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1.
Gene ; 764: 145105, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882333

RESUMO

Sarcoma (SARC) represents a group of highly histological and molecular heterogeneous rare malignant tumors with poor prognosis. There are few proposed classifiers for predicting patient's outcome. The Cancer Proteome Atlas (TPCA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases provide multi-omics datasets that enable a comprehensive investigation for this disease. The proteomic expression profile of SARC patients along with the clinical information was downloaded. 55 proteins were found to be associated with overall survival (OS) of patients using univariate Cox regression analysis. We developed a prognostic risk signature that comprises seven proteins (AMPKALPHA, CHK1, S6, ARID1A, RBM15, ACETYLATUBULINLYS40, and MSH6) with robust predictive performance using multivariate Cox stepwise regression analysis. Additionally, the signature could be an independent prognostic predictor after adjusting for clinicopathological parameters. Patients in high-risk group also have worse progression free intervals (PFI) than that of patients in low-risk group, but not for disease free intervals (DFI). The signature was validated using transcriptomic profile of SARC patients from TCGA. Potential mechanisms between high- and low-risk groups were identified using differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis. These DEGs were primarily enriched in RAS and MPAK signaling pathways. The signature protein molecules are candidate biomarkers for SARC, and the analysis of computational biology in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and immune checkpoint molecules revealed distinctly immune landscapes of high- and low-risk patients. Together, we constructed a prognostic signature for predicting outcomes for SARC integrating proteomic and transcriptomic profiles, this might have value in guiding clinical practice.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica , Curva ROC , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986768

RESUMO

Two systems of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), noncleavable H32-DM1 and cleavable H32-VCMMAE, were developed by using different linkers and drugs attached to the anti-HER2 antibody H32, which is capable of cell internalization. Activated functional groups, including an N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) ester and a maleimide, were utilized to make the ADCs. Mass spectrometry, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and in vitro cell assays were performed to analyze and optimize the ADCs. Several H32-VCMMAE ADCs were established with higher DARs and greater synthetic yields without compromising potency. The anticancer efficacy of H32-DM1 was 2- to 8-fold greater than that of Kadcyla®. The efficacy of H32-VCMMAE was in turn better than that of H32-DM1. The anticancer efficacy of these ADCs against N87, SK-BR-3 and BT474 cells was in the following order: H32-VCMMAE series > H32-DM1 series > Kadcyla®. The optimal DAR for H32-VCMMAE was found to be 6.6, with desirable attributes including good cell penetration, a releasable payload in cancer cells, and high potency. Our results demonstrated the potential of H32-VCMMAE as a good ADC candidate.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Imunoconjugados/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/imunologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/química , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4520, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908154

RESUMO

Tumor extracellular matrix has been associated with drug resistance and immune suppression. Here, proteomic and RNA profiling reveal increased collagen levels in lung tumors resistant to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. Additionally, elevated collagen correlates with decreased total CD8+ T cells and increased exhausted CD8+ T cell subpopulations in murine and human lung tumors. Collagen-induced T cell exhaustion occurs through the receptor LAIR1, which is upregulated following CD18 interaction with collagen, and induces T cell exhaustion through SHP-1. Reduction in tumor collagen deposition through LOXL2 suppression increases T cell infiltration, diminishes exhausted T cells, and abrogates resistance to anti-PD-L1. Abrogating LAIR1 immunosuppression through LAIR2 overexpression or SHP-1 inhibition sensitizes resistant lung tumors to anti-PD-1. Clinically, increased collagen, LAIR1, and TIM-3 expression in melanoma patients treated with PD-1 blockade predict poorer survival and response. Our study identifies collagen and LAIR1 as potential markers for immunotherapy resistance and validates multiple promising therapeutic combinations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA-Seq , Receptores Imunológicos/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4545, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917858

RESUMO

TGF-ß1, ß2 and ß3 bind a common receptor to exert vastly diverse effects in cancer, supporting either tumor progression by favoring metastases and inhibiting anti-tumor immunity, or tumor suppression by inhibiting malignant cell proliferation. Global TGF-ß inhibition thus bears the risk of undesired tumor-promoting effects. We show that selective blockade of TGF-ß1 production by Tregs with antibodies against GARP:TGF-ß1 complexes induces regressions of mouse tumors otherwise resistant to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Effects of combined GARP:TGF-ß1/PD-1 blockade are immune-mediated, do not require FcγR-dependent functions and increase effector functions of anti-tumor CD8+ T cells without augmenting immune cell infiltration or depleting Tregs within tumors. We find GARP-expressing Tregs and evidence that they produce TGF-ß1 in one third of human melanoma metastases. Our results suggest that anti-GARP:TGF-ß1 mAbs, by selectively blocking a single TGF-ß isoform emanating from a restricted cellular source exerting tumor-promoting activity, may overcome resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
7.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(10): 1147-1158, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805066

RESUMO

Acquired resistance is a barrier to cetuximab efficacy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is involved in various biological processes, including immune responses, cancer progression, and prognosis in many cancers, while little is known in HNSCC. Bioinformatics methods were used to identify candidate genes and further in vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to examine and validate the function of SPP1. We found that SPP1 was upregulated and has been found to have an oncogenic role in HNSCC. We further confirmed that overexpression of SPP1 affected proliferation, migration, invasion, and survival, and inhibited apoptosis, whereas silencing of SPP1 yielded opposite results to those of SPP1 overexpression. In addition, activation of the KRAS/MEK pathway contributed to the SPP1-induced malignant progression of HNSCC and resistance to cetuximab. Furthermore, SPP1 knockdown or an MEK inhibitor overcame this cetuximab-resistance pattern. Taken together, our findings for the first time identify the role of SPP1 in tumor promotion, prognostic prediction, and potential therapeutic targeting, as well as resistance to cetuximab in HNSCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Osteopontina/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Invasividade Neoplásica , Osteopontina/genética , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3806, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732922

RESUMO

Most triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients fail to respond to T cell-mediated immunotherapies. Unfortunately, the molecular determinants are still poorly understood. Breast cancer is the disease genetically linked to a deficiency in autophagy. Here, we show that autophagy defects in TNBC cells inhibit T cell-mediated tumour killing in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we identify Tenascin-C as a candidate for autophagy deficiency-mediated immunosuppression, in which Tenascin-C is Lys63-ubiquitinated by Skp2, particularly at Lys942 and Lys1882, thus promoting its recognition by p62 and leading to its selective autophagic degradation. High Tenascin-C expression is associated with poor prognosis and inversely correlated with LC3B expression and CD8+ T cells in TNBC patients. More importantly, inhibition of Tenascin-C in autophagy-impaired TNBC cells sensitizes T cell-mediated tumour killing and improves antitumour effects of single anti-PD1/PDL1 therapy. Our results provide a potential strategy for targeting TNBC with the combination of Tenascin-C blockade and immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Tenascina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia , Evasão Tumoral/genética
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3946, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770055

RESUMO

Melanomas can switch to a dedifferentiated cell state upon exposure to cytotoxic T cells. However, it is unclear whether such tumor cells pre-exist in patients and whether they can be resensitized to immunotherapy. Here, we chronically expose (patient-derived) melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observe strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population. These fractions are refractory also to T cells recognizing non-differentiation antigens, as well as to BRAF + MEK inhibitors. NGFRhi cells induce the neurotrophic factor BDNF, which contributes to T cell resistance, as does NGFR. In melanoma patients, a tumor-intrinsic NGFR signature predicts anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, and NGFRhi tumor fractions are associated with immune exclusion. Lastly, pharmacologic NGFR inhibition restores tumor sensitivity to T cell attack in vitro and in melanoma xenografts. These findings demonstrate the existence of a stable and pre-existing NGFRhi multitherapy-refractory melanoma subpopulation, which ought to be eliminated to revert intrinsic resistance to immunotherapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA-Seq , Receptores de Fator de Crescimento Neural/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 19(9): 1922-1929, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606015

RESUMO

Maximal safe resection of malignant tissue is associated with improved progression-free survival and better response to radiation and chemotherapy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is the current FDA-approved standard for intraoperative brain tumor visualization. Unfortunately, autofluorescence in diffuse areas and high fluorescence in dense tissues significantly limit discrimination at tumor margins. This study is the first to compare 5-ALA to an investigational new drug, panitumumab-IRDye800CW, in the same animal model. A patient-derived GBM xenograft model was established in 16 nude mice, which later received injections of 5-ALA, panitumumab-IRDye800CW, IRDye800CW, 5-ALA and IRDye800CW, or 5-ALA and panitumumab-IRDye800CW. Brains were prepared for multi-instrument fluorescence imaging, IHC, and quantitative analysis of tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) and tumor margin accuracy. Statistical analysis was compared with Wilcoxon rank-sum or paired t test. Panitumumab-IRDye800CW had a 30% higher comprehensive TBR compared with 5-ALA (P = 0.0079). SDs for core and margin regions of interest in 5-ALA-treated tissues were significantly higher than those found in panitumumab-IRDye800CW-treated tissues (P = 0.0240 and P = 0.0284, respectively). Panitumumab-IRDye800CW specificities for tumor core and margin were more than 10% higher than those of 5-ALA. Higher AUC for panitumumab-IRDye800CW indicated strong capability to discriminate between normal and malignant brain tissue when compared with 5-ALA. This work demonstrates that panitumumab-IRDye800CW shows potential as a targeting agent for fluorescence intraoperative detection of GBM. Improved margin definition and surgical resection using panitumumab-IRDye800 has the potential to improve surgical outcomes and survival in patients with GBM compared with 5-ALA.


Assuntos
Ácido Aminolevulínico/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aminolevulínico/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e20944, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second commonly seen cancer around the world and accounts for 13% of all human cancers. Among them, 25% of all case were diagnosed with metastasis and 50% occurs metastasis during the development of disease. Cetuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor, and is used for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer alone or combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Integrin-beta 1 (ITGB1), which is also known as CD29, and plays an important role in development of malignant cancers. However, the effect of ITGB1 in promoting the anti-tumor effect of cetuximab is not fully understand. METHODS: The model of ITGB1 inhibition and overexpression was firstly constructed in LS174T cells, and the viability of cells in each group was detected using CCK-8 assay. The expression of key factors in tumor formation process at transcription level was detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. The expression of key proteins in metastasis process, cell apoptosis and activation of Ras/Raf/MEK signaling pathway was detected using western blotting analysis. And the concentration of key factors of in tumor formation process in cultured medium of LS174T cells were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: We found that cetuximab could inhibit the proliferation of LS174T cells, and inhibition of ITGB1 enhanced this effect while overexpression of ITGB1 reduced this effect. We further found that cetuximab could inhibit the expression and secretion of extracellular matrix degradation related molecules in cultured medium and transcription level. Besides, we also found that the expression of key factors in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix degradation related proteins were also reduced after cetuximab treatment. These effects might be mediated by Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathway and enhanced after inhibition of ITGB1 expression. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of ITGB1 might be a new therapeutic method in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Integrina beta1/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/metabolismo , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Integrina beta1/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102065, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653806

RESUMO

To date, much progress has been made in early-stage extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTCL), and risk-adapted therapy with radiotherapy (RT) alone for the low-risk group and RT combined with asparaginase-based chemotherapy (CT) for the high-risk group yields favorable outcomes. However, optimal treatment strategies have not been defined yet for advanced-stage ENKTCL. Historically, ENKTCL responded poorly to conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy probably because of inherent multidrug resistance (MDR). The fact that ENKTCL cells lack asparagine synthetase (ASNS) activity warranted the use of L-asparaginase or pegaspargase as frontline chemotherapies. Even though, due to high mortality of the disease, approximately 50% patients failing the frontline therapy arrived at dismal clinical outcomes with a median progression-free survival (PFS) less than 8 months. As distinctive molecular and biological subgroups are increasingly discovered within the disease entity of ENKTCL, novel targeted therapies and immunotherapy are of the urgent need for those heterogeneous subgroups. In this review, we sought to summarize the preclinical and clinical results of 6 categories of promising targeted therapy and immunotherapy for the treatment of ENKTCL, including monoclonal antibodies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, small-molecular inhibitors, epigenetic therapy, immunomodulatory drugs, and adoptive T-cell therapy, and these might change the landscape of treatment for ENKTCL in the near future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Extranodal de Células T-NK/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/administração & dosagem , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
13.
Gulf J Oncolog ; 1(33): 87-90, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476657

RESUMO

Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases that encompass malignant disorders of B-cells, T-cells, or natural killer cells. B-cell lymphomas represent approximately 80-85% of cases. Transformation of B-cell lymphomas from a low grade to a higher grade within the same lineage is a well-described phenomenon. The most common and well-known transformation is from follicular lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, the transformation of B-cell lymphomas to T-cell lymphomas is extremely rare. In this article, we report a case of grade I follicular lymphoma (B-cell lymphoma) that transformed into anaplastic large cell lymphoma CD30+ ALK1- (T-cell lymphoma). This article reported a case with a unique particular combination of morphology and immunophenotype in the same patient. In addition, we report a remarkable response with complete remission following treatment with Brentuximab vedotin (anti-CD30 antibody-drug conjugate) and high-dose methotrexate. The patient achieved this durable response despite the aggressive presentation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Brentuximab Vedotin/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/complicações , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/etiologia , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Brentuximab Vedotin/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Gradação de Tumores
14.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(7): 1178-1186, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate whether antitumor immunity is enhanced by combining radiofrequency (RF) ablation and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) therapy and to evaluate its effect on untreated tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, 40 mice with tumors established in the bilateral flanks were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, the RF ablation-alone group, the anti-CTLA-4-alone group, and the RF ablation + anti-CTLA-4 group. In each group, 8 mice were used for untreated tumor evaluation and survival observation, and another 2 mice were killed for histopathologic study. Then, a rechallenge test was performed in another 32 mice to determine whether systemic antitumor immunity was established. RESULTS: Although the volume of the untreated tumors continued to increase until the end of the observation in all groups, tumor growth rates in the RF ablation + anti-CTLA-4 group were significantly smaller than tumor growth rates in the other 3 groups (all P < .05). The overall survival time of mice in the RF ablation + anti-CTLA-4 group was significantly longer than that of mice in the other 3 groups (all P < .05). Histopathologic studies of the untreated tumors showed more CD4-and CD8+ lymphocyte infiltration in mice from the RF ablation + anti-CTLA-4 group than in mice from the other 3 groups (all P < .05). After a tumor rechallenge, tumor rejection was apparent in 75% of the mice in the RF ablation + anti-CTLA-4 group, in 25% of the mice in the RF ablation group, and in 0% of the mice in the control and anti-CTLA-4 groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that RF ablation-induced systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by the combined use of anti-CTLA-4 therapy in a multi-subcutaneous murine hepatoma model.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/terapia , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
15.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 88: 102043, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505806

RESUMO

Autophagy is a self-degradative cellular process, involved in stress response such as starvation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. This mechanism balances macro-molecule recycling to regulate cell homeostasis. In cancer, autophagy play a role in the development and progression, while several studies describe it as one of the key processes in drug resistance. In the last years, in addition to standard anti-cancer treatments such as chemotherapies and irradiation, targeted therapy became one of the most adopted strategies in clinical practices, mainly due to high specificity and reduced side effects. However, similar to standard treatments, drug resistance is the main challenge in most patients. Here, we summarize recent studies that investigated the role of autophagy in drug resistance after targeted therapy in different types of cancers. We highlight positive results and limitations of pre-clinical and clinical studies in which autophagy inhibitors are used in combination with targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3843-3850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581534

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite tremendous results achieved by immune checkpoint inhibitors, most patients are not responders, mainly because of the lack of a pre-existing anti-tumor immune response. Thus, solutions to efficiently prime this immune response are currently under intensive investigations. Radiotherapy elicits cancer cell death, generating an antitumor-specific T cell response, turning tumors in personalized in situ vaccines, with potentially systemic effects (abscopal effect). Nonetheless, clinical evidence of sustained anti-tumor immunity as abscopal effect are rare. Methods: Hafnium oxide nanoparticles (NBTXR3) have been designed to increase energy dose deposit within cancer cells. We examined the effect of radiotherapy-activated NBTXR3 on anti-tumor immune response activation and abscopal effect production using a mouse colorectal cancer model. Results: We demonstrate that radiotherapy-activated NBTXR3 kill more cancer cells than radiotherapy alone, significantly increase immune cell infiltrates both in treated and in untreated distant tumors, generating an abscopal effect dependent on CD8+ lymphocyte T cells. Conclusion: These data show that radiotherapy-activated NBTXR3 could increase local and distant tumor control through immune system priming. Our results may have important implications for immunotherapeutic agent combination with radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/radioterapia , Háfnio/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Feminino , Háfnio/química , Háfnio/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/radioterapia , Óxidos/química , Óxidos/farmacocinética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525891

RESUMO

Approximately 20% of breast cancers are HER2-positive. Trastuzumab has improved patient outcomes significantly for these cancers. However, acquired resistance remains a major hurdle in the clinical management of these patients. Therefore, identifying molecular changes that cause trastuzumab resistance is worthwhile. STAT6 is a transcription factor that regulates a variety of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis. STAT6 expression is lost in approximately 3% of breast cancers, but little work has been done in the context of trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer. In isogenic cell line pairs, we observed that trastuzumab-resistant cells expressed significantly lower levels of STAT6 compared to trastuzumab-sensitive cells. Therefore, in order to study the consequences of STAT6 loss in HER2+ breast cancer, we knocked out both alleles of the STAT6 gene using somatic cell gene targeting. Interestingly, loss of STAT6 resulted in anchorage-independent growth and changes in several genes involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This study suggests that STAT6 may play a role in the pathophysiology of HER2+ human breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/genética , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/deficiência
18.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3315-3323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the improvement in the prognosis by adjuvant trastuzumab in clinical practice and the risk factors for distant recurrence, we retrospectively investigated the prognosis of HER2-positive early breast cancer in our department before and after the introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohorts A and B included 161 and 182 cases, respectively, who underwent surgery before (2000-2007) and after (2008-2015) the introduction of adjuvant trastuzumab. RESULTS: The rates of relapse-free and distant metastasis-free survival were significantly better in cohort B than in cohort A. The risk factors of distant recurrence found in cohort A, such as the presence of lymph node metastasis, lymphatic invasion, and a low histological grade, did not increase the risk in cohort B. CONCLUSION: Many risk factors seemed to have been negated by adjuvant trastuzumab administration. Therefore, further escalation of adjuvant treatment should be carefully considered.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/farmacologia
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188384, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531324

RESUMO

Cancer regression often fails after systemic immune activation, especially for solid tumors due to their local immunosuppressive microenvironments. Among these, the pancreatic cancer microenvironment is unique and an important reason for resistance to anti-cancer treatments that include immunotherapy. In this review, the three main "BAD" characteristics that create and maintain this immunosuppressive microenvironment are discussed for effector T cells: Barriers to overcome, Attraction problems, and their Disabilities. These inhibit both effector T-cell activation and infiltration, reducing immunotherapy effectiveness. Combination approaches for killing the "BAD" aim to normalize the tumor microenvironment and are recommended to enhance anti-cancer immune-system efficacy in pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mutação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188386, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are able to alter the composition of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Understanding the effect of these modalities on the TIME could aid in the development of improved treatment strategies. Our aim was to systematically review studies investigating the influence of CT, RT or CRT on different TIME markers. METHODS: The EMBASE (Ovid) and PubMed databases were searched until January 2019 for prospective or retrospective studies investigating the dynamics of the local TIME in cancer patients (pts) treated with CT, RT or CRT, with or without targeted agents. Studies could either compare baseline and follow-up specimens - before and after treatment - or a treated versus an untreated cohort. Studies were included if they used immunohistochemistry and/or flow cytometry to assess the TIME. RESULTS: In total we included 110 studies (n = 8850 pts), of which n = 89 (n = 6295 pts) compared pre-treatment to post-treatment specimens and n = 25 (n = 2555 pts) a treated versus an untreated cohort (4 studies conducted both comparisons). For several tumor types (among others; breast, cervical, esophageal, ovarian, rectal, lung mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer) remodeling of the TIME was observed, leading to a potentially more immunologically active microenvironment, including one or more of the following: an increase in CD3 or CD8 lymphocytes, a decrease in FOXP3 Tregs and increased PD-L1 expression. Both CT and CRT were able to immunologically alter the TIME. CONCLUSION: The TIME of several tumor types is significantly altered after conventional therapy creating opportunities for concurrent or sequential immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biópsia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
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