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1.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 298-305, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809607

RESUMO

Pursuing on our efforts toward searching for efficient hCA IX and hCA XII inhibitors, herein we report the design and synthesis of new sets of benzofuran-based sulphonamides (4a,b, 5a,b, 9a-c, and 10a-d), featuring the zinc anchoring benzenesulfonamide moiety linked to a benzofuran tail via a hydrazine or hydrazide linker. All the target benzofurans were examined for their inhibitory activities toward isoforms hCA I, II, IX, and XII. The target tumour-associated hCA IX and XII isoforms were efficiently inhibited with KIs spanning in ranges 10.0-97.5 and 10.1-71.8 nM, respectively. Interestingly, arylsulfonehydrazones 9 displayed the best selectivity toward hCA IX and XII over hCA I (SIs: 39.4-250.3 and 26.0-149.9, respectively), and over hCA II (SIs: 19.6-57.1 and 13.0-34.2, respectively). Furthermore, the target benzofurans were assessed for their anti-proliferative activity, according to US-NCI protocol, toward a panel of sixty cancer cell lines. Only benzofurans 5b and 10b possessed selective and moderate growth inhibitory activity toward certain cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 311-324, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809612

RESUMO

Hybridization of reported weakly active antiproliferative hit 5-amino-4-pyrimidinol derivative with 2-anilino-4-phenoxypyrimidines suggests a series of 2,5-diamino-4-pyrimidinol derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents. Few compounds belonging to the proposed series were reported as CSF1R/DAPK1 inhibitors as anti-tauopathies. However, the correlation between CSF1R/DAPK1 signalling pathways and cancer progression provides motives to reprofile them against cancer therapy. The compounds were synthesised, characterized, and evaluated against M-NFS-60 cells and a kinase panel which bolstered predictions of their antiproliferative activity and suggested the involvement of diverse molecular targets. Compound 6e, the most potent in the series, showed prominent broad-spectrum antiproliferative activity inhibiting the growth of hematological, NSCLC, colon, CNS, melanoma, ovarian, renal, prostate and breast cancers by 84.1, 52.79, 72.15, 66.34, 66.48, 51.55, 55.95, 61.85, and 60.87%, respectively. Additionally, it elicited an IC50 value of 1.97 µM against M-NFS-60 cells and good GIT absorption with Pe value of 19.0 ± 1.1 × 10-6 cm/s (PAMPA-GIT). Molecular docking study for 6e with CSF1R and DAPK1 was done to help to understand the binding mode with both kinases. Collectively, compound 6e could be a potential lead compound for further development of anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Associadas com Morte Celular/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14586-14599, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618015

RESUMO

In this work, we report the synthesis of [Ru(phen)32+]-based complexes and their use as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT), a treatment of pathological conditions based on the photoactivation of bioactive compounds, which are not harmful in the absence of light irradiation. Of these complexes, Ru-PhenISA and Ru-PhenAN are polymer conjugates containing less than 5%, (on a molar basis), photoactive units. Their performance is compared with that of a small [Ru(phen)32+] compound, [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 (BAP = 4-(4'-aminobutyl)-1,10-phenanthroline, OTf = triflate anion), used as a model of the photoactive units. The polymer ligands, PhenISA and PhenAN, are polyamidoamines with different acid-base properties. At physiological pH, the former is zwitterionic, the latter moderately cationic, and both intrinsically cytocompatible. The photophysical characterizations show that the complexation to macromolecules does not hamper the Ru(phen)32+ ability to generate toxic singlet oxygen upon irradiation, and phosphorescence lifetimes and quantum yields are similar in all cases. All three compounds are internalized by HeLa cells and can induce cell death upon visible light irradiation. However, their relative PDT efficiency is different: the zwitterionic PhenISA endowed with the Ru-complex lowers the PDT efficiency of the free complex, while conversely, the cationic PhenAN boosts it. Flow cytometry demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of the three agents reflects the observed differences in PDT efficacy. Additionally, intracellular localization studies show that while [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 remains confined in vesicular structures, Ru-PhenISA localization is hard to determine due to the very low uptake efficiency. Very interestingly, instead, the cationic Ru-PhenAN accumulates inside the nucleus in all treated cells. Overall, the results indicate that the complexation of [Ru(phen)2BAP](OTf)2 with a cationic polyamidoamine to give the Ru-PhenAN complex is an excellent strategy to increase the Ru-complex cell uptake and, additionally, to achieve accumulation at the nuclear level. These unique features together make this compound an excellent photosensitizer with very high PDT efficiency.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Rutênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Rutênio/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14294-14298, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599154

RESUMO

Metal complexes to promote oxidative DNA cleavage by H2O2 are desirable as anticancer drugs. A dicopper(II) complex of known p-cresol-derived methylene-tether ligand Hbcc [Cu2(bcc)]3+ did not promote DNA cleavage by H2O2. Here, we synthesized a new p-cresol-derived amide-tether one, 2,6-bis(1,4,7,10-tetrazacyclododecyl-1-carboxyamide)-p-cresol (Hbcamide). A dicopper(II) complex of the new ligand [Cu2(µ-OH)(bcamide)]2+ was structurally characterized. This complex promoted the oxidative cleavage of supercoiled plasmid pUC19 DNA (Form I) with H2O2 at pH 6.0-8.2 to give Forms II and III. The reaction was largely accelerated in a high pH region. A µ-1,1-hydroperoxo species was formed as the active species and spectroscopically identified. The amide-tether complex is more effective in cytotoxicity against HeLa cells than the methylene-tether one.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Cresóis/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Amidas/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Cresóis/química , Clivagem do DNA , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/síntese química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Ligantes , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução
8.
Inorg Chem ; 58(20): 14244-14259, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595752

RESUMO

Near-IR-emitting and/or efficiently photodynamic water-soluble Ru(II) complexes that hold great application potentials as photodynamic therapy and/or photodetection agents for cancers have been poorly explored. In this paper, the solvatochromism, calf thymus DNA binding, and singlet oxygen generation properties of a known ruthenium(II) complex of visible-emitting [Ru(bpy)2(dtdpq)](ClO4)2 (Ru1) and a new homoleptic complex of near-IR-emitting [Ru(dtdpq)3](ClO4)2 (Ru2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dtdpq = 2,3-bis(thiophen-2-yl)pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]phenanothroline) in water are reported. Moreover, DNA photocleavage, singlet oxygen generation in HeLa cells, cellular uptake/localization, and in vitro photodynamic therapy for cancer cells of water-soluble Ru1 are described in detail. The results show that Ru1 acted as potent photodynamic cancer therapy and mitochondrial imaging agents. Ru2 exhibited very strong solvatochromism from a visible emission maximum at 588 nm in CH2Cl2 to the near-IR region at 700 nm in water and singlet oxygen generation yield in water (23%) and DNA binding properties (intercalative DNA binding constant on the order of 106 M-1) comparable to those of Ru1, which should make Ru2 attractive for the aforementioned applications of Ru1 if the water solubility of Ru2 can be improved enough for the studies above.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , DNA de Neoplasias/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Fotoquimioterapia , Rutênio/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rutênio/química , Tiofenos/química
9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(90): 13518-13521, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608902

RESUMO

A distyryl boron dipyrromethene based photosensitiser substituted with 1,2,4,5-tetrazine and alkyne moieties was prepared. Through site-specific bioorthogonal reactions with the complementary functional tags anchored on the membrane of A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells, this versatile photosensitiser exhibited enhanced cellular uptake and photocytotoxicity. The bioorthogonal ligation was also demonstrated in tumour-bearing nude mice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Porfobilinogênio/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Compostos de Boro/síntese química , Compostos de Boro/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Imagem Óptica , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Porfobilinogênio/síntese química , Porfobilinogênio/química , Porfobilinogênio/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(10): 1116-1122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582631

RESUMO

In recent studies, combinations of histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor with kinase inhibitor showed additive and synergistic effects. BRafV600E as an attractive target in many diseases treatments has been studied extensively. Herein, we present a novel design approach though incorporating the pharmacophores of BRafV600E inhibitor and HDACs inhibitor in one molecule. Several synthesized compounds exhibited distinct BRafV600E and HDAC1 inhibitory activities. The representative dual Raf/HDAC inhibitor, 7a, showed better antiproliferative activities against A549 and SK-Mel-2 in cellular assay than SAHA and sorafenib, with IC50 values of 9.11 µM and 5.40 µM, respectively. This work may lay the foundation for the further development of dual Raf/HDAC inhibitors as potential anticancer agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/síntese química , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/química , Humanos , Imidazóis/síntese química , Imidazóis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(90): 13542-13545, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647067
14.
Inorg Chem ; 58(20): 14175-14184, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559820

RESUMO

A series of ferrocene-appended half-sandwiched iridium(III) phenylpyridine complexes have been designed and synthesized. These complexes show better anticancer activity than cisplatin widely used in clinic under the same conditions. Meanwhile, complexes could effectively inhibit cell migration and colony formation. Complexes could interact with protein and transport through serum protein, effectively catalyzing the oxidation of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotid and inducing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, 1O2), which confirmed the anticancer mechanism of oxidation. Furthermore, laser scanning confocal detection indicates that these complexes can enter cells followed by a non-energy-dependent cellular uptake mechanism, effectively accumulating in the lysosome (Pearson's colocalization coefficient: ∼0.90), leading to lysosome damage, and reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Taken together, ferrocene-appended iridium(III) complexes possess the prospect of becoming a new multifunctional therapeutic platform, including lysosome-targeted imaging and anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Compostos Ferrosos/farmacologia , Irídio/farmacologia , Metalocenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Humanos , Irídio/química , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Metalocenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6325-6337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496689

RESUMO

Purpose: We have previously reported that some cationic fullerene derivatives exhibited anticancer activity, and they are expected to be a potential lead compound for an anti-drug resistant cancer agent. However, they are bis-adducts and a mixture of multiple regioisomers, which cannot be readily separated due to the variability of substituent positions on the fullerene cage. To overcome this issue, we evaluated the antiproliferative activities of a set of mono-adduct derivatives and examined their structure-activity relationship. In addition, the in vivo antitumor activity of selected derivatives was also examined. Methods: Nineteen pyridinium fullerene derivatives were newly designed and synthesized in this study. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated using several cancer cell lines including drug-resistant cells. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor activity of several derivatives was investigated in mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer. Results: The derivatives inhibited the proliferation of cancer cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant cells and doxorubicin-resistant cells. It was also shown that compound 10 (10 µM), 13 (10 µM) and cis-14 (10 µM) induced the intracellular oxidative stress. In addition, compound 13 (20 mg/kg) and cis-14 (15 mg/kg) significantly exhibited antitumor activity in mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer. Conclusion: We synthesized a novel set of mono-adduct fullerene derivatives functionalized with pyridinium groups and found that most of them show potent antiproliferative activities against cancer cell lines and some of them show significant antitumor activities in vivo. We propose that these fullerene derivatives serve as the lead compounds for a novel type of antitumor agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fulerenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fulerenos/química , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Células NIH 3T3 , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinidina/farmacologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/farmacologia
16.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111577, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400707

RESUMO

A series of 3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4-substituted 1H-pyrazole and their related 3-aryl-4-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-1-H-pyrazole regioisomeric derivatives, prepared as cis-rigidified combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) analogues, were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative against six different cancer cell lines and, for selected highly active compounds, inhibitory effects on tubulin polymerization, cell cycle effects and in vivo potency. We retained the 3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl moiety as ring A throughout the present investigation, and a structure-activity relationship (SAR) information was obtained by adding electron-withdrawing (OCF3, CF3) or electron-releasing (alkyl and alkoxy) groups on the second aryl ring, corresponding to the B-ring of CA-4, either at the 3- or 4-position of the pyrazole nucleus. In addition, the B-ring was replaced with a benzo[b]thien-2-yl moiety. For many of the compounds, their activity was greater than, or comparable with, that of CA-4. Maximal activity was observed with the two regioisomeric derivatives characterized by the presence of a 4-ethoxyphenyl and a 3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl group at the C-3 and C-4 positions, and vice versa, of the 1H-pyrazole ring. The data showed that the 3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl moiety can be moved from the 3- to the 4-position of the 1H-pyrazole ring without significantly affecting antiproliferative activity. The most active derivatives bound to the colchicine site of tubulin and inhibited tubulin polymerization at submicromolar concentrations. In vivo experiments, on an orthotopic murine mammary tumor, revealed that 4c inhibited tumor growth even at low concentrations (5 mg/kg) compared to CA-4P (30 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Bibenzilas/química , Bibenzilas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/química , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bibenzilas/síntese química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Pirazóis/síntese química , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Moduladores de Tubulina/síntese química
17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111586, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401537

RESUMO

We have synthetized a novel series of ß-hydroxy tellurides bearing the benzenesulfonamide group as potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase enzymes. In a one pot procedure, we discovered both the ring opening reaction of the three-membered ring and the cleavage of the sulfonamide protecting moiety at the same time. Moreover, the first X-ray co-crystallographic structure of a ß-hydroxy telluride derivative with hCA II is reported. The potent effects of these compounds against the tumor-associated hCA IX with low nanomolar constant inhibition values give the possibility to evaluate their activity in vitro using a breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Compounds 7e and 7g induced significant toxic effects against tumor cells after 48 h incubation in normoxic conditions killing over 50% of tumor cells at 3 µM, but their efficacy decreased in hypoxic conditions reaching the 50% of the tumor cell viability only at 30 µM. These unusual features make them interesting lead compounds to act as antitumor agents, not only as Carbonic Anhydrase IX inhibitors, but reasonably in different pathways, where hCA IX is not overexpressed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Telúrio/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/química , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica IX/química , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Telúrio/química
18.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 10778-10790, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386351

RESUMO

A new family of cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(N^N)2(C^N)]+ derived from the π-extended benzo[h]imidazo[4,5-f]quinolone ligand appended with thienyl groups (n = 1-4, compounds 1-4) was prepared and its members were characterized for their chemical, photophysical, and photobiological properties. The lipophilicities of 1-4, determined as octanol-water partition coefficients (log Po/w), were positive and increased with the number of thienyl units. The absorption and emission bands of the C^N compounds were red-shifted by up to 200 nm relative to the analogous Ru(II) diimine systems. All of the complexes exhibited dual emission with the intraligand fluorescence (1IL, C^N-based) shifting to lower energies with increasing n and the metal-to-ligand charge transfer phosphorescence (3MLCT, N^N-based) remaining unchanged. Compounds 1-3 exhibited excited state absorption (ESA) profiles consistent with lowest-lying 3MLCT states when probed by nanosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 532 nm excitation and had contributions from 1IL(C^N) states with 355 nm excitation. These assignments were supported by the lifetimes observed (<10 ns for the 1IL states and around 20 ns for the 3MLCT states) as well as a noticeable ESA for 3 with 355 nm excitation that did not occur with 532 nm excitation. Compound 4 was the only member of the family with two 3MLCT emissive lifetimes (15, 110 ns), and the TA spectra collected with both 355 and 532 nm excitation was assigned to the 3IL state, which was corroborated by its 4-6 µs lifetime. The ESA for 4 had a rise time of approximately 10 ns and an initial decay of 110 ns, which suggests a possible 3MLCT-3IL excited state equilibrium that results in delayed emission from the 3MLCT state. Compound 4 was nontoxic toward human skin melanoma cells (SKMEL28) in the dark (EC50 = >300 µM); 1-3 were cytotoxic and yielded EC50 values between 1 and 20 µM. The photocytotoxicites with visible light ranged from 87 nM with a phototherapeutic index (PI) of 13 for 1 to approximately 1 µM (PI = >267) for 4. With red light, EC50 values varied from 270 nM (PI = 21) for 3 to 12 µM for 4 (PI = >25). The larger PIs for 4, especially with visible light, were attributed to the much lower dark cytotoxicity for this compound. Because the dark cytotoxicity contributes substantially to the observed photocytotoxicity for 1-3, it was not possible to assess whether the 3IL state of 4 led to a much more potent phototoxic mechanism in the absence of dark toxicity. There was no stark contrast in cellular uptake and accumulation by laser scanning confocal and differential interference contrast microscopy to explain the large differences in dark toxicities between 1-3 and 4. Nevertheless, the study highlights a new family of Ru(II) C^N complexes where π-conjugation beyond a certain point results in low dark cytotoxicity with high photocytotoxicity, opposing the notion that cyclometalated Ru(II) systems are too toxic to be phototherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Rutênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Ligantes , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Quinolonas/química , Rutênio/química
19.
Eur J Med Chem ; 181: 111570, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408809

RESUMO

Despite the success achieved in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the search for new drugs featuring selectivity against leukemia cells and effectiveness to prevent relapsed ALL is still highly desirable. Here, we described the synthesis of several novel 3-substituted and 3,6-disubstituted-2-carboalkoxy indoles followed by the elucidation of their mechanism of action and in vivo anti-leukemia efficacy. The synthesis of 3-substituted-2-carboalkoxy indoles relied on two Heck arylations of methyl acrylate and methyl cinnamates respectively, to generate ß,ß-disubstituted acrylates followed by an efficient Cadogan-Sundberg reaction of these latter intermediates. The method developed led to the synthesis of twenty-one novel functionalized indoles. Of these, indole 20 showed selective cytotoxicity against leukemia cells at the nanomolar scale, and, therefore, it was selected for the investigation of its mechanism of action. Indole 20 was found to target tubulin leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis. Indole 20 decreased ß-tubulin protein in leukemia cells in a time-dependent manner and induced depolymerization of the microtubule network in Hela cells, thus fully characterizing its microtubule destabilizer activity. The connectivity map analysis of HL60 promyelocytic leukemia cells treated with indole 20 revealed a transcriptional profile similar to that of cells treated with prostaglandins, apparently due to the induction of cellular differentiation as addressed by the expression of CD11 and CD14 markers. Finally, indole 20 given intraperitoneally, at 10 mg/kg, 5x/week significantly prolonged the overall survival of NOD/SCID mice transplanted with RS4; 11 B-ALL cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/química , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HL-60 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID
20.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11076-11084, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393117

RESUMO

Platinum drugs including cisplatin are widely used in clinics to treat various types of cancer. However, the lack of cancer-cell selectivity is one of the major problems that lead to side effects in normal tissues. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors are overexpressed in many types of cancer cells but rarely presented in normal cells, making LHRH receptor a good candidate for cancer targeting. In this study, we report the synthesis and cytotoxic study of a novel platinum(IV) anticancer prodrug functionalized with LHRH peptide. This LHRH-platinum(IV) conjugate is highly soluble in water and quite stable in a PBS buffer. Cytotoxic study reveals that the prodrug selectively targets LHRH receptor-positive cancer cell lines with the cytotoxicities 5-8 times higher than those in LHRH receptor-negative cell lines. In addition, the introduction of LHRH peptide enhances the cellular accumulation in a manner of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the LHRH-platinum(IV) prodrug is proved to kill cancer cells by binding to the genomic DNA, inducing apoptosis, and arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. In summary, we report a novel LHRH-platinum(IV) anticancer prodrug having largely improved selectivity toward LHRH receptor-positive cancer cells, relative to cisplatin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Platina/farmacologia , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Receptores LHRH/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Platina/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Receptores LHRH/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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