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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4193, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234122

RESUMO

Interplay between EBV infection and acquired genetic alterations during nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development remains vague. Here we report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 70 NPCs, combining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microdissected tumor cells with EBV oncogene expression to reveal multiple aspects of cellular-viral co-operation in tumorigenesis. Genomic aberrations along with EBV-encoded LMP1 expression underpin constitutive NF-κB activation in 90% of NPCs. A similar spectrum of somatic aberrations and viral gene expression undermine innate immunity in 79% of cases and adaptive immunity in 47% of cases; mechanisms by which NPC may evade immune surveillance despite its pro-inflammatory phenotype. Additionally, genomic changes impairing TGFBR2 promote oncogenesis and stabilize EBV infection in tumor cells. Fine-mapping of CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletion breakpoints reveals homozygous MTAP deletions in 32-34% of NPCs that confer marked sensitivity to MAT2A inhibition. Our work concludes that NPC is a homogeneously NF-κB-driven and immune-protected, yet potentially druggable, cancer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/terapia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/terapia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Nasofaringe/imunologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Nasofaringe/cirurgia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/genética , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4127, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226552

RESUMO

Gliomas are brain tumors characterized by an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Immunostimulatory agonistic CD40 antibodies (αCD40) are in clinical development for solid tumors, but are yet to be evaluated for glioma. Here, we demonstrate that systemic delivery of αCD40 in preclinical glioma models induces the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) in proximity of meningeal tissue. In treatment-naïve glioma patients, the presence of TLS correlates with increased T cell infiltration. However, systemic delivery of αCD40 induces hypofunctional T cells and impairs the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in pre-clinical glioma models. This is associated with a systemic induction of suppressive CD11b+ B cells post-αCD40 treatment, which accumulate in the tumor microenvironment. Our work unveils the pleiotropic effects of αCD40 therapy in glioma and reveals that immunotherapies can modulate TLS formation in the brain, opening up for future opportunities to regulate the immune response.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Estruturas Linfoides Terciárias/imunologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antígeno CD11b , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Mieloides , Fenótipo , Linfócitos T , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111656, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Amyrins are triterpenes that have attractive pharmacological potential; however, their low water solubility and erratic stomach absorption hinders their use as a drug. The aim of this paper was to develop a novel α-amyrin-loaded nanocapsule for intestinal delivery and evaluate, preliminarily, its cytotoxic ability against leukemic cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five nanocapsule formulations were designed by the solvent displacement-evaporation method. Poly-ε-caprolactone, Eudragit® E100, and Kollicoat® Mae 100 P were used as film-former materials. Particle size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential, and the pH of all formulations were measured. The cytotoxic potential of the nanocapsules was evaluated in vitro using different leukemic lineages RESULTS: Nanocapsules coated with Kollicoat® Mae 100 P presented the smallest particle size (130 nm), the lowest zeta-potential (-38 mV), and the narrowest size distribution (PdI = 0.100). The entrapment efficiency was 65.47%, while the loading capacity was 2.40%. Nanocapsules release 100% of α-amyrin in 40 min (pH 7.4), by using a possible mechanism of swelling-diffusion. The formulation showed excellent on-shelf physicochemical stability during one year. Additionally, nanocapsules produced a selective cytotoxic effect on a human leukemia lineage Kasumi-1, an acute myeloid leukemia cell line, and produced cell death by apoptosis CONCLUSION: α-amyrin-loaded nanocapsules appear to be a promising nanoformulation that could be used against leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Nanocápsulas/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caproatos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Células K562 , Lactonas/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281292

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the deadliest illness globally. Searching for new solutions in cancer treatments is essential because commonly used mixed, targeted and personalized therapies are sometimes not sufficient or are too expensive for common patients. Sugar fatty acid esters (SFAEs) are already well-known as promising candidates for an alternative medical tool. The manuscript brings the reader closer to methods of obtaining various SFAEs using combined biological, chemical and enzymatic methods. It presents how modification of SFAE's hydrophobic chains can influence their cytotoxicity against human skin melanoma and prostate cancer cell lines. The compound's cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay, which followed an assessment of SFAEs' potential metastatic properties in concentrations below IC50 values. Despite relatively high IC50 values (63.3-1737.6 µM) of the newly synthesized SFAE, they can compete with other sugar esters already described in the literature. The chosen bioactives caused low polymerization of microtubules and the depolymerization of actin filaments in nontoxic levels, which suggest an apoptotic rather than metastatic process. Altogether, cancer cells showed no propensity for metastasis after treating them with SFAE. They confirmed that lactose-based compounds seem the most promising surfactants among tested sugar esters. This manuscript creates a benchmark for creation of novel anticancer agents based on 3-hydroxylated fatty acids of bacterial origin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/química , Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos/farmacologia , Açúcares/química , Açúcares/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Filamentos Intermediários/efeitos dos fármacos , Filamentos Intermediários/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199017

RESUMO

Venoms are a rich source of potential lead compounds for drug discovery, and descriptive studies of venom form the first phase of the biodiscovery process. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological potential of crude Pseudocerastes and Eristicophis snake venoms in haematological disorders and cancer treatment. We assessed their antithrombotic potential using fibrinogen thromboelastography, fibrinogen gels with and without protease inhibitors, and colourimetric fibrinolysis assays. These assays indicated that the anticoagulant properties of the venoms are likely induced by the hydrolysis of phospholipids and by selective fibrinogenolysis. Furthermore, while most fibrinogenolysis occurred by the direct activity of snake venom metalloproteases and serine proteases, modest evidence indicated that fibrinogenolytic activity may also be mediated by selective venom phospholipases and an inhibitory venom-derived serine protease. We also found that the Pseudocerastes venoms significantly reduced the viability of human melanoma (MM96L) cells by more than 80%, while it had almost no effect on the healthy neonatal foreskin fibroblasts (NFF) as determined by viability assays. The bioactive properties of these venoms suggest that they contain a number of toxins suitable for downstream pharmacological development as candidates for antithrombotic or anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Venenos de Serpentes/farmacologia , Venenos de Víboras/farmacologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200178

RESUMO

As a therapeutic approach, epigenetic modifiers have the potential to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma, was identified to be involved in tumorigenesis. In the current study, we examined the potential antineoplastic activity of PRMT5 inhibitor, arginine methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1), and cisplatin on lung adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analyses identified apoptosis, DNA damage, and cell cycle progression as the main PRMT5-associated functional pathways, and survival analysis linked the increased PRMT5 gene expression to worse overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. Combined AMI-1 and cisplatin treatment significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest in A549 and DMS 53 cells was evident after AMI-1, and was reinforced after combination treatment. Western blot analysis showed a reduction in demethylation histone 4, a PRMT5- downstream target, after treatment with AMI-1 alone or in combination with cisplatin. While the combination approach tackled lung cancer cell survival, it exhibited cytoprotective abilities on HBEpC (normal epithelial cells). The survival of normal bronchial epithelial cells was not affected by using AMI-1. This study highlights evidence of novel selective antitumor activity of AMI-1 in combination with cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenossulfonatos/farmacologia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/genética , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ureia/farmacologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200807

RESUMO

Protein kinase CK2 has been considered as an attractive drug target for anti-cancer therapy. The synthesis of N-hydroxypropyl TBBi and 2MeTBBi derivatives as well as their respective esters was carried out by using chemoenzymatic methods. Concomitantly with kinetic studies toward recombinant CK2, the influence of the obtained compounds on the viability of two human breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) was evaluated using MTT assay. Additionally, an intracellular inhibition of CK2 as well as an induction of apoptosis in the examined cells after the treatment with the most active compounds were studied by Western blot analysis, phase-contrast microscopy and flow cytometry method. The results of the MTT test revealed potent cytotoxic activities for most of the newly synthesized compounds (EC50 4.90 to 32.77 µM), corresponding to their solubility in biological media. We concluded that derivatives with the methyl group decrease the viability of both cell lines more efficiently than their non-methylated analogs. Furthermore, inhibition of CK2 in breast cancer cells treated with the tested compounds at the concentrations equal to their EC50 values correlates well with their lipophilicity since derivatives with higher values of logP are more potent intracellular inhibitors of CK2 with better proapoptotic properties than their parental hydroxyl compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Benzimidazóis/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201061

RESUMO

BRAFV600E mutations are found in approximately 10% of colorectal cancer patients and are associated with worse prognosis and poor outcomes with systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to identify novel druggable features of BRAFV600E-mutated colon cancer (CC) cells associated with the response and resistance to BRAFV600E inhibitor vemurafenib. Towards this aim, we carried out global proteomic profiling of BRAFV600E mutant vs. KRAS mutant/BRAF wild-type and double wild-type KRAS/BRAF CC cells followed by bioinformatics analyses. Validation of selected proteomic features was performed by immunohistochemistry and in silico using the TCGA database. We reveal an increased abundance and activity of nucleophosmin (NPM1) in BRAFV600E-mutated CC in vitro, in silico and in tumor tissues from colon adenocarcinoma patients and demonstrate the roles of NPM1 and its interaction partner c-Myc in conveying the resistance to vemurafenib. Pharmacological inhibition of NPM1 effectively restored the sensitivity of vemurafenib-resistant BRAF-mutated CC cells by down-regulating c-Myc expression and activity and consequently suppressing its transcriptional targets RanBP1 and phosphoserine phosphatase that regulate centrosome duplication and serine biosynthesis, respectively. Altogether, findings from this study suggest that the NPM1/c-Myc axis could represent a promising therapeutic target to thwart resistance to vemurafenib in BRAF-mutated CC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Vemurafenib/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Proteoma/análise , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201683

RESUMO

Natural product is an excellent candidate for alternative medicine for disease management. The bulb of E. bulbosa is one of the notable Iridaceae family with a variety therapeutic potential that is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. The bulb has been used traditionally among the Dayak community as a folk medicine to treat several diseases like diabetes, breast cancer, nasal congestion, and fertility problems. The bulb is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals like phenolic and flavonoid derivatives, naphthalene, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The electronic database was searched using various keywords, i.e., E. bulbosa, E. americana, E. palmifolia, E. platifolia, and others due to the interchangeably used scientific names of different countries. Scientific investigations revealed that various pharmacological activities were recorded from the bulb of E. bulbosa including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, dermatological problems, anti-oxidant, and anti-fertility. The potential application of the bulb in the food industry and in animal nutrition was also discussed to demonstrate its great versatility. This is a compact study and is the first study to review the extensive pharmacological activities of the E. bulbosa bulb and its potential applications. The development of innovative food and pharma products from the bulb of E. bulbosa is of great interest.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Iridaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201814

RESUMO

High-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) still remains the most dangerous tumor in early childhood. For this reason, the identification of new therapeutic approaches is of fundamental importance. Recently, we combined the conventional pharmacological approach to NB, represented by cisplatin, with fendiline hydrochloride, an inhibitor of several transporters involved in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, which demonstrated an enhancement of the ability of cisplatin to induce apoptosis. In this work, we co-administrated acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CAIX) inhibitor which was reported to increase chemotherapy efficacy in various cancer types, to the cisplatin/fendiline approach in SKNBE2 xenografts in NOD-SCID mice with the aim of identifying a novel and more effective treatment. We observed that the combination of the three drugs increases more than twelvefold the differences in the cytotoxic activity of cisplatin alone, leading to a remarkable decrease of the expression of malignancy markers. Our conclusion is that this approach, based on three FDA-approved drugs, may constitute an appropriate improvement of the pharmacological approach to HR-NB.


Assuntos
Acetazolamida/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Fendilina/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201962

RESUMO

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a crucial mediator involved in the progression of different cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and deadly human brain tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and rapid cell growth. Most of GBMs overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and we investigated the possible link between S1P and EGFR signaling pathways, focusing on its role in GBM survival, using the U87MG human cell line overexpressing EGFR (EGFR+). We previously demonstrated that EGFR+ cells have higher levels of extracellular S1P and increased sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) activity than empty vector expressing cells. Notably, we demonstrated that EGFR+ cells are resistant to temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemotherapeutic drug in GBM treatment, and the inhibition of SK1 or S1P receptors made EGFR+ cells sensitive to TMZ; moreover, exogenous S1P reverted this effect, thus involving extracellular S1P as a survival signal in TMZ resistance in GBM cells. In addition, both PI3K/AKT and MAPK inhibitors markedly reduced cell survival, suggesting that the enhanced resistance to TMZ of EGFR+ cells is dependent on the increased S1P secretion, downstream of the EGFR-ERK-SK1-S1P pathway. Altogether, our study provides evidence of a functional link between S1P and EGFR signaling pathways enhancing the survival properties of GBM cells.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esfingosina/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201963

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a devastating disease with a 5-year overall survival of 9% for all stages. Gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer is highly toxic. We conducted an in vitro study to determine whether poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibition radiosensitized gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines, MIA PaCa-2, AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were treated with gemcitabine (10 nM) and/or olaparib (1 µM). Low-LET gamma single dose of 2, 5 and 10 Gy radiations were carried out. Clonogenic assay, PAR immunoblotting, cell cycle distribution, γH2Ax, necrotic and autophagic cell death quantifications were performed. Treatment with olaparib alone was not cytotoxic, but highly radiosensitized cell lines, particularly at high dose per fraction A non-cytotoxic concentration of gemcitabine radiosensitized cells, but less than olaparib. Interestingly, olaparib significantly enhanced gemcitabine-based radiosensitization in PDAC cell lines with synergistic effect in BxPC-3 cell line. All cell lines were radiosensitized by the combination of gemcitabine and olaparib, through an increase of unrepaired double-strand, a G2 phase block and cell death. Radiosensitization was increased with high dose of radiation. The combination of olaparib with gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy could lead to an enhancement of local control in vivo and an improvement in disease-free survival.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiorradioterapia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4262, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253738

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in conferring stem cell properties and therapeutic resistance to cancer cells. Therefore, identification of drugs that can reprogram EMT may provide new therapeutic strategies. Here, we report that cells derived from claudin-low mammary tumors, a mesenchymal subtype of triple-negative breast cancer, exhibit a distinctive organoid structure with extended "spikes" in 3D matrices. Upon a miR-200 induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), the organoids switch to a smoother round morphology. Based on these observations, we developed a morphological screening method with accompanying analytical pipelines that leverage deep neural networks and nearest neighborhood classification to screen for EMT-reversing drugs. Through screening of a targeted epigenetic drug library, we identified multiple class I HDAC inhibitors and Bromodomain inhibitors that reverse EMT. These data support the use of morphological screening of mesenchymal mammary tumor organoids as a platform to identify drugs that reverse EMT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Mesoderma/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Animais , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199541

RESUMO

Quinone methide precursors 1a-e, with different alkyl linkers between the naphthol and the naphthalimide chromophore, were synthesized. Their photophysical properties and photochemical reactivity were investigated and connected with biological activity. Upon excitation of the naphthol, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to the naphthalimide takes place and the quantum yields of fluorescence are low (ΦF ≈ 10-2). Due to FRET, photodehydration of naphthols to QMs takes place inefficiently (ΦR ≈ 10-5). However, the formation of QMs can also be initiated upon excitation of naphthalimide, the lower energy chromophore, in a process that involves photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the naphthol to the naphthalimide. Fluorescence titrations revealed that 1a and 1e form complexes with ct-DNA with moderate association constants Ka ≈ 105-106 M-1, as well as with bovine serum albumin (BSA) Ka ≈ 105 M-1 (1:1 complex). The irradiation of the complex 1e@BSA resulted in the alkylation of the protein, probably via QM. The antiproliferative activity of 1a-e against two human cancer cell lines (H460 and MCF 7) was investigated with the cells kept in the dark or irradiated at 350 nm, whereupon cytotoxicity increased, particularly for 1e (>100 times). Although the enhancement of this activity upon UV irradiation has no imminent therapeutic application, the results presented have importance in the rational design of new generations of anticancer phototherapeutics that absorb visible light.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Indolquinonas/síntese química , Naftalimidas/química , Naftóis/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Indolquinonas/química , Indolquinonas/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Teoria Quântica
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206482

RESUMO

Gliomas and glioblastomas are very aggressive forms of brain tumors, prone to the development of a multitude of resistance mechanisms to therapeutic treatments, including cytoprotective autophagy. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of action of the combination of a ruthenacarborane derivative with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), linked via an ester bond (complex 2), in rat astrocytoma C6 and human glioma U251 cells, in comparison with the two compounds alone, i.e., the free carboxylic acid (complex 1) and 8-HQ, and their non-covalent combination ([1 + 8-HQ], in 1:1 molar ratio). We found that only complex 2 was able to significantly affect cellular viability in glioma U251 cells (IC50 11.4 µM) via inhibition of the autophagic machinery, most likely acting at the early stages of the autophagic cascade. Contrary to 8-HQ alone, complex 2 was also able to impair cellular viability under conditions of glucose deprivation. We thus suggest different mechanisms of action of ruthenacarborane complex 2 than purely organic quinoline-based drugs, making complex 2 a very attractive candidate for evading the known resistances of brain tumors to chloroquine-based therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Astrocitoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Complexos de Coordenação , Quinolinas , Rutênio , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Astrocitoma/tratamento farmacológico , Astrocitoma/metabolismo , Astrocitoma/patologia , Morte Celular Autofágica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Humanos , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Rutênio/química , Rutênio/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206957

RESUMO

In recent decades, the conduct of uniform prospective clinical trials has led to improved remission rates and survival for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, high-risk patients continue to have inferior outcomes, where chemoresistance and relapse are common due to the survival mechanisms utilised by leukaemic cells. One such mechanism is through hijacking of the bone marrow microenvironment, where healthy haematopoietic machinery is transformed or remodelled into a hiding ground or "sanctuary" where leukaemic cells can escape chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. The bone marrow microenvironment, which consists of endosteal and vascular niches, can support leukaemogenesis through intercellular "crosstalk" with niche cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Here, we summarise the regulatory mechanisms associated with leukaemia-bone marrow niche interaction and provide a comprehensive review of the key therapeutics that target CXCL12/CXCR4, Notch, Wnt/b-catenin, and hypoxia-related signalling pathways within the leukaemic niches and agents involved in remodelling of niche bone and vasculature. From a therapeutic perspective, targeting these cellular interactions is an exciting novel strategy for enhancing treatment efficacy, and further clinical application has significant potential to improve the outcome of patients with leukaemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201296

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common malignant bone neoplasia in humans and dogs. In dogs, treatment consists of surgery in combination with chemotherapy (mostly carboplatin and/or doxorubicin (Dox)). Chemotherapy is often rendered ineffective by multidrug resistance. Previous studies have revealed that Dox conjugated with 4 nm glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-GSH-Dox) enhanced the anti-tumor activity and cytotoxicity of Dox in Dox-resistant feline fibrosarcoma cell lines exhibiting high P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. The present study investigated the influence of Au-GSH-Dox on the canine OSA cell line D17 and its relationship with P-gp activity. A human Dox-sensitive OSA cell line, U2OS, served as the negative control. Au-GSH-Dox, compared to free Dox, presented a greater cytotoxic effect on D17 (IC50 values for Au-GSH-Dox and Dox were 7.9 µg/mL and 15.2 µg/mL, respectively) but not on the U2OS cell line. All concentrations of Au-GSH (ranging from 10 to 1000 µg/mL) were non-toxic in both cell lines. Inhibition of the D17 cell line with 100 µM verapamil resulted in an increase in free Dox but not in intracellular Au-GSH-Dox. The results indicate that Au-GSH-Dox may act as an effective drug in canine OSA by bypassing P-gp.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Glutationa/química , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Criança , Cães , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos
18.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201298

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a heterogenous assemblage of malignant and non-malignant cells, including infiltrating immune cells and other stromal cells, together with extracellular matrix and a variety of soluble factors. This complex and dynamic milieu strongly affects tumor differentiation, progression, immune evasion, and response to therapy, thus being an important therapeutic target. The phenotypic and functional features of the various cell types present in the TME are largely dependent on their ability to adopt different metabolic programs. Hence, modulating the metabolism of the cells in the TME, and their metabolic crosstalk, has emerged as a promising strategy in the context of anticancer therapies. Natural compounds offer an attractive tool in this respect as their multiple biological activities can potentially be harnessed to '(re)-educate' TME cells towards antitumoral roles. The present review discusses how natural compounds shape the metabolism of stromal cells in the TME and how this may impact tumor development and progression.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201326

RESUMO

The development of cancer treatments requires continuous exploration and improvement, in which the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of cancer is still an important pathway. In this study, based on the molecular hybridization strategy, a new structural framework with an N-aryl-N'-arylmethylurea scaffold was designed, and 16 new target compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four different cancer cell lines A549, MCF7, HCT116, PC3, and human liver normal cell line HL7702. The results have shown seven compounds with 1-methylpiperidin-4-yl groups having excellent activities against all four cancer cell lines, and they exhibited scarcely any activities against HL7702. Among them, compound 9b and 9d showed greatly excellent activity against the four kinds of cells, and the IC50 for MCF7 and PC3 cell lines were even less than 3 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Ureia/química , Ureia/síntese química , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ureia/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203232

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is one of the life-threatening ailments causing high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite the innovation in medical genetics, the prognosis for metastatic colorectal cancer in patients remains unsatisfactory. Recently, lichens have attracted the attention of researchers in the search for targets to fight against cancer. Lichens are considered mines of thousands of metabolites. Researchers have reported that lichen-derived metabolites demonstrated biological effects, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, antipyretic, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic, on various cell lines. However, the exploration of the biological activities of lichens' metabolites is limited. Thus, the main objective of our study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of secondary metabolites isolated from lichen (Usnea barbata 2017-KL-10) on the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. In this study, 2OCAA exhibited concentration-dependent anticancer activities by suppressing antiapoptotic genes, such as MCL-1, and inducing apoptotic genes, such as BAX, TP53, and CDKN1A(p21). Moreover, 2OCAA inhibited the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that 2OCAA is a better therapeutic candidate for colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos , Usnea/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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