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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5261-5284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570422

RESUMO

Natural products (NPs) are useful sources of bioactive compounds and play important roles in the development and discovery of new drugs for diverse human diseases. Most natural products originate from terrestrial species, but diverse marine organisms are another source of new agents for cancer therapy. Natural products derived from marine organisms show diverse pharmacological activities via bioactive secondary metabolites. They regulate biological activities, such as cell proliferation, cell viability, induction of ROS production, ER stress, and apoptosis via modulation of cellular mechanisms in many cancers. Many natural products isolated from marine species require further study to elucidate the efficacy of their biological activity and anticancer effects. In this review, we summarize the biological properties and anticancer effects of diverse natural products extracted from marine organisms and their roles in tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5285-5296, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570423

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by a lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and unfortunately is not associated with good prognosis. Treatment of breast cancer mainly depends on chemotherapy, due to the lack of specifically approved targeted therapies for TNBC. It is of paramount importance to find new therapeutic approaches, as resistance to chemotherapy frequently occurs. Herein, we present clinical studies published within the last five years, in order to reveal possible targeted therapies against TNBC. We aimed to discuss factors against TNBC, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-androgens, poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors, anti-angiogenic factors, immune checkpoints and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI). Furthermore, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway seems to be a promising field for the development of new anti-TNBC targeted therapies. Data from 18 clinical trials with patients suffering from TNBC were summarized and presented descriptively.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5297-5310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) may possess putative antitumoral properties; however, the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We evaluated the antiproliferative and antimigratory effects of enoxaparin (a LMWH) in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and assessed the possible mechanism involved, and the effect on doxorubicin's efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proliferation and migration were evaluated using BrdU and transwell assays, respectively. Immunoblotting was used to measure PAR-1, PAR-2, MMP-2, ERK1/2 and Akt proteins. Apoptosis and cell cycle studies examined the combined effect of enoxaparin and doxorubicin. RESULTS: Enoxaparin inhibited A549 cell proliferation and migration. Following PAR-1 gene knock down, enoxaparin's effect on A549 cell proliferation was diminished compared to scrambled siRNA. Our experiments verified that enoxaparin-mediated down-regulation of MAPK and PI3K, reduced MMP-2 expression and inhibited A549 cell migration. Additionally, enoxaparin increased doxorubicin's efficacy by enhancing apoptosis, while no effect on cell-cycle progression was observed. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that the anticancer activity of enoxaparin in A549 cells was mediated by the interference of two major PAR-1 downstream signaling pathways, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt, which in turn inhibit proliferation and migration. Therefore, enoxaparin may be promising as an adjunct to traditional chemotherapy for lung cancer and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Enoxaparina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor PAR-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5329-5338, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The P13K/Akt signaling pathway is a growth-regulating cellular pathway that is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers. In previous studies, we reported that a solenopsin analog, compound B (MU-06-SC-608-7), shows inhibitory effects on Akt phosphorylation at a key activation site, as well as on proliferation of tumorigenic cells at sub-micromolar concentrations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of compound B on downstream effectors of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of Akt at a second activation site, Akt kinase activity in vitro, tumorigenic cell viability and other signaling pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot analyses were performed using WBras1 epithelial and H2009 human carcinoma cells and cell viability assays were performed on H2009 cells. In vitro Akt kinase assays were performed using a commercially available kit. RESULTS: Compound B decreased the phosphorylation of Akt at the Thr308 activation site and key downstream effectors of Akt kinase, but did not directly inhibit Akt kinase. Substantial decreases in cell viability were observed at concentrations above 5 µM. No effect was seen on ERK or JNK pathways. CONCLUSION: The results earmark this compound for further studies as a potential targeted cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5403-5415, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tubugi-1 is a more stable and accessible synthetic counterpart of natural tubulysins. This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxic potential against anaplastic human melanoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The viability of A-375 cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and crystal violet assay. The type of cell death and proliferative rate were investigated using flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy, while the molecular background was evaluated by western blot. RESULTS: Tubugi-1 reduced the viability of A-375 cells, inducing massive micronucleation, followed by augmented expression of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-2, typical of a mitotic catastrophe. Disturbed proliferation and G2M block with prominent caspase activity, weakened the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X transient up-regulation, coexisted with intensive autophagy. Specific inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in conversion from mitotic catastrophe to rapid apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Multilevel anticancer action of tubugi-1 is extended by co-application of an autophagy inhibitor, giving a new dimension in further preclinical advancement of this potential agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Caspase 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5483-5494, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) are the most common tumors in female dogs. Rivoceranib (also known as apatinib) is a novel anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively binds to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). The aim of this study was to disclose the antitumor effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The direct effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cells in vitro were analyzed by cell proliferation and migration assays. Cell-cycle distribution and apoptotic ratio were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression levels of phosphorylated VEGFR2 were evaluated by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Rivoceranib treatment significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of CMGT cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results revealed significant increases in G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis proportional to the drug concentration used. Rivoceranib reduced the level of phosphorylated VEGFR2. CONCLUSION: We confirm that rivoceranib exerts antitumor effects on CMGT cells by inhibiting biological functions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1167: 237-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520359

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been growing interest in using Drosophila for drug discovery as it provides a unique opportunity to screen small molecules against complex disease phenotypes in a whole animal setting. Furthermore, gene-compound interaction experiments that combine compound feeding with complex genetic manipulations enable exploration of compound mechanisms of response and resistance to an extent that is difficult to achieve in other experimental models. Here, I discuss how compound screening and testing approaches reported in Drosophila fit into the current cancer drug discovery pipeline. I then propose a framework for a Drosophila-based cancer drug discovery strategy which would allow the Drosophila research community to effectively leverage the power of Drosophila to identify candidate therapeutics and push our discoveries into the clinic.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Drosophila , Descoberta de Drogas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas Genéticas , Fenótipo
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 480-491, sept. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008273

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of essential oil from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the M. officinalis essential oil was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: MCF-7, NCI-H460 and MOLT-4 by MTT assay. M. officinalis essential oil was characterized by high percentage of monoterpenes (77,5%), followed by the sesquiterpene fraction (14,5%) and aliphatic compounds (2,2%). The main constituents of the essential oil of M. officinalis are citral (47,2%), caryophyllene oxide (10,2%), citronellal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), geranyl acetate (4,1%) and ß- caryophyllene (3,8%). The essential oil showed significant antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines, MOLT-4, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 cells, with GI50 values of <5, 6±2 and 31±17 µg/mL, respectively. The results revealed that M. officinalis L. essential oil has a potential as anticancer therapeutic agent.


En el presente estudio, investigamos la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de las hojas de Melissa officinalis L. cultivadas en el sur de Bosnia y Herzegovina. La evaluación in vitro de la actividad antiproliferativa del aceite esencial de M. officinalis se llevó a cabo en tres líneas celulares de tumores humanos: MCF-7, NCI-H460 y MOLT-4 utilizando el ensayo de MTT. El aceite esencial de M. officinalis se caracterizó por un alto porcentaje de monoterpenos (77,5%), seguido de la fracción sesquiterpénica (14,5%) y compuestos alifáticos (2,2%). Los principales constituyentes del aceite esencial de M. officinalis fueron citral (47,2%), óxido de cariofileno (10,2%), citronelal (5,4%), geraniol (6,6%), acetato de geranilo (4, 1%), y ß-cariofileno (3,8%). El aceite esencial mostró una actividad antiproliferativa significativa contra las líneas celulares de cáncer MOLT-4, MCF-7 y NCI-H460, con valores GI50 de <5, 6±2 y 31±17 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados revelaron que el aceite esencial de M. officinalis L. tiene potencial como agente terapéutico contra el cáncer.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Melissa , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Óleos Voláteis/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Folhas de Planta , Monoterpenos/análise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antineoplásicos/química
9.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(9): 646-649, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors might be potential anticancer drugs. The copper complexes can be used as specific proteasome inhibitors in tumor cells able to induce apoptosis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The goal of our study was to test the cytotoxic and proteasome inhibitory effects of five Schiff base Cu(II) complexes - [Cu2(sal-D,L-glu)2(isoquinoline)2] . 2C2H5OH (1), [Cu(sal-5-met-L-glu)(H2O)].H2O (2), [Cu(ethanol)2(imidazole)4][Cu2(sal-D,L-glu)2(imidazole)2] (3), [Cu(sal-D,L-glu)(2-methylimidazole)] (4) on human lung carcinoma cells A549, cervix carcinoma cells HeLa and glioblastoma cells U-118MG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the cytotoxic analysis we used MTT test and for monitoring the proteasome inhibition western blot analysis. RESULTS: We have observed different cytotoxic effects of tested complexes on human cancer cells depending on the ligand present in their structure. Cu(II) complexes 4 and 5 were the most effective against A549 cells; all complexes were cytotoxic against HeLa cells and the complex 4 was the most effective against U-118MG. Moreover, we have detected the inhibition of the proteasome activity in human cancer cells A549 by Cu(II) complexes 1, 2 and 4 at IC50 concentration. CONCLUSION: Results of our study suggest that isoquinoline- and imidazole-based copper complexes could be used as inhibitors of the proteasome system in cancer cells A549 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 26).


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteassoma/farmacologia , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma
10.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2413-2422, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centriole duplication. PLK4 deregulation causes centrosome number abnormalities, mitotic defects, chromosomal instability and, consequently, tumorigenesis. Therefore, PLK4 has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple cancers. In this review, we summarize the critical role of centrosome amplification and PLK4 in cancer. We also highlight recent advances in the development of PLK4 inhibitors and discuss potential combination therapies for cancer. METHODS: The relevant literature from PubMed is reviewed in this article. The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for clinical trials related to the specific topic. RESULTS: PLK4 is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers and has prognostic value. Targeting PLK4 with inhibitors suppresses tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: PLK4 plays an important role in centrosome amplification and tumor progression. PLK4 inhibitors used alone or in combination with other drugs have shown significant anticancer efficacy, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer. The results of relevant clinical trials await evaluation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4687-4698, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Propagermanium (PG) inhibits the CCL2/CCR2 axis, and has been shown to function as an immune modulator. This study investigated its anti-tumor mechanism in patients with refractory cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers and 23 patients with refractory oral (n=8) or gastric (n=15) cancer received PG (30 mg/day). We performed flow cytometry (FCM) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vitro killing assays. RESULTS: FCM revealed that CD16+/CD56Dim NK cells (i.e., mature, cytolytic subset) increased, and the apoptosis induction rate of cancer cells increased after PG administration. Among gastric cancer patients, median OS was 172.0 days. Two patients showed complete remission of lung or liver metastasis. Survival of patients with oral cancer also tended to be prolonged. CONCLUSION: PG induces NK cell maturation, and may potentiate anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Compostos Organometálicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4711-4720, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Dynamics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) after molecular targeting therapy remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined changes in CTC numbers and morphology early after targeting therapy in EGFR-mutated PC-9 human lung cancer and HER2-gene amplified GLM-1 gastric cancer mouse CTC models using a cytology-based semi-automated CTC detection platform. RESULTS: Erlotinib and T-DM1 inhibited cell growth mainly by induction of apoptosis in vitro. The number of CTCs detected 5-10 days after targeting therapy in mice was significantly increased compared to CTC numbers before therapy. The increased CTCs after therapy consisted of apoptotic CTCs and viable CTCs. This heterogeneous population of CTCs reflects well the cell population of the primary tumor disrupted by therapy. CONCLUSION: CTCs can be mobilized from the primary tumor due to tissue disruption in acute response to targeting therapy, suggesting potential usefulness of CTC monitoring as a predictor of therapeutic response in the clinical settings.


Assuntos
Amplificação de Genes , Mutação , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/farmacologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4737-4742, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: There are several unresolved issues regarding the combined treatment with an immune checkpoint inhibitor and anti-angiogenic agent for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. The purpose of this study was to address the inhibitory effects of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on growth and sensitivity to sunitinib in the mouse RCC RenCa model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established RenCa/sh-PD-L1 by transfecting RenCa cells with a plasmid carrying a short hairpin RNA targeted against PD-L1. The growth pattern of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 with or without sunitinib was compared to that of RenCa cells transfected with control plasmid alone (RenCa/Co). RESULTS: No significant difference in growth or sensitivity to sinitinib was noted between RenCa/sh-PD-L1 and RenCa/Co cells in vitro. The tumor volume in mice subcutaneously injected with RenCa/sh-PD-L1 was significantly smaller than that with RenCa/Co. Treatment of mice bearing each tumor with sunitinib resulted in a significant reduction of the RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumor compared to the RenCa/Co tumor. Moreover, infiltration by CD8+ T cells of RenCa/sh-PD-L1 tumors was significantly higher than that of RenCa/Co tumors, irrespective of treatment with sunitinib. CONCLUSION: Suppressed expression of PD-L1 could increase tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells and result in growth inhibition as well as enhanced sensitivity to sunitinib in the RenCa model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Camundongos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4749-4755, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a platinum compound capable of inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. However, cancer cells can become cisplatin-resistant. A recent study showed that a pregnane X receptor (PXR) antagonist, leflunomide, can enhance the antitumor activity of cisplatin and overcome such resistance. This study determined whether PXR antagonists ketoconazole and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) enhance the antitumor activity of platinum compounds and by which mechanism(s) of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Caspase-3 activity, intracellular platinum level, and expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 2 (ABCC2; previously named multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) were assessed in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells exposed to carboplatin or cisplatin with and without PXR antagonist. RESULTS: In combination with platinum compounds, PEITC increased the intracellular platinum level, while ketoconazole induced higher caspase-3 activity. Additionally, PEITC suppressed ABCC2 protein expression. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that ketoconazole and PEITC enhance the antitumor activity of platinum compounds by different and complex mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Receptor de Pregnano X/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4757-4766, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Azacitidine (AZA) is a hypomethylating agent used in myeloid neoplasms, however, approximately half of patients show treatment failure or relapse. This in vitro study investigated the effect of the combination of AZA with the natural compound curcumin (CUR) in increasing its efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the effects of AZA plus CUR on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines (U-937, HL-60, K-562, and OCI-AML3) and bone marrow samples of patients. RESULTS: The results showed a synergy between AZA and CUR in all leukemic lines and in most leukemic samples, with a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis compared to the activity of each drug separately. In addition, AZA plus CUR showed low cytotoxicity in healthy samples. CONCLUSION: A remarkable antioncogenic effect of the combination of AZA plus CUR was shown, providing a basis for future studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of these drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azacitidina/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4811-4816, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) is highly expressed in many forms of cancer, and is a promising therapeutic target. The present study investigated whether inhibition of GGCT enhanced the antiproliferative effects of the drug docetaxel in prostate cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were conducted to measure GGCT expression in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines. GGCT was inhibited using RNAi and a novel enzymatic inhibitor, pro-GA, and cell proliferation was evaluated with single and combination treatments of GGCT inhibitors and docetaxel. RESULTS: GGCT was highly expressed in cultured prostate cancer cells and patient samples. GGCT inhibition alone inhibited prostate cancer cell line proliferation and induced cellular senescence. GGCT inhibition in combination with apoptosis-inducing docetaxel had more potent antiproliferative effects than either drug used alone. CONCLUSION: GGCT inhibition may potentiate anticancer drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/genética , gama-Glutamilciclotransferase/metabolismo
17.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4829-4835, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) still remains an incurable disease as the cells evade apoptosis, which is an obstacle for current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, our aim was to identify an ideal target of leukemic cell growth for developing inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse lymphocytic leukemia cell line L1210, human Toledo cells and a DBA/2 mouse graft model were used to analyze the activity of dual mTORC1/2 inhibitor AZD2014s. Western blotting and flow cytometry were performed to determine the mechanism. RESULTS: AZD2014 inhibited L1210 and human Toledo cell proliferation. Treatment with AZD2014 reduced the phosphorylation levels of S6K1 and 4EBP1 and the protein levels of Rictor, a component of the mTORC2 pathway. AZD2014 induced cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase by reducing the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Oral administration of AZD2014 significantly inhibited the growth of L1210 cell grafts in DBA/2 mice. CONCLUSION: The mTORC1/2 inhibitor may be a better therapeutic agent compared to PI3K/mTORC1 inhibitors for treating patients with CLL.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfoide/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfoide/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfoide/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4845-4851, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes 15-20% of all breast carcinomas, affecting younger women more often and has a worse prognosis than other types of breast cancer, due to the combination of more aggressive clinical behavior and lack of molecular targets for therapy. This study assessed the effects of non-genotoxic concentrations of tributyltin isothiocyanate (TBT-ITC) and triphenyltin isothiocyanate (TPT-ITC) on MDA-MB-231 cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assay, comet assay, kinetic imaging and flow cytometry were used for analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells. RESULTS: The results showed that 100 nM concentration of TBT-ITC and TPT-ITC, that did not affect viability or DNA integrity, slowed-down migration by CD44 down-regulation. Moreover, both compounds demonstrated immunomodulatory properties, attenuating PD-L1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. CONCLUSION: TPT-ITC was more effective in down-regulating CD44 expression and reducing migration than TBT-ITC, while TBT-ITC was more potent in lowering PD-L1 expression in comparison with TPT-ITC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Isotiocianatos/química , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/química
19.
Pharm Res ; 36(11): 154, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conjugation of nanocarriers with antibodies that bind to specific membrane receptors that are overexpressed in cancer cells enables targeted delivery. In the present study, we developed and synthesised two PAMAM dendrimer-trastuzumab conjugates that carried docetaxel or paclitaxel, specifically targeted to cells which overexpressed HER-2. METHODS: The 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR and RP-HPLC were used to analyse the characteristics of the products and assess their purity. The toxicity of PAMAM-trastuzumab, PAMAM-doc-trastuzumab and PAMAM-ptx-trastuzumab conjugates was determined using MTT assay and compared with free trastuzumab, docetaxel and paclitaxel toward HER-2-positive (SKBR-3) and negative (MCF-7) human breast cancer cell lines. The cellular uptake and internal localisation were studied using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: The PAMAM-drug-trastuzumab conjugates in particular showed extremely high toxicity toward the HER-2-positive SKBR-3 cells and very low toxicity towards to HER-2-negative MCF-7 cells. As expected, the HER-2-positive SKBR-3 cell line accumulated trastuzumab from both conjugates rapidly; but surprisingly, although a large amount of PAMAM-ptx-trastuzumab conjugate was observed in the HER-2-negative MCF-7 cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed the intracellular localisation of analysed compounds. The key result of fluorescent imaging was the identification of strong selective binding of the PAMAM-doc-trastuzumab conjugate with HER-2-positive SKBR-3 cells only. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the high selectivity of PAMAM-doc-trastuzumab and PAMAM-ptx-trastuzumab conjugates for HER-2-positive cells, and demonstrate the utility of trastuzumab as a targeting agent. Therefore, the analysed conjugates present an promising approach for the improvement of efficacy of targeted delivery of anticancer drugs such as docetaxel or paclitaxel.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Dendrímeros/química , Docetaxel/química , Paclitaxel/química , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Interações de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Propriedades de Superfície , Trastuzumab/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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