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1.
Orv Hetil ; 160(42): 1647-1654, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608691

RESUMO

Current advances in molecular techniques and bioinformatics allowed the analysis of complex molecular patterns in various cancers including muscle-invasive bladder cancer. As a consequence, in the last few years numerous gene- and protein expression-based molecular classifications have been recommended. Recently a comprehensive consensus classification for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer has been published, distinguishing 6 subgroups with a potential impact on clinical decision-making. At the same time, the therapeutic landscape of muscle-invasive bladder cancer becomes increasingly differentiated as novel checkpoint inhibitors have been available for cisplatin-ineligible and/or resistant patients. Furthermore, promising results have been obtained with FGFR targeting agents. Therefore, molecular subtyping will probably have a crucial role in individualized therapeutic decision-making in bladder cancer. In the present work, we summarize the evolution, recent advances and potential therapeutic relevance of molecular subclassifications in bladder cancer. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(42): 1647-1654.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/terapia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Urotélio/patologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
2.
Lancet ; 394(10200): 793-804, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478503

RESUMO

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are immunoconjugates comprised of a monoclonal antibody tethered to a cytotoxic drug (known as the payload) via a chemical linker. The ADC is designed to selectively deliver the ultratoxic payload directly to the target cancer cells. To date, five ADCs have received market approval and over 100 are being investigated in various stages of clinical development. In this Therapeutics paper, we review recent clinical experience with the approved ADCs and other promising late-stage candidates on the horizon, following an overview of the biology and chemistry of ADCs and how the individual components of an ADC (antibody [or target], linker and conjugation chemistry, and cytotoxic payload) influence its activity. We briefly discuss opportunities for enhancing ADC efficacy, drug resistance, and future perspectives for this novel antibody-based molecular platform, which has great potential to make a paradigm shift in cancer chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Imunoconjugados , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Imunoconjugados/farmacocinética , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4987-4993, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: For immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-pretreated patients, docetaxel and ramucirumab (DOC+RAM) combination therapy may be more effective compared to patients not receiving ICI treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From June 2013 to July 2018, 39 patients with advanced/recurrent non-small cell lung cancer underwent DOC+RAM therapy. We analyzed the efficacy and safety of DOC+RAM therapy based on the presence (pre-ICI+) or absence (pre-ICI-) of ICI pretreatment history. RESULTS: Of the 39 patients treated with DOC+RAM, we identified 18 (46%) pre-ICI+ patients. Overall response rates for DOC+RAM concerning pre-ICI+ and pre-ICI- patients were 38.9% vs. 19.0%, respectively. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.7 vs. 2.3 months [hazard ratio(HR)=0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16-0.80]. Adverse events such as fever, myalgia, arthritis, pleural effusion, and pneumonitis tended to be increased in pre-ICI+ patients. CONCLUSION: Despite increased toxicity concerns, DOC+RAM therapy in pre-ICI+ patients showed a trend for tumor regression improvement and statistically significant prolongation of PFS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3315-3327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385407

RESUMO

Despite advances and refinements in surgery and perioperative chemotherapy, there are still unmet medical needs with respect to radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We investigated the potential benefit of supplementary granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to chemoimmunotherapy with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis blockade and standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy in bladder cancer. We inoculated 2 × 105 MBT2 cells s.c. in C3H mice to create a syngeneic animal model of local recurrence (LR). When the tumor diameter reached 12 mm, the mice were allocated randomly as follows: (i) non-treated control (vehicle only); (ii) anti-mPD-L1 monotherapy; (iii) mGM-CSF monotherapy; (iv) anti-mPD-L1 plus mGM-CSF; (v) gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC); (vi) GC plus anti-mPD-L1; (vii) GC plus mGM-CSF; and (viii) GC plus anti-mPD-L1 plus mGM-CSF. After completing 2-week neoadjuvant therapy, tumors were resected for resection margin evaluation and immunohistochemical staining and blood was collected for flow cytometry and ELISA. Operative wounds were sutured, and the operative site was monitored to detect LR. Addition of anti-mPD-L1 and mGM-CSF to neoadjuvant GC chemotherapy enhanced the antitumor effect and reduced positive resection margins (50% vs 12.5%). Combination of GC, anti-mPD-L1, and mGM-CSF resulted in longer LR-free survival and cancer-specific survival compared to those in other groups. These effects involved an immunotherapy-related decrease in oncological properties such as tumor invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. mGM-CSF significantly decreased the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in both the blood and tumor microenvironment and blood interleukin-6 levels. Supplementary GM-CSF to neoadjuvant GC plus PD-L1 blockade could decrease LR after radical surgery by immune modulation in the blood and tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Cistectomia , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Humanos , Margens de Excisão , Camundongos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16417, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335691

RESUMO

We aimed to assess serial F-FDG PET/CT imaging according to morphological (RECIST1.1, iRECIST) and functional (PERCIST, PECRIT) criteria to predict clinical response to therapy in patients with advanced melanoma receiving immune checkpoint blocking agents.Retrospective data collection and analysis was done for 37 patients with unresectable metastatic cutaneous melanoma eligible for immunotherapy (cycles: 4 for ipilimumab and pembrolizumab/ 6 for nivolumab).F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed prior to (F-FDG PET/CT 0) and 14 weeks after ICI onset (F-FDG PET/CT 1). Some cases during the follow-up required imaging (F-FDG PET/CT 2). Assessment of patient response to treatment was done according to RECIST1.1, iRECIST, PERCIST and PECRIT criteria.Among 37 assessed patients, 27 had 1 line of ICI, 8 had 2 lines of ICI and 2 patients had 3 lines of ICI: total of 49 PET/CTs. Mean time between initiation of ICI and F-FDG PET/CT (1 or 2) were respectively 13.82 ±â€Š4.32 and 24.73 ±â€Š9.53 weeks. Time between F-FDG PET/CT 1 and F-FDG PET/CT 2 was at mean +/- SD: 11.19w ±â€Š5.59. Median PFS was 29.62 months (range 22.52-36.71) (P = .001: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .000: PERCIST), (P = .072: PECRIT). Median OS was 36.62 months (30.46-42.78) (P = .005: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .001: PERCIST), (P = .082 PECRIT).F-FDG PET/CT could detect eventual ICI-response in patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ICI using iRECIST and PERCIST criteria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Ipilimumab , Melanoma , Nivolumabe , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacologia , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16439, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed the meta-analysis to evaluate the overall safety of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitor treatment for lung cancer patients. METHOD: Randomized controlled trials were collected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Risk ratio (RR) of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treatment-related death, treatment-related adverse events, any serious events, and any events leading to discontinuation were all taken into account for the final evaluation. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were collected for the meta-analysis. The RR of treatment-related death for PD-1/PD-L1 was significantly lower than that of the control group (RR = 0.37, 95% confidence interval, CI: [0.21, 0.66]). Similar analysis results could also be seen for the RR of treatment-related adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation. When PD-1/PD-L1 was combined with chemotherapy, it increased the RR of adverse events leading to discontinuation (RR = 1.68, 95% CI: [1.22, 3.32]). The RR of overall treatment-related adverse events was lower in nivolumab (PD-1) than that of the control group (nivolumab + ipilimumab) (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: [0.65, 0.90]). Similar analysis results could also be seen in the RR of treatment-related adverse events for grade 3 to 5 and adverse events leading to discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Compared with chemotherapy, RR of the treatment-related deaths associated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor was significantly lower than that of the chemotherapy group, while it did not increase the RR when they were combined with chemotherapy or other drugs. When PD-1/PD-L1 was combined with chemotherapy, it increased the RR of adverse events leading to discontinuation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Gradação de Tumores , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Razão de Chances , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Cancer Sci ; 110(10): 3296-3305, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348600

RESUMO

Tissue factor (TF) is known to be overexpressed in various cancers including pancreatic cancer. The upregulation of TF expression has been observed not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor stromal cells. Because of the potential of TF as a delivery target, several studies investigated the effectiveness of Ab-drug conjugates (ADCs) against TF for cancer therapy. However, it is still unclear whether anti-TF ADC can exert toxicity against both tumor cells and tumor stromal cells. Here, we prepared ADC using a rat anti-mouse TF mAb (clone.1157) and 2 types of in vivo murine pancreatic cancer models, one s.c. and other orthotopic with an abundant tumor stroma. We also compared the feasibility of bis-alkylating conjugation (bisAlk) with that of conventional maleimide-based conjugation (MC). In the s.c. models, anti-TF ADC showed greater antitumor effects than control ADC. The results also indicated that the bisAlk linker might be more suitable than the MC linker for cancer treatments. In the orthotopic model, anti-TF ADC showed greater in vivo efficacy and more extended survival time control ADC. Treatment with anti-TF ADC (20 mg/kg, three times a week) did not affect mouse body weight changes in any in vivo experiment. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining indicated that anti-TF ADC delivered agents not only to TF-positive tumor cells, but also to TF-positive tumor vascular endothelial cells and other tumor stromal cells. We conclude that anti-TF ADC should be a selective and potent drug for pancreatic cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Alquilantes/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Maleimidas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboplastina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ratos , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 12(8): 815-824, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287333

RESUMO

Objective: Breast cancer remains to be the globally leading female cancer. About 15% to 20% of breast cancers have human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors - a more aggressive breast cancer subtype with shortened survival. In the light of new and updated trial data on trastuzumab therapy for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer (EBC), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the pooling of its relative treatment effects. Methods: Systematic search was performed through Pubmed and Scopus to identify studies comparing survival outcomes and risks of heart toxicity effects of adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for HER2-positive EBC patients. Results: Based on the eight included studies in the review, combining trastuzumab with chemotherapy continues to show lowered death and relapse risks by one-third. The decision to initiate trastuzumab, however, needs to be prudently deliberated as two to three times more cardiotoxicity risk was shown to be associated with its use. Conclusion: Administering adjuvant trastuzumab in a weekly cycle concurrently with anthracycline-taxane chemotherapy regimen appears to be a preferable option to optimize its favorable effect in improving DFS and to prevent significantly higher risk for cardiotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos
9.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(8): 695-708, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359805

RESUMO

Introduction: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. Given this growing success, at the same time, there are significant limitations and unanswered questions concerning response rates, duration of therapy, why some patients respond and others do not, and if combining different immune-agents would overcome this lack of response, increase the chance of success and postpone acquired resistance. Areas covered: The comprehension of how to properly modulate the immune pathways, the molecular and the immunological bases of the disease, will be fundamental to guide the development of therapeutic interventions and combinations that will be more suitable for treatment of cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the strategies of immunotherapy combinations in order to develop more effective immunotherapy programs, with a particular focus on melanoma and renal cancer patients, as well as the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Expert Opinion: Given the complexity of immune activation, combinatorial approaches are needed, and due to the considerable variability in tumor biology across patients and tumor types, patient selection and biomarkers need to be further explored. In summary, combined therapies have shown promising success, but additional and continuous research to identify the safety, efficacy, optimal combination, dosage and timing are still required.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia
10.
Lancet ; 393(10191): 2599-2612, 2019 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant trastuzumab significantly improves outcomes for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. The standard treatment duration is 12 months but shorter treatment could provide similar efficacy while reducing toxicities and cost. We aimed to investigate whether 6-month adjuvant trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to the standard 12-month treatment regarding disease-free survival. METHODS: This study is an open-label, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Patients were recruited from 152 centres in the UK. We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, aged 18 years or older, and with a clear indication for chemotherapy, by a computerised minimisation process (1:1), to receive either 6-month or 12-month trastuzumab delivered every 3 weeks intravenously (loading dose of 8 mg/kg followed by maintenance doses of 6 mg/kg) or subcutaneously (600 mg), given in combination with chemotherapy (concurrently or sequentially). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat, with a non-inferiority margin of 3% for 4-year disease-free survival. Safety was analysed in all patients who received trastuzumab. This trial is registered with EudraCT (number 2006-007018-39), ISRCTN (number 52968807), and ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00712140). FINDINGS: Between Oct 4, 2007, and July 31, 2015, 2045 patients were assigned to 12-month trastuzumab treatment and 2044 to 6-month treatment (one patient was excluded because they were double randomised). Median follow-up was 5·4 years (IQR 3·6-6·7) for both treatment groups, during which a disease-free survival event occurred in 265 (13%) of 2043 patients in the 6-month group and 247 (12%) of 2045 patients in the 12-month group. 4-year disease-free survival was 89·4% (95% CI 87·9-90·7) in the 6-month group and 89·8% (88·3-91·1) in the 12-month group (hazard ratio 1·07 [90% CI 0·93-1·24], non-inferiority p=0·011), showing non-inferiority of the 6-month treatment. 6-month trastuzumab treatment resulted in fewer patients reporting severe adverse events (373 [19%] of 1939 patients vs 459 [24%] of 1894 patients, p=0·0002) or stopping early because of cardiotoxicity (61 [3%] of 1939 patients vs 146 [8%] of 1894 patients, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: We have shown that 6-month trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to 12-month treatment in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, with less cardiotoxicity and fewer severe adverse events. These results support consideration of reduced duration trastuzumab for women at similar risk of recurrence as to those included in the trial. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment Programme.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet ; 393(10191): 2591-2598, 2019 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013, the interim analysis of the Protocol for Herceptin as Adjuvant therapy with Reduced Exposure (PHARE) trial could not show that 6 months of adjuvant trastuzumab was non-inferior to 12 months. Here, we report the planned final analysis based on the prespecified number of occurring events. METHODS: PHARE is an open-label, phase 3, non-inferiority randomised trial of patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer comparing 6 months versus 12 months of trastuzumab treatment concomitant with or following standard neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. The study was undertaken in 156 centres in France. Eligible patients were women aged 18 years or older with non-metastatic, operable, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the breast and either positive axillary nodes or negative axillary nodes but a tumour of at least 10 mm. Participants must have received at least four cycles of a chemotherapy for this breast cancer and have started receiving adjuvant trastuzumab-treatment. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to either 6 months or 12 months of trastuzumab therapy duration between the third and sixth months of adjuvant trastuzumab. The randomisation was stratified by concomitant or sequential treatment with chemotherapy, oestrogen receptor status, and centre. The primary objective was non-inferiority in the intention-to-treat population in the 6-month group in terms of disease-free survival with a prespecified hazard margin of 1·15. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00381901. FINDINGS: 3384 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 12 months (n=1691) or 6 months (n=1693) of adjuvant trastuzumab. One patient in the 12-month group and three patients in the 6-month group were excluded, so 1690 patients in each group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At a median follow-up of 7·5 years (IQR 5·3-8·8), 704 events relevant to disease-free survival were observed (345 [20·4%] in the 12-month group and 359 [21·2%] in the 6-month group). The adjusted hazard ratio for disease-free survival in the 12-month group versus the 6-month group was 1·08 (95% CI 0·93-1·25; p=0·39). The non-inferiority margin was included in the 95% CI. No differences in effects pertaining to trastuzumab duration were found in any of the subgroups. After the completion of trastuzumab treatment, rare adverse events occurred over time and the safety analysis remained similar to the previously published report. In particular, we found no change in the cardiac safety comparison, and only three additional cases in which the left ventricular ejection fraction decreased to less than 50% have been reported in the 12-month group. INTERPRETATION: The PHARE study did not show the non-inferiority of 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab. Hence, adjuvant trastuzumab standard duration should remain 12 months. FUNDING: The French National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , França , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 929-935, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171876

RESUMO

Melanoma treatment has progressed in the past decade with the development and approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, as well as small molecule inhibitors of BRAF and/or MEK for the subgroup of patients with BRAFV600 mutations1-9. BRAF/MEK-targeted therapies have effects on the tumor microenvironment that support their combination with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors10-20. This phase Ib study (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01656642 ) evaluated the safety and anti-tumor activity of combining atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) with vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor), or cobimetinib (MEK inhibitor) + vemurafenib, in patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma. Triple combination therapy with atezolizumab + cobimetinib + vemurafenib, after a 28-d run-in period with cobimetinib + vemurafenib, had substantial but manageable toxicity. Exploratory biomarker data show that the cobimetinib + vemurafenib run-in was associated with an increase in proliferating CD4+ T-helper cells but not with an increase in T-regulatory cells, as observed in the vemurafenib-only run-in period. The confirmed objective response rate was 71.8% (95% confidence interval 55.1-85.0). The estimated median duration of response was 17.4 months (95% confidence interval 10.6-25.3) with ongoing response in 39.3% of patients after 29.9 months of follow-up. Further investigation in a phase III trial is underway.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/secundário , Mutação , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Vemurafenib/administração & dosagem
13.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 941-946, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171878

RESUMO

Blocking programmed death 1 (PD-1) may enhance the durability of anti-tumor responses that are induced by the combined inhibition of BRAF and MEK1. Here we performed a randomized phase 2 trial ( NCT02130466 ), in which patients with treatment-naive BRAFV600E/K-mutant, advanced melanoma received the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib together with the PD-1-blocking antibody pembrolizumab (triplet; n = 60) or placebo (doublet; n = 60). The primary end point of progression-free survival was numerically improved in the triplet group-16.0 months-compared with 10.3 months in the doublet group (hazard ratio, 0.66; P = 0.043); however, the trial did not reach the planned benefit for a statistically significant improvement. Median duration of response was 18.7 months (95% confidence interval, 10.1-22.1) and 12.5 months (95% confidence interval, 6.0-14.1); 59.8 and 27.8% of responses were estimated to have lasted for more than 18 months for triplet and doublet treatment, respectively. Grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 58.3 and 26.7% of patients treated with triplet and doublet therapies, respectively, which were most commonly fever, increased transaminase levels and rash. One patient who received triplet therapy died of pneumonitis. In summary, triplet therapy with dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab conferred numerically longer progression-free survival and duration of response with a higher rate of grade 3/4 adverse events compared with the doublet therapy of dabrafenib, trametinib and placebo.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 936-940, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171879

RESUMO

Oncogene-targeted therapy with B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces a high initial response rate in patients with BRAFV600-mutated melanoma, with a median duration of response of approximately 1 year1-3. Immunotherapy with antibodies to programmed death 1 (PD-1) produces lower response rates but with long response duration. Preclinical models suggest that combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors with PD-1 blockade therapy improves antitumor activity4-6, which may provide additional treatment options for patients unlikely to have long-lasting responses to either mode of therapy alone. We enrolled 15 patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma in a first-in-human clinical trial of dabrafenib, trametinib and pembrolizumab ( NCT02130466 ). Eleven patients (73%) experienced grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events, the most common being elevation of liver function tests and pyrexia, most of which resolved with drug interruption or discontinuation of either the anti-PD-1 antibody or the targeted therapy combination. Eleven patients (73%; 95% confidence interval = 45-92%) had an objective response, and six (40%; 95% confidence interval = 16-68%) continued with a response at a median follow-up of 27 months (range = 10.3-38.4+ months) for all patients. This study suggests that this triple-combined therapy may benefit a subset of patients with BRAFV600-mutated metastatic melanoma by increasing the frequency of long-lasting antitumor responses.


Assuntos
MAP Quinase Quinase Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oximas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(5-6): 153-158, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241258

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Glioblastoma, WHO grade IV is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor in adults. There are few articles and result about the efficacy of bevacizumab monotherapy. The aim of our paper is to examine the effect of bevacizumab therapy on progression free and overall survival in an extended database of recurrent glioblastoma patients. Methods: In our retrospective study, patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab had been collected. All of our patients received first line chemo-irradiation according the Stupp protocol treatment. The histological diagnosis was primary or secondary glioblastoma in every patient. The prognostic features of primary and secondary glioblastomas were statistically analyzed. Results: Eighty-six patients were selected into the retrospective analysis. The histological diagnosis was primary glioblastoma in 65 patients (75.6%) and secondary glioblastoma in 21 patients (24.4%). The mean follow up period was 36.5 months. The mean second progression free survival beside bevacizumab therapy was 6.59 months and the mean overall survival was 24.55 months. In secunder glioblastoma cases, the mean second progression free survival was 6.16 months and the mean overall survival was 91.94 months. Conclusion: The bevacizumab therapy is a safe option in recurrent glioblastoma patients. Bevacizumab therapy has a positive effect both on progression free and overall survival and our results confirm the findings in the literature. There is no statistically significant difference in the second progression free survival between glioblastoma subtypes.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Adulto , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
N Engl J Med ; 380(23): 2225-2236, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax has shown activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but its efficacy in combination with other agents in patients with CLL and coexisting conditions is not known. METHODS: In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we investigated fixed-duration treatment with venetoclax and obinutuzumab in patients with previously untreated CLL and coexisting conditions. Patients with a score of greater than 6 on the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (scores range from 0 to 56, with higher scores indicating more impaired function of organ systems) or a calculated creatinine clearance of less than 70 ml per minute were randomly assigned to receive venetoclax-obinutuzumab or chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. The safety of each regimen was also evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 432 patients (median age, 72 years; median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score, 8; median creatinine clearance, 66.4 ml per minute) underwent randomization, with 216 assigned to each group. After a median follow-up of 28.1 months, 30 primary end-point events (disease progression or death) had occurred in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and 77 had occurred in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23 to 0.53; P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the percentage of patients with progression-free survival at 24 months was significantly higher in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group than in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group: 88.2% (95% CI, 83.7 to 92.6) as compared with 64.1% (95% CI, 57.4 to 70.8). This benefit was also observed in patients with TP53 deletion, mutation, or both and in patients with unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia occurred in 52.8% of patients in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and in 48.1% of patients in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group, and grade 3 or 4 infections occurred in 17.5% and 15.0%, respectively. All-cause mortality was 9.3% in the venetoclax-obinutuzumab group and 7.9% in the chlorambucil-obinutuzumab group. These differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with untreated CLL and coexisting conditions, venetoclax-obinutuzumab was associated with longer progression-free survival than chlorambucil-obinutuzumab. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and AbbVie; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02242942.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Clorambucila/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/efeitos adversos , Clorambucila/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos
17.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 449, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of solid malignancies has been revolutionized with the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and their use is being expanded in therapy of different cancers. However, immune related adverse events (IRAEs) can occur during treatment. These side effects occur due to stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune system and can lead to serious complications. Recently, acral ischemia has been reported in some cases during treatment with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors. Here, we discuss a case in which acral necrosis developed after initiation of a PD-1 inhibitor. We offer a review of the existing literature on the pathophysiology, clinical course and treatment outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old female was diagnosed with stage IV non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma and was started on pembrolizumab. The patient developed sudden onset numbness and discoloration of fingertips bilaterally at week 25 after initiation of ICI treatment. Extensive workup to rule out hypercoagulable, autoimmune and vascular disease was unremarkable except for mild elevation of ANA and ESR. The symptoms quickly progressed into dry gangrene within four weeks and did not respond to medical or surgical treatment. Pembrolizumab was subsequently discontinued due to progression of metastatic disease. The patient refused further interventions and transitioned to hospice care where she expired after two months. CONCLUSION: Acral ischemia can develop during treatment of malignancies. This complication, although uncommon, canresult in digital amputation. Physicians should be aware of the possible progression of acral vascular necrosis when Raynaud's like symptoms develop. Larger studies are needed to confirm the role of ICIs in the pathogenesis of acral vascular necrosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Dedos/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Dedos/cirurgia , Gangrena , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Br J Nurs ; 28(10): S15-S20, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116603

RESUMO

Since 2005, when the first patients outside of a clinical trial were treated with trastuzumab at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, a nurse-led service has been developed to facilitate and support a safe treatment pathway for patients. There have been significant developments in the number of patients treated, the mode of administration of the drug and patient choice regarding the location of treatment delivery. This article focuses on the change from intravenous to subcutaneous administration, considering patient experience and choice, particularly in light of the advent of biosimilar drugs, which will necessitate a return to the intravenous route. The relative costs of intravenous and subcutaneous administration are illustrated and the results of a patient survey presented, indicating a strong preference for subcutaneous trastuzumab.


Assuntos
Administração Intravenosa/economia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas/economia , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/economia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Trastuzumab/economia , Reino Unido
19.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 413, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapies targeting the PD1/PD-L1 pathway have had a large impact on the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Concerning multimodality tumor therapy, only few trials until today have been performed investigating neoadjuvant treatment with anti PD-1 immunotherapy prior to curative intent surgery. Aim of the NEOMUN investigator initiated trial (EudraCT-Number: 2017-000105-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03197467) is to assess feasibility and safety of pre-surgical anti PD-1 treatment in order to improve long term survival. METHODS: The study is designed as an open-label, single arm, prospective, monocenter, phase II study including 30 patients with NSCLC stage II/IIIA suitable for curative intent surgery. Investigational drug is Pembrolizumab. After 2 cycles of immunotherapy (à 200 mg q3w i.v.), tumor resection with lobectomy or bilobectomy will be performed. Primary objectives are to assess the feasibility and safety of a neoadjuvant immunotherapy and to assess antitumor activity of Pembrolizumab with regard to clinical and pathological tumor response. Secondary objective is disease free and overall survival. Exploratory objective is to analyze potential predictive biomarkers and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Pembrolizumab by extended immune cell and cytokine analysis of tumor tissue. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee and the federal authority. Start of patient enrollment is scheduled for June 2018. DISCUSSION: The NEOMUN trial will be one of the first clinical trials investigating a multimodal treatment strategy including neoadjuvant immunotherapy using Pembrolizumab as an investigational drug. Assessing the safety and therapeutic potential of neoadjuvant immunotherapy in connection with lung surgery will be of great interest for thoracic surgeons. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively, the NEOMUN study has been registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov ; NCT03197467 (first post: June 23rd, 2017).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra
20.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 433, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bevacizumab (Avastin®), a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, in combination with platinum-doublet chemotherapy has become a routine treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The post-authorization, non-interventional study 'AVAiLABLE' assessed the effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy as first-line treatment. METHODS: Nine hundred and eighty-seven adult patients (mean age 61.5 years, 59.8% male) with non-resectable advanced, metastatic or recurrent, predominantly non-squamous NSCLC were evaluated at 185 sites across Germany. 72.8% of the patients had stage IV disease at start of observation, 90.1% had histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 80.8% met the bevacizumab label 'NSCLC other than predominantly squamous cell histology'. According to bevacizumab label, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was recommended, followed by bevacizumab maintenance therapy. Effectiveness endpoints included response rates and progression-free survival (PFS); safety endpoints comprised adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Patients were followed until progression or intolerable toxicity. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistical methods. RESULTS: Median PFS was 7.4 months (95% CI: 7.1; 8.4), overall response rate (ORR) 45.6% and disease control rate (DCR) 75%. The majority of patients (72.7%) achieved partial response or stable disease. Complete response was reached by 2.3%. 33.6% of patients experienced an ADR of grade ≥ 3. Bevacizumab-related ADRs of grade ≥ 3 occurred in 5.7% of patients, with the highest incidence for leukopenia, neutropenia, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the non-interventional study 'AVAiLABLE' confirmed the effectiveness and safety of bevacizumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC in accordance with previous studies. No new safety signals were identified. Maintenance therapy with bevacizumab was well tolerated and safe even over extended periods (> 20 cycles). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02596958; registered on 4 November 2015.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Platina/administração & dosagem , Platina/efeitos adversos , Padrão de Cuidado , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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