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1.
Anticancer Res ; 41(9): 4343-4351, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ally lisothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of naturally occurring isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in some Brassica vegetables, has been previously demonstrated to have anti-carcinogenic activity. However, there is no available information showing that AITC induces DNA damage and alters DNA damage repair proteins in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of AITC on DNA damage and repair responses in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro. Cell viability was measured by flow cytometric assay. DNA condensation (apoptotic cell death) and DNA fragmentation (laddered DNA) were assayed by DAPI staining and DNA gel electrophoresis assays, respectively. Furthermore, DNA damage (comet tail) was measured by the comet assay. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of DNA damage- and repair-associated proteins. RESULTS: AITC decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent and induced apoptotic cell death (DNA condensation and fragmentation) and DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. AITC increased p-ATMSer1981, p-ATRSer428, p53, p-p53Ser15, p-H2A.XSer139, BRCA1, and PARP at 10-30 µM at 24 and 48 h treatments. However, AITC decreased DNA-PK at 24 and 48 h treatment, and decreased MGMT at 48 h in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSION: AITC induced cytotoxic effects (decreased viable cell number) through induction of DNA damage and condensation and altered DNA damage and repair associated proteins in MCF-7 cells in vitro.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361637

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum extract is a potent traditional remedy for curing various ailments. Drying is the most important postharvest step during the processing of Ganoderma lucidum. The drying process mainly involves heat (36 h at 60 °C) and freeze-drying (36 h at -80 °C). We investigated the effects of different postharvest drying protocols on the metabolites profiling of Ganoderma lucidum using GC-MS, followed by an investigation of the anti-neuroinflammatory potential in LPS-treated BV2 microglial cells. A total of 109 primary metabolites were detected from heat and freeze-dried samples. Primary metabolite profiling showed higher levels of amino acids (17.4%) and monosaccharides (8.8%) in the heat-dried extracts, whereas high levels of organic acids (64.1%) were present in the freeze-dried samples. The enzymatic activity, such as ATP-citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphatase dehydrogenase, glutamine synthase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, and D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, related to the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly high in the heat-dried samples. We also observed a decreased phosphorylation level of the MAP kinase (Erk1/2, p38, and JNK) and NF-κB subunit p65 in the heat-dried samples of the BV2 microglia cells. The current study suggests that heat drying improves the production of ganoderic acids by the upregulation of TCA-related pathways, which, in turn, gives a significant reduction in the inflammatory response of LPS-induced BV2 cells. This may be attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB and MAP kinase signaling pathways in cells treated with heat-dried extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Reishi/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dessecação , Camundongos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443490

RESUMO

Hydroxycamptothecin (SN38) is a natural plant extract isolated from Camptotheca acuminate. It has a broad spectrum of anticancer activity through inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I, which could affect DNA synthesis and lead to DNA damage. Thus, the action of SN38 against cancers could inevitably affect endogenous levels of ribonucleotide (RNs) and deoxyribonucleotide (dRNs) that play critical roles in many biological processes, especially in DNA synthesis and repair. However, the exact impact of SN38 on RNs and dRNs is yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect and associated mechanism of SN38 in human colorectal carcinoma HCT 116 cells. As a result, SN38 could decrease the cell viability and induce DNA damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest and intracellular nucleotide metabolism were perturbed due to DNA damage response, of which ATP, UTP, dATP, and TTP may be the critical metabolites during the whole process. Combined with the expression of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates synthesis enzymes, our results demonstrated that the alteration and imbalance of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates caused by SN38 was mainly due to the de novo nucleotide synthesis at 24 h, and subsequently the salvage pathways at 48 h. The unique features of SN38 suggested that it might be recommended as an effective supplementary drug with an anticancer effect.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Irinotecano/farmacologia , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361745

RESUMO

The edible parts of the plants Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera were extensively used in ancient practices such as Ayurveda, owing to their potent biomedical significance. They are very rich in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, which are very good antioxidants and exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancerous properties of these plant crude extracts on human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The leaves of Camellia sinensis, Withania somnifera and the seeds of Vitis vinifera were collected and methanolic extracts were prepared. Then, these extracts were subjected to DPPH, α- amylase assays to determine the antioxidant properties. A MTT assay was performed to investigate the viability of the extracts of HepG2 cells, and the mode of cell death was detected by Ao/EtBr staining and flow cytometry with PI Annexin- V FITC dual staining. Then, the protein expression of BAX and BCl2 was studied using fluorescent dye to determine the regulation of the BAX and BCl2 genes. We observed that all the three extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or phytochemicals. The W. somnifera bioactive compounds were found to have the highest anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Withania/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/química , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361750

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography and NMR spectroscopy were used to purify and characterize betulin from an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of acacia bark. Betulin, a known inducer of apoptosis, was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), glycogen synthase kinase 3α/ß (GSK-3 α/ß), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) with activities in the micromolar range for each. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to investigate its putative use as an anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, with activity similar to that of imatinib mesylate, a known ABL1 kinase inhibitor. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking, revealing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ABL1 ATP binding pocket. Together, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and to potential treatments for leukemia.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Células K562 , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/genética , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112903, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384922

RESUMO

Six new Cephalotaxus alkaloids, including five cephalotaxine-type alkaloids, and one homoerythrina-type alkaloid, along with six known analogues, were isolated from the seeds of Cephalotaxus fortunei. Their structures were elucidated by combination of spectroscopic data analyses, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) ECD calculation, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Cephalofortine B represents the first example of C-5 epi-cephalotaxine-type alkaloid. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicities against HCT-116, A375, and SK-Mel-28 cell lines. Cephalofortine E showed moderate activity against HCT-116 cell line, with an IC50 value of 7.46 ± 0.77 µM.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Cephalotaxus , Harringtoninas , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Harringtoninas/farmacologia , Mepesuccinato de Omacetaxina , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Sementes
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360650

RESUMO

This review focuses on the specific biological effects of optically pure silymarin flavo-nolignans, mainly silybins A and B, isosilybins A and B, silychristins A and B, and their 2,3-dehydro derivatives. The chirality of these flavonolignans is also discussed in terms of their analysis, preparative separation and chemical reactions. We demonstrated the specific activities of the respective diastereomers of flavonolignans and also the enantiomers of their 2,3-dehydro derivatives in the 3D anisotropic systems typically represented by biological systems. In vivo, silymarin flavonolignans do not act as redox antioxidants, but they play a role as specific ligands of biological targets, according to the "lock-and-key" concept. Estrogenic, antidiabetic, anticancer, antiviral, and antiparasitic effects have been demonstrated in optically pure flavonolignans. Potential application of pure flavonolignans has also been shown in cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and modulation of multidrug resistance activity by these compounds are discussed in detail. The future of "silymarin applications" lies in the use of optically pure components that can be applied directly or used as valuable lead structures, and in the exploration of their true molecular effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Silibina/química , Silibina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Humanos , Estereoisomerismo
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361789

RESUMO

Isobavachalcone (IBC) is an active substance from the medicinal plant Psoralea corylifolia. This prenylated chalcone was reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the over-expression of the transporters of vast substrate specificity such as ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) belongs to the main causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. The cytotoxic, MDR reversing, and ABCB1-inhibiting potency of isobavachalcone was studied in two cellular models: human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cell line and its resistant counterpart HT29/Dx in which doxorubicin resistance was induced by prolonged drug treatment, and the variant of MDCK cells transfected with the human gene encoding ABCB1. Because MDR modulators are frequently membrane-active substances, the interaction of isobavachalcone with model phosphatidylcholine bilayers was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Molecular modeling was employed to characterize the process of membrane permeation by isobavachalcone. IBC interacted with ABCB1 transporter, being a substrate and/or competitive inhibitor of ABCB1. Moreover, IBC intercalated into model membranes, significantly affecting the parameters of their main phospholipid phase transition. It was concluded that isobavachalcone interfered both with the lipid phase of cellular membrane and with ABCB1 transporter, and for this reason, its activity in MDR cancer cells was presumptively beneficial.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoralea/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Competitiva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ligação Proteica , Transgenes , Verapamil/farmacologia
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361797

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. & Zucc., a traditional medicinal plant used as an inflammation-relieving remedy, is a rich source of terpenoids. At least 40 germacrane-type sesquiterpene lactones, representatives of four different structural groups, were isolated from the plant. Cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro is the most frequently described biological activity of the compounds. However, little is known about the selectivity of the cytotoxic effect. The anti-inflammatory activity of the germacranolides is also poorly documented. The objective of the present study was to assess the cytotoxic activity of selected C. divaricatum germacranolides-derivatives of 4,5,8,9-tetrahydroxy-3-oxo-germacran-6,12-olide towards cancer and normal cell lines (including cells of different p53 status). Moreover, to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the compounds, the release of four proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines (IL-1ß, IL-8, TNF-α and CCL2) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils was measured by ELISA. The investigated sesquiterpene lactones demonstrated nonselective activity towards prostate cancer (Du145 and PC3) and normal prostate epithelial cells (PNT2) as well as against melanoma cells (A375 and HTB140) and keratinocytes (HaCaT). Cytotoxic activity against osteosarcoma cells was independent of their p53 status. In sub-cytotoxic concentrations (0.5-2.5 µM) the studied compounds significantly decreased cytokine/chemokine release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human leukocytes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/classificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/classificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Polônia , Cultura Primária de Células , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/classificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443689

RESUMO

Effective intracerebral delivery is key for glioma treatment. However, the drug delivery system within the brain is largely limited by its own adverse physical and chemical properties, low targeting efficiency, the blood-brain barrier and the blood-brain tumor barrier. Herein, we developed a simple, safe and efficient biomimetic nanosuspension. The C6 cell membrane (CCM) was utilized to camouflaged the 10-hydroxycamptothecin nanosuspension (HCPT-NS) in order to obtain HCPT-NS/CCM. Through the use of immune escape and homotypic binding of the cancer cell membrane, HCPT-NS/CCM was able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and target tumors. The HCPT-NS is only comprised of drugs, as well as a small amount of stabilizers that are characterized by a simple preparation method and high drug loading. Similarly, the HCPT-NS/CCM is able to achieve targeted treatment of glioma without any ligand modification, which leads it to be stable and efficient. Cellular uptake and in vivo imaging experiments demonstrated that HCPT-NS/CCM is able to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier and was concentrated at the glioma site due to the natural homing pathway. Our results reveal that the glioma cancer cell membrane is able to promote drug transport into the brain and enter the tumor via a homologous targeting mechanism.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/farmacologia , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Ratos , Suspensões , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444724

RESUMO

Astragalus root (Huang Qi) and Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) are both considered medicinal foods and are frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine due to their anticancer and immunomodulating properties. Here, the scientific literatures describing evidence for the anticancer and immunogenic properties of Shiitake and Astragalus were reviewed. Based on our experimental data, the potential to develop medicinal food with combined bioactivities was assessed using Shiitake mushrooms grown over Astragalus beds in a proprietary manufacturing process, as a novel cancer prevention approach. Notably, our data suggest that this new manufacturing process can result in transfer and increased bioavailability of Astragalus polysaccharides with therapeutic potential into edible Shiitake. Further research efforts are required to validate the therapeutic potential of this new Hengshan Astragalus Shiitake medicinal food.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Astrágalo (Planta) , Alimento Funcional , Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/terapia , Cogumelos Shiitake , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Astrágalo (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astrágalo (Planta)/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metabolômica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fitoterapia , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371964

RESUMO

The flowering plant genus Alisma, which belongs to the family Alismataceae, comprises 11 species, including Alisma orientale, Alisma canaliculatum, and Alisma plantago-aquatica. Alismatis rhizome (Ze xie in Chinese, Takusha in Japanese, and Taeksa in Korean, AR), the tubers of medicinal plants from Alisma species, have long been used to treat inflammatory diseases, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, bacterial infection, edema, oliguria, diarrhea, and dizziness. Recent evidence has demonstrated that its extract showed pharmacological activities to effectively reverse cancer-related molecular targets. In particular, triterpenes naturally isolated from AR have been found to exhibit antitumor activity. This study aimed to describe the biological activities and plausible signaling cascades of AR and its main compounds in experimental models representing cancer-related physiology and pathology. Available in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that AR extract possesses anticancer activity against various cancer cells, and the efficacy might be attributed to the cytotoxic and antimetastatic effects of its alisol compounds, such as alisol A, alisol B, and alisol B 23-acetate. Several beneficial functions of triterpenoids found in AR might be due to p38 activation and inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Moreover, AR and its triterpenes inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapy. Thus, AR and its triterpenes may play potential roles in tumor attack, as well as a therapeutic remedy alone and in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Alisma , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Rizoma , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360990

RESUMO

Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) signaling pathways play a central role in suppressing or inducing inflammation and angiogenesis processes. Therefore, they are involved in many steps of carcinogenesis through cooperation with multiple signaling molecules and pathways. Targeting both transcription factors simultaneously may be considered an equally important strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Several hundreds of phytochemicals, mainly edible plant and vegetable components, were shown to activate Nrf2 and mediate antioxidant response. A similar number of phytochemicals was revealed to affect NF-κB. While activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NF-κB may protect normal cells against cancer initiation and promotion, enhanced expression and activation in cancer cells may lead to resistance to conventional chemo- or radiotherapy. Most phytochemicals, through different mechanisms, activate Nrf2, but others, such as luteolin, can act as inhibitors of both Nrf2 and NF-κB. Despite many experimental data confirming the above mechanisms currently, limited evidence exists demonstrating such activity in humans. Combinations of phytochemicals resembling that in a natural food matrix but allowing higher concentrations may improve their modulating effect on Nrf2 and NF-κB and ultimately cancer prevention and therapy. This review presents the current knowledge on the effect of selected phytochemicals and their combinations on Nrf2 and NF-κB activities in the above context.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104994, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273439

RESUMO

Three new pairs of benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline (BIQ) alkaloid epimers, Seco-neferine A-F (1-6), were isolated from an EtOH extract of Plumula Nelumbinis. The structures of these compounds were identified by a combination of NMR, HR-ESI-MS, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopic analyses and specific rotations. The structure of compounds 1-6 possesses high similarity with neferine, because these three pairs of epimers have the same skeleton as neferine. Compounds 1,2 and 5,6 are open-loop compounds of position 1' and 1 of neferine respectively. The H connects with position 2' N of compounds 1,2 is replaced by methyl, forming the structure of compounds 3,4. Moreover, six compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. Compound 6 displayed moderate inhibitory effects on breast cancer with IC50 of 38.96 µM, while compounds 2,3,4 show certain inhibitory effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzilisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Nelumbo/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Benzilisoquinolinas/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299129

RESUMO

Oral cancer (OC) has been attracted research attention in recent years as result of its high morbidity and mortality. Costunolide (CTD) possesses potential anticancer and bioactive abilities that have been confirmed in several types of cancers. However, its effects on oral cancer remain unclear. This study investigated the potential anticancer ability and underlying mechanisms of CTD in OC in vivo and in vitro. Cell viability and anchorage-independent colony formation assays were performed to examine the antigrowth effects of CTD on OC cells; assessments for migration and invasion of OC cells were conducted by transwell; Cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry and verified by immunoblotting. The results revealed that CTD suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of oral cancer cells effectively and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; regarding the mechanism, CTD bound to AKT directly by binding assay and repressed AKT activities through kinase assay, which thereby downregulating the downstream of AKT. Furthermore, CTD remarkably promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species by flow cytometry assay, leading to cell apoptosis. Notably, CTD strongly suppresses cell-derived xenograft OC tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. In conclusion, our results suggested that costunolide might prevent progression of OC and promise to be a novel AKT inhibitor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199025

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rk1 and Rg5 are minor ginseng saponins that have received more attention recently because of their high oral bioavailability. Each of them can effectively inhibit the survival and proliferation of human liver cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Network pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 yielded 142 potential targets, and shared 44 putative targets associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Enrichment analysis of the overlapped genes showed that G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 may induce apoptosis of liver cancer cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathways. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to confirm the inhibition of cell viability with G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in highly metastatic human cancer MHCC-97H cells. We evaluated the apoptosis of MHCC-97H cells by using flow cytometry and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The translocation of Bax/Bak led to the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c and Smac. A sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed after that. The levels of anti-apoptotic proteins were decreased after treatment of G-Rk1 or G-Rg5 in MHCC-97H cells. Taken together, G-Rk1 and G-Rg5 promoted the endogenous apoptotic pathway in MHCC-97H cells by targeting and regulating some critical liver cancer related genes that are involved in the signal pathways associated with cell survival and proliferation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
17.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 3843-3849, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Integrin-targeting compounds have shown clinically significant benefits in many patients. Here, we examined the activity of millettocalyxin B, extracted from the stem bark of Millettia erythrocalyx, in lung cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of human lung cancer cells was investigated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Migration and invasion assays were performed. Phalloidin-rhodamine staining was used to determine the formation of filopodia. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were used to identify the signaling proteins involved in migration regulation. RESULTS: Non-toxic concentrations (0-25 µM) of millettocalyxin B reduced migration and invasion of lung cancer A549 cells. Filopodia were significantly reduced in millettocalyxin B-treated cells. The migration regulatory proteins including integrin α5, active FAK, active Akt, and Cdc42 were significantly decreased in Millettocalyxin B-treated cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed a novel anti-migration and anti-invasion effects and the underlying mechanism of millettocalyxin B, which may be exploited for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células A549 , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrina alfa5/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pseudópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208196

RESUMO

Nutraceuticals are biologically active molecules present in foods; they can have beneficial effects on health, but they are not available in large enough quantities to perform this function. Plant metabolites, such as polyphenols, are widely diffused in the plant kingdom, where they play fundamental roles in plant development and interactions with the environment. Among these, flavonoids are of particular interest as they have significant effects on human health. In vitro and/or in vivo studies described flavonoids as essential nutrients for preventing several diseases. They display broad and promising bioactivities to fight cancer, inflammation, bacterial infections, as well as to reduce the severity of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases or diabetes. Therefore, it is not surprising that interest in flavonoids has sharply increased in recent years. More than 23,000 scientific publications on flavonoids have described the potential anticancer activity of these natural molecules in the last decade. Studies, in vitro and in vivo, show that flavonoids exhibit anticancer properties, and many epidemiological studies confirm that dietary intake of flavonoids leads to a reduced risk of cancer. This review provides a glimpse of the mechanisms of action of flavonoids on cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 138: 111546, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311540

RESUMO

Lycopene, the main pigment of tomatoes, possess the strongest antioxidant activity among carotenoids. Lycopene has unique structure and chemical properties. We searched the literature, via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Google database so on to screen citations from inception to Oct 2020 for inclusion in this study. We found that as a common phytochemical, it did not attract much attention in the past few years. However, recent studies have indicated that, in addition to antioxidant activity and the second stage of detoxification, the anticancer of lycopene is also considered to be an important determinant of tumor development including the inhibition of cell proliferation, inhibition of cell cycle progression, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. The effect mechanisms of lycopene are related to the regulation of several signal transduction pathways, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, modulation of insulin-like growth factors system, the suppression of activity of sex steroid hormones, the modification of relevant gene expression, and the alteration of mitochondrial function. These novel findings have suggested that lycopene acts as a promising functional natural pigment, and may be associated with a decreased risk of different types of cancer. This review presents the latest knowledge with respect to its molecular mechanisms and its molecular targets of the inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Licopeno/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209868

RESUMO

Pancracine, a montanine-type Amaryllidaceae alkaloid (AA), is one of the most potent compounds among natural isoquinolines. In previous studies, pancracine exhibited cytotoxic activity against diverse human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, further insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the cytotoxic effect of pancracine have not been reported and remain unknown. To fill this void, the cell proliferation and viability of cancer cells was explored using the Trypan Blue assay or by using the xCELLigence system. The impact on the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V/PI and by quantifying the activity of caspases (-3/7, -8, and -9). Proteins triggering growth arrest or apoptosis were detected by Western blotting. Pancracine has strong antiproliferative activity on A549 cells, lasting up to 96 h, and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on MOLT-4 cells. The apoptosis-inducing activity of pancracine in MOLT-4 cells was evidenced by the significantly higher activity of caspases. This was transmitted through the upregulation of p53 phosphorylated on Ser392, p38 MAPK phosphorylated on Thr180/Tyr182, and upregulation of p27. The pancracine treatment negatively altered the proliferation of A549 cells as a consequence of an increase in G1-phase accumulation, associated with the downregulation of Rb phosphorylated on Ser807/811 and with the concomitant upregulation of p27 and downregulation of Akt phosphorylated on Thr308. This was the first study to glean a deeper mechanistic understanding of pancracine activity in vitro. Perturbation of the cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death were considered key mechanisms of pancracine action.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Leucemia/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células A549 , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Amaryllidaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Hep G2 , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Células MCF-7
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