: 26-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878081

RESUMO

Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are vector-borne parasites of dogs and cats, with zoonotic potential, endemic in many parts of Europe, including Italy. Control and prevention of dirofilariosis are essential points to reduce their diffusion in animals and humans and veterinarians are the main subjects involved in this "battle". With the aim to better understand current practice by veterinarians, an online questionnaire on different aspects of D. immitis and D. repens was sent to companion animal veterinary facilities registered with the Italian Veterinary chamber. The overall response rate was 25%. Approximately 47% had diagnosed at least one case of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs in the last year and approximately 6% had diagnosed at least one case of Dirofilaria spp. in cats. Of the 662 facilities surveyed, 83.8% used serology to diagnose heartworm infection. For the diagnosis of D. repens infection in dogs and cats, a high percentage of facilities relied on an external laboratory. Most recommended beginning prevention of canine heartworm disease in April-May. Topical and injectable moxidectin and oral ivermectin were the two most commonly used preventives for D. immitis in dogs. The drug most commonly used for heartworm adulticide treatment in dogs was melarsomine. This study show that veterinary facilities ians working in an endemic area for D. immitis and D. repens are aware of recent developments in adulticide therapy. Results would suggest however that diagnosis is not always carried out according to what is currently recommended by international guidelines and that the timing for starting prevention may not be optimal.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilaria repens/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria repens/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Hospitais Veterinários , Itália/epidemiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Médicos Veterinários
15.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(1): 68-e20, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cercopithifilaria bainae is a tick-vectored filarioid nematode associated with erythematous dermatitis in dogs. It has not been reported previously in the United States. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, histological and parasitological diagnosis and treatment of C. bainae in a dog. ANIMALS: An 11-month-old golden retriever/standard poodle mixed breed dog from Florida (USA). METHODS AND MATERIALS: The dog had no travel history within or outside the United States, was presented with a one month history of annular erythematous plaques on the head and ulcers on the medial canthi. Lesions were unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Histopathological evaluation of skin biopsies revealed an eosinophilic to lymphohistiocytic perivascular dermatitis with multiple microgranulomas and rare 5-10 µm diameter microfilariae within microgranulomas. Microfilarial morphology was consistent with C. bainae. PCR and sequencing of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes confirmed the nematodes as C. bainae. The dog was treated with a commercial spot-on containing imidacloprid and moxidectin, and clinical resolution occurred. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of C. bainae in a dog in the United States and the first description of dermatological lesions caused primarily by C. bainae.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Filariose/veterinária , Filarioidea , Nematoides , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/patologia , Feminino , Filariose/diagnóstico , Filariose/parasitologia , Filariose/patologia , Florida , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
16.
J Helminthol ; 93(4): 434-439, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729678

RESUMO

The in vitro nematicidal effect of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Castela tortuosa n-hexane extracts (E-Cham and E-Cato, respectively) on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3) and the anthelmintic effect of these extracts against the pre-adult stage of the parasite in gerbils were evaluated using both individual and combined extracts. The in vitro confrontation between larvae and extracts was performed in 24-well micro-titration plates. The results were considered 24 and 72 h post confrontation. The in vivo nematicidal effect was examined using gerbils as a study model. The extracts from the two assessed plants were obtained through maceration using n-hexane as an organic agent. Gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus L3 were treated intraperitoneally with the corresponding extract either individually or in combination. The results showed that the highest individual lethal in vitro effect (96.3%) was obtained with the E-Cham extract at 72 h post confrontation at 40 mg/ml, followed by E-Cato (78.9%) at 20 mg/ml after 72 h. The highest combined effect (98.7%) was obtained after 72 h at 40 mg/ml. The in vivo assay showed that the individual administration of the E-Cato and E-Cham extracts reduced the parasitic burden in gerbils by 27.1% and 45.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the anthelmintic efficacy increased to 57.3% when both extracts were administered in combination. The results of the present study show an important combined nematicidal effect of the two plant extracts assessed against L3 in gerbils.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Chenopodium ambrosioides/química , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Simaroubaceae/química , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Hexanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
18.
Vet Parasitol ; 264: 69-73, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503095

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to determine the species of Parascaris present in foals in Sweden and to establish whether anthelmintic resistance to pyrantel and fenbendazole is present on Swedish stud farms. Ascarid eggs collected from different regions in Sweden were karyotyped and were all identified as Parascaris univalens, characterized by one chromosomal pair. Faecal egg count reduction tests were performed on a total of 142 foals on 9 farms between September 2016 and May 2017. Healthy foals with at least 150 eggs per gram faeces (EPG) were included in the study and treated with oral pastes of pyrantel embonate or fenbendazole according to manufacturer instructions. The efficacy of the drugs was calculated by a Bayesian model using the R package "eggCounts". In accordance with the American Association of Equine Practitioners, parasites were classified as resistant to pyrantel if the reduction in EPG was ≤ 85% and to fenbendazole if the observed efficacy was ≤ 90%. Four of eleven groups treated with pyrantel had an observed efficacy of ≤ 85%, and as many as 43% of the foals treated with pyrantel excreted eggs 10-16 days after treatment. In contrast, one of the six groups treated with fenbendazole had an observed efficacy of ≤ 90%, and only 6% of all foals were excreting eggs 10-16 days after treatment. Since resistance to ivermectin has earlier been shown to be widespread in Parascaris spp. in Sweden it is likely that multiresistant populations are present on Swedish stud farms. This is the first study showing the existence of pyrantel-resistant Parascaris spp. in Europe, and the first ever study where anthelmintic resistance has been shown in P. univalens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenbendazol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Pamoato de Pirantel/farmacologia , Pamoato de Pirantel/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Ascaridida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavalos , Suécia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 49(4): 893-901, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592931

RESUMO

Over a 2-yr period, four Goeldi's monkeys ( Callimico goeldii) died in a private zoo due to infections with the spirurid nematode Pterygodermatites nycticebi. Therapeutic measures with different anthelmintics were not successful. Due to the severe consequences caused by these infections, different actions were initiated, including sanitation measures and controlling of potential intermediate hosts (coprophagous arthropods). To identify possible intermediate hosts, arthropod species detected in the enclosure-parasite-free German cockroaches ( Blattella germanica), European earwigs ( Forficula auricularia), and rough woodlice ( Porcellio scaber)-were experimentally fed with feces of monkeys with patent P. nycticebi infections, resulting in established infections with third-stage larvae (L3) in roaches and earwigs. Furthermore, spiruroid L3 were detectable in 43% of the roaches and 30% of earwigs caught at the zoo. Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of eggs, larval, and adult stages resulted in identical results, confirming the establishment of the parasite's life cycle in the zoo. This is the first documentation of the vector capacity of the European earwigs for P. nycticebi. As a measure of sanitation, a large part of the enclosure was emptied and cleaned. The Goeldi's monkeys were quarantined and treated with levamisole (7.5 mg/kg sc twice in intervals of 2 wk). Repeated coprologic examinations by zinc chloride flotation were undertaken. After the levamisole therapy, eggs were not found in the feces for 3 mo. However, shortly after resettling the monkeys into the sanitized enclosure, reshedding of small amounts of spirurid eggs was observed, whereupon deworming with levamisole was prescribed several times per year. The sanitation measures and the elimination of the intermediate hosts in a natural enclosure are presented as an example of the long-term controlling of the parasites.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Callimico , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Espirurídios/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Blattellidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Blattellidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/parasitologia , Larva/parasitologia , Masculino , Ninfa/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/transmissão , Suíça
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428563

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis caused by filarial nematodes are important diseases leading to considerable morbidity throughout tropical countries. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC), albendazole (ALB), and ivermectin (IVM) used in massive drug administration are not highly effective in killing the long-lived adult worms, and there is demand for the development of novel macrofilaricidal drugs affecting new molecular targets. A Ca2+ binding protein, calumenin, was identified as a novel and nematode-specific drug target for filariasis, due to its involvement in fertility and cuticle development in nematodes. As sterilizing and killing effects of the adult worms are considered to be ideal profiles of new drugs, calumenin could be an eligible drug target. Indeed, the Caenorhabditis elegans mutant model of calumenin exhibited enhanced drug acceptability to both microfilaricidal drugs (ALB and IVM) even at the adult stage, proving the roles of the nematode cuticle in efficient drug entry. Molecular modeling revealed that structural features of calumenin were only conserved among nematodes (C. elegans, Brugia malayi, and Onchocerca volvulus). Structural conservation and the specificity of nematode calumenins enabled the development of drugs with good target selectivity between parasites and human hosts. Structure-based virtual screening resulted in the discovery of itraconazole (ITC), an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis, as a nematode calumenin-targeting ligand. The inhibitory potential of ITC was tested using a nematode mutant model of calumenin.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/química , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Albendazol/química , Albendazol/farmacologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/química , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Dietilcarbamazina/química , Dietilcarbamazina/farmacologia , Dietilcarbamazina/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Itraconazol/química , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Moleculares , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
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