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1.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110185, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017914

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is spreading rapidly worldwide, and drug selection can affect the morbidity and mortality of the disease positively or negatively. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant and reduces oxidative stress and inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). ALA reduces ADAM17 activity and ACE2 upregulation. ALA is known to have antiviral effects against some viruses. ALA may show antiviral effect by reducing NF-kB activation and alleviating redox reactions. ALA increases the intracellular glutathione strengthens the human host defense. ALA activates ATP dependent K+ channels (Na+, K+-ATPase). Increased K+ in the cell raises the intracellular pH. As the intracellular pH increases, the entry of the virus into the cell decreases. ALA can increase human host defense against SARS-CoV-2 by increasing intracellular pH. ALA treatment increases antioxidant levels and reduces oxidative stress. Thus, ALA may strengthen the human host defense against SARS-CoV-2 and can play a vital role in the treatment of patients with critically ill COVID-19. It can prevent cell damage by decreasing lactate production in patients with COVID-19. Using ALA with insulin in patients with diabetes can show a synergistic effect against SARS-CoV-2. We think ALA treatment will be beneficial against COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Insulina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 795-801, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study effect of nano-selenium and nano-cerium(nano cerium oxide) on the spermatogenic ability of mice irradiated by 1800 MHz microwave radiation(MR). METHODS: Forty-two ICR mice were randomly divided into groups: blank control group, solvent control group, microwave radiation model group, low, medium and high dose groups of nano-selenium+nano-cerium. In joint effects groups of nano-selenium and nano-cerium, the nano-selenium solution(60, 120 and 240 µg/kg) and the nano-cerium oxide solution(15, 30, 60 µg/kg) were administered to the stomach at 7:30 in the morning and 18:30 in the evening, respectively. The blank control group was orally administered with an equal volume of distilled water, and the solvent control group and the MR group were orally administered with an equal volume of carboxymethylcellulose sodium solution. During the second week of gastric administration, the mice were exposed to microwave radiation(1800 MHz) for 2 h every day(specific absorption ratio: 0. 2986 W/kg). After MR treatment, the daily sperm production of testis, sperm motility and sperm deformity rate in epididymis were measured, and the testicular marker enzymes [G6 PDH(6-phosphatedehydrogenase), ACP(acid phosphatase), LDH(lactate dehydrogenase)], antioxidant indexes [CAT(catalase), MDA(malondialdehyde) and T-AOC(total antioxidant capacity)] in testicular tissue were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the solvent control group, MR led to the decrease of sperm motility and the increase of sperm deformity rate, decreased the enzymes activities of G6 PDH, ACP and CAT, increased LDH activity and MDA content, and decreased the T-AOC level in testicular tissue, and the differences were statistically significant(P<0. 05). Compared with the MR group, the joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with medium dose increased the daily sperm production of testis((18. 98±1. 27) ×10~6/g) vs. (15. 53±1. 24) ×10~6/g), decreased the sperm deformity rate(11. 74%±0. 91% vs. 16. 84%±2. 05%), and the joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with medium and high dose increased the sperm motility in epididymis(61. 98%±6. 33%, 54. 17±4. 38 vs. 45. 16%±5. 01%), and the differences were statistically significant(P<0. 05). Compared with the MR group, the joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with low and medium dose increased the activity of ACP(11. 07±0. 98, 14. 85±1. 39 vs. 8. 72±0. 91 nmol/(min·mg prot), P<0. 05). The joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with medium and high dose increased the activity of G6 PDH(24. 12±2. 06, 21. 36±3. 65 vs. 15. 11±1. 73 nmol/(min·mg prot), P<0. 05) and decreased the activity of LDH(15. 52±1. 17, 13. 51±1. 68 vs. 22. 46±2. 01 nmol/(min·mg prot), P<0. 05). The joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with medium dose increased the activity of CAT(17. 92±2. 03 vs. 11. 69±0. 87 nmol/(min·mg prot), P<0. 05) and decreased the content of MDA(5. 17 ±0. 62 vs. 9. 03 ±0. 63 nmol/mg prot, P<0. 05). The joint action of nano-selenium and nano-cerium with low, medium and high dose increased the level of T-AOC(22. 06±1. 54, 29. 36±2. 39, 21. 01±2. 47 vs. 12. 88±1. 82 U/mg prot, P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The joint addition of nano-selenium and nano-cerium can improve the reproductive function of male mice exposed to MR, and can effectively alleviate the changes of mouse testicular marker enzyme activity and the decline of antioxidant capacity caused by MR.


Assuntos
Selênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Micro-Ondas , Motilidade Espermática
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4938, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009401

RESUMO

Antiviral strategies to inhibit Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) and the pathogenic consequences of COVID-19 are urgently required. Here, we demonstrate that the NRF2 antioxidant gene expression pathway is suppressed in biopsies obtained from COVID-19 patients. Further, we uncover that NRF2 agonists 4-octyl-itaconate (4-OI) and the clinically approved dimethyl fumarate (DMF) induce a cellular antiviral program that potently inhibits replication of SARS-CoV2 across cell lines. The inhibitory effect of 4-OI and DMF extends to the replication of several other pathogenic viruses including Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and-2, Vaccinia virus, and Zika virus through a type I interferon (IFN)-independent mechanism. In addition, 4-OI and DMF limit host inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV2 infection associated with airway COVID-19 pathology. In conclusion, NRF2 agonists 4-OI and DMF induce a distinct IFN-independent antiviral program that is broadly effective in limiting virus replication and in suppressing the pro-inflammatory responses of human pathogenic viruses, including SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Dimetilo/agonistas , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Succinatos/agonistas , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Succinatos/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1353-1368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016104

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease result from absolute or relative insulin secretion deficiency, insulin resistance, or both, and has become a major and growing public healthy menace worldwide. Currently, clinical antidiabetic drugs still have some limitations in efficacy and safety such as gastrointestinal side effects, hypoglycemia, or weight gain. Rosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic evergreen shrub used as a food additive and medicine, which has been extensively used to treat hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetic wounds. A great deal of pharmacological research showed that rosemary extract and its phenolic constituents, especially carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and carnosol, could significantly improve diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation, exhibiting extremely high research value. Therefore, this review summarizes the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of rosemary extract and its primary phenolic constituents on diabetes and relative complications both in vitro and in vivo studies from 2000 to 2020, to provide some scientific evidence and research ideas for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
5.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 821-827, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sub-acute oral effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the oxidation/antioxidation biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in blood, liver, intestine, and colon in rats. METHODS: Twenty four 4-week-old clean-grade Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly devided into 4 groups by body weight (n=6, control, low, middle, and high), in which the rats were orally exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles at doses of 0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 consecutive days separately. Food intake, body weight and abnormal behaviors during the experiment were recorded. The rats were euthanized on the 29th day. The blood was collected via abdominal aortic method and centrifuged to collect the serum. Tissues from liver, intestine and colon were collected and homogenated. Then enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and microwell plate methods were used to detect oxidation/antioxidation biomarkers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total mercapto (T-SH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), malomdialdehvde (MDA) and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the serum, liver, intestine and colon in the rats. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, no significant differences in body weight, food intake and organ coefficients were observed in all the three groups after TiO2 gavage. No significant changes in GSH, GSH-Px, T-SH, and IL-6 were observed. Compared with the control group, significant increase of SOD activity in serum in high dose group, signi-ficant increase of GSSG concentration in intestine in middle and high dose group and significant increase of MDA concentration in liver in low and high dose group were observed. Compared with the control group, a significant increase of TNF-α in liver in middle and high dose group was observed. CONCLUSION: TiO2 nanoparticle can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in blood, increase oxidative biomarkers in liver and intestine, increase inflammatory cytokines in liver in rats after a 28-day sub-acute orally administration. Among blood, liver, intestine, and colon, liver is most sensitive to the toxicity induced by TiO2 nanoparticles, followed by intestine, blood, and colon in sequence.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Titânio
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22249, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To comprehensively evaluate the treatment efficacy and safety of silymarin for patients with glucose/lipid metabolic dysfunction using a meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to October 1, 2019. STATA 13.0 software was used to estimate pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: Sixteen studies involving 1358 patients were identified. Overall meta-analysis showed that compared with control, silymarin significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose (SMD: -1.27, 95% CI = [-1.78, -0.76]; P < .001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (SMD: -0.41, 95% CI = [-0.70, -0.12]; P = .005), hemoglobin A1c (SMD: -1.88, 95% CI = [-2.57, -1.20]; P < .001), total cholesterol (SMD: -1.13, 95% CI = [-1.82, -0.77]; P < .001), triglyceride (SMD: -0.37, 95% CI = [-0.69, -0.05]; P = .025), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (SMD: -1.30, 95% CI = [-1.93, -0.67]; P < .001), C-reactive protein (SMD: -0.63, 95% CI = [-1.01, -0.27]; P = .001), and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (SMD: 0.17, 95% CI = [0.05, 0.29]; P = .005), but had no impacts on function indicators of liver and kidney (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, creatinine) and the complication rate. Subgroup analyses indicated that insulin (which was negative in overall analysis) was significantly decreased in patients undergoing silymarin monotherapy (SMD: -2.03, 95% CI = [-3.03, -1.04]; P = .044) for more than 3 months (SMD: -0.01, 95% CI = [-0.25, -0.24]; P = .035). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of silymarin may be effective and safe for the management of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Silimarina/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Lipídeos/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Silimarina/administração & dosagem , Silimarina/efeitos adversos
7.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 85(7): 833-837, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040727

RESUMO

Nrf2 is a key transcription factor responsible for antioxidant defense in many tissues and cells, including alveolar epithelium, endothelium, and macrophages. Furthermore, Nrf2 functions as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits expression of the inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection often present signs of high oxidative stress and systemic inflammation - the leading causes of mortality. This article suggests rationale for the use of Nrf2 inducers to prevent development of an excessive inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/farmacologia , Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Isotiocianatos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico
9.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127411, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947668

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an important group of emerging environmental contaminants in irrigation water and soils can influence biochemical and physiological processes essential for growth and development in plants as non-target organisms. Plants are able to take up, transport, transform, and accumulate drugs in the roots. Root biomass in ten-days old pea plants was lowered by 6% already under 0.1 mg/L naproxen (NPX) due to a lowered number of lateral roots, although 0.5 mg/L NPX stimulated the total root length by 30% as against control. Higher section area (by 40%) in root tip, area of xylem (by 150%) or stele-to-section ratio (by 10%) in zone of maturation, and lower section area in zone of lateral roots (by 18%) prove the changes in primary root anatomy and its earlier differentiation at 10 mg/L NPX. Accumulated NPX (up to 10 µg/g DW at 10 mg/L) and products of its metabolization in roots increased the amounts of hydrogen peroxide (by 33%), and superoxide (by 62%), which was reflected in elevated lipid peroxidation (by 32%), disruption of membrane integrity (by 89%) and lowering both oxidoreductase and dehydrogenase activities (by up to 40%). Elevated antioxidant capacity (SOD, APX, and other molecules) under low treatments decreased at 10 mg/L NPX (both by approx. 30%). Naproxen was proved to cause changes at both cellular and tissue levels in roots, which was also reflected in their anatomy and morphology. Higher environmental loading through drugs thus can influence even the root function.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Naproxeno/toxicidade , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ervilhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20181147, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901676

RESUMO

Organic selenium, tellurium and sulfur compounds have been studied due to their pharmacological properties. For instance, the ß-aryl-chalcogenium azide compounds have demonstrated antitumoral action in vitro. However, yet no pharmacological actions of this class of compounds were determined in vivo. Caenorhabditis elegans is a nematode that presents innumerable advantages in relation to mammalian models, such as having a small and transparent body, which allows the visualization of its internal anatomy, besides short life and low cost. Based on that, the aim of this work was to investigate the pharmacological and toxicological properties of ß-aryl-chalcogenium azide compounds in C. elegans. As well, to evaluate the capacity of organochalcogenium compounds to repair oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and the possible mechanism of action of these compounds using CF1553 transgenic strain with superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) tagged with GFP. Our results showed that ß-aryl-chalcogenium azide have low toxicity in wild-type worms and the pre-treatment protected against the damage induced by hydrogen peroxide at higher tested concentration. Associated with this, we observed that this protection is due in part to the increased expression of the antioxidant enzyme SOD-3. In conclusion, ß-aryl-chalcogenium azide compounds caused low toxicity and induced stress-resistance by modulating SOD-3 expression in C. elegans.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Animais , Antioxidantes , Azidas , Superóxido Dismutase
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD008294, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pine bark (Pinus spp.) extract is rich in bioflavonoids, predominantly proanthocyanidins, which are antioxidants. Commercially-available extract supplements are marketed for preventing or treating various chronic conditions associated with oxidative stress. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of pine bark extract supplements for treating chronic disorders. SEARCH METHODS: We searched three databases and three trial registries; latest search: 30 September 2019. We contacted the manufacturers of pine bark extracts to identify additional studies and hand-searched bibliographies of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating pine bark extract supplements in adults or children with any chronic disorder. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Where possible, we pooled data in meta-analyses. We used GRADE to evaluate the certainty of evidence. Primary outcomes were participant- and investigator-reported clinical outcomes directly related to each disorder and all-cause mortality. We also assessed adverse events and biomarkers of oxidative stress. MAIN RESULTS: This review included 27 RCTs (22 parallel and five cross-over designs; 1641 participants) evaluating pine bark extract supplements across 10 chronic disorders: asthma (two studies; 86 participants); attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (one study; 61 participants), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and risk factors (seven studies; 338 participants), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (two studies; 60 participants), diabetes mellitus (DM) (six studies; 339 participants), erectile dysfunction (three studies; 277 participants), female sexual dysfunction (one study; 83 participants), osteoarthritis (three studies; 293 participants), osteopenia (one study; 44 participants) and traumatic brain injury (one study; 60 participants). Two studies exclusively recruited children; the remainder recruited adults. Trials lasted between four weeks and six months. Placebo was the control in 24 studies. Overall risk of bias was low for four, high for one and unclear for 22 studies. In adults with asthma, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted/forced vital capacity (FVC) (mean difference (MD) 7.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19 to 12.21; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases change in FEV1 % predicted (MD 7.00, 95% CI 0.10 to 13.90; one study; 44 participants; very low-certainty evidence), improves asthma symptoms (risk ratio (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.58; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the number of people able to stop using albuterol inhalers (RR 6.00, 95% CI 1.97 to 18.25; one study; 60 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In children with ADHD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases inattention and hyperactivity assessed by parent- and teacher-rating scales (narrative synthesis; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases the change in visual-motoric coordination and concentration (MD 3.37, 95% CI 2.41 to 4.33; one study; 57 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVD, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases diastolic blood pressure (MD -3.00 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.51 to -1.49; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence); increases HDL cholesterol (MD 0.05 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.11; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or decreases LDL cholesterol (MD -0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.00; one study; 61 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In participants with CVI, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases pain scores (MD -0.59, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.16; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence), increases the disappearance of pain (RR 25.0, 95% CI 1.58 to 395.48; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or increases physician-judged treatment efficacy (RR 4.75, 95% CI 1.97 to 11.48; 1 study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In type 2 DM, we do not know whether pine bark extract leads to a greater reduction in fasting blood glucose (MD 1.0 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.09; one study; 48 participants;very low-certainty evidence) or decreases HbA1c (MD -0.90 %, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.02; 1 study; 48 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In a mixed group of participants with type 1 and type 2 DM we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases HbA1c (MD -0.20 %, 95% CI -1.83 to 1.43; one study; 67 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In men with erectile dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract supplements increase International Index of Erectile Function-5 scores (not pooled; two studies; 147 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In women with sexual dysfunction, we do not know whether pine bark extract increases satisfaction as measured by the Female Sexual Function Index (MD 5.10, 95% CI 3.49 to 6.71; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or leads to a greater reduction of pain scores (MD 4.30, 95% CI 2.69 to 5.91; one study; 75 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In adults with osteoarthritis of the knee, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases composite Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores (MD -730.00, 95% CI -1011.95 to -448.05; one study; 37 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (MD -18.30, 95% CI -25.14 to -11.46; one study; 35 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We do not know whether pine bark extract increases bone alkaline phosphatase in post-menopausal women with osteopenia (MD 1.16 ug/L, 95% CI -2.37 to 4.69; one study; 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). In individuals with traumatic brain injury, we do not know whether pine bark extract decreases cognitive failure scores (MD -2.24, 95% CI -11.17 to 6.69; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or post-concussion symptoms (MD -0.76, 95% CI -5.39 to 3.87; one study; 56 participants; very low-certainty evidence). For most comparisons, studies did not report outcomes of hospital admissions or serious adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Small sample sizes, limited numbers of RCTs per condition, variation in outcome measures, and poor reporting of the included RCTs mean no definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy or safety of pine bark extract supplements are possible.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Pinus , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
12.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 225-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865914

RESUMO

Asthma is marked by chronic irritation in the airway lumen of the lungs due to the accretion of inflammatory cells that influence the regular inhalation process. An extended buildup of inflammation leads to oxidative pressure and the repression of antioxidant functions. In the current study, a potential compound, boldine, was tested for the containment of provocative markers along the path of antiasthmatic activity in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. As an effect, the boldine (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment suppressed inflammatory cells such as eosinophil, macrophage, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and other inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-induced mice. Likewise, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were drastically condensed in the serum of boldine-treated animals. Levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), were upregulated in the boldine treatment group compared to the asthmatic control group, which displays the antioxidant effects of boldine on asthmatic animals. Interestingly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were repressed in the BALF of boldine-treated mice groups. Therefore, the effects of boldine are significant for the management of asthma, reducing the accrual of inflammatory cells, along with other inflammatory markers, while improving antioxidant markers and containing ROS. Hence, boldine may be an option for clinical trials of chronic asthma management.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aporfinas/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Aporfinas/administração & dosagem , Asma/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/citologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória
13.
Urologiia ; (4): 157-164, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897031

RESUMO

The causes, some pathogenetic mechanisms and possibilities for correcting the decrease in male reproductive potential in Russia are discussed in the lecture. Particular attention is paid to oxidative stress as one of the main causes for subfertility and male infertility, as well as the role of trace elements (zinc, selenium) and antioxidants (vitamins A, E and C) in the pathogenesis of male infertility and opportunities for the correction of fertility issues. Some aspects of COVID-19 influence on the problems of reproductive medicine, andrology and urology are highlighted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Oligoelementos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Reprodução , Federação Russa , Selênio , Zinco
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8384742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963703

RESUMO

H2 has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant ability in many clinical trials, and its application is recommended in the latest Chinese novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) treatment guidelines. Clinical experiments have revealed the surprising finding that H2 gas may protect the lungs and extrapulmonary organs from pathological stimuli in NCP patients. The potential mechanisms underlying the action of H2 gas are not clear. H2 gas may regulate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, mitochondrial energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, the immune system, and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, and circadian clock, among others) and has therapeutic potential for many systemic diseases. This paper reviews the basic research and the latest clinical applications of H2 gas in multiorgan system diseases to establish strategies for the clinical treatment for various diseases.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
15.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 807-818, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981619

RESUMO

Sepsis care has evolved significantly since the initial early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) trials. Early fluid resuscitation, source control, and antibiotic therapy remain cornerstones of care but overall understanding is more nuanced, particularly regarding fluid selection, vasopressors, and inotropic support. Timely nutrition therapy and ventilatory support tend to receive less attention but also are important. Recent research has explored immunomodulation, ß-blockade, and vitamin supplementation. A renewed emphasis on early, aggressive resuscitation reaffirms the importance of emergency medicine providers knowledgeable and skilled in sepsis management.


Assuntos
Ressuscitação/métodos , Sepse/terapia , Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Nutrição Enteral , Hidratação , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5701-5706, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The simultaneous increase of antioxidant CAT (catalase) enzyme and plasma MDA (malonidialdehyde) concentrations versus the numeric rating scale (NRS) pain score following surgery is unknown. Patients and Methods: The study included 114 patients with gallstone disease and 29 patients in the cancer group. RESULTS: Following surgery, the plasma CAT concentrations increased and plasma MDA concentrations decreased in all patients and especially in cancer patients. The linear mixed model time-effect was statistically significant in CAT and MDA (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). In addition, a significant correlation between NRS pain score values and plasma MDA median concentrations in cancer patients was identified (r=0.430, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The plasma MDA concentrations decreased and CAT concentrations increased significantly in all patients and especially in cancer patients following surgery. The simultaneous increase of antioxidant CAT enzyme with the decrease of plasma MDA may be an important ROS inhibiting mechanism to help patients return to normal antioxidant-oxidant status.


Assuntos
Catalase/sangue , Cálculos Biliares/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Dor/sangue , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Cálculos Biliares/patologia , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Dor/patologia , Dor/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111054, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888616

RESUMO

Quinclorac (3,7-dichloroquinoline-8-carboxylic acid, QNC) is a highly selective auxin herbicide that is typically applied to paddy rice fields. Its residue is a serious problem in crop rotations. In this study, Oryza sativa L. seedlings was used as a model plant to explore its biochemical response to abiotic stress caused by QNC and nZVI coexposure, as well as the interactions between QNC and nZVI treatments. Exposure to 5 and 10 mg/L QNC reduced the fresh biomass by 26.6% and 33.9%, respectively, compared to the control. The presence of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the QNC toxicity, but the nZVI toxicity was aggravated by the coexist of QNC. Root length was enhanced upon exposure to low or medium doses of both QNC and nZVI, whereas root length was inhibited under high-dose coexposure. Both nZVI and QNC, either alone or in combination, significantly inhibited the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, and the inhibition rate increased with elevated nZVI and QNC concentration. It was indicated that nZVI or QNC can affect the plant photosynthesis, and there was a significant interaction between the two treatments. Effects of QNC on the antioxidant response of Oryza sativa L. differed in the shoots and roots; generally, the introduction of 50 and 250 mg/L nZVI alleviated the oxidative stress (POD in shoots, SOD and MDA in roots) induced by QNC. However, 750 mg/kg nZVI seriously damaged Oryza sativa L. seedlings, which likely resulted from active iron deficiency. QNC could be removed from the culture solution by nZVI; as a result, nZVI suppressed QNC uptake by 20%-30%.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ferro/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
19.
Urologiia ; (4): 55-59, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897015

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary supplements are successfully used in many fields of medicine, including urology. In particular, urologists often prescribe dietary supplements for patients with urolithiasis. AIM: to study an influence of dietary supplements Nefradoz on the metabolism of the main stone-forming substances and inhibitors of stone formation in patients with urolithiasis. INTRODUCTION: Dietary supplements are successfully used in many fields of medicine, including urology. In particular, urologists often prescribe dietary supplements for patients with urolithiasis. AIM: to study an influence of dietary supplements Nefradoz on the metabolism of the main stone-forming substances and inhibitors of stone formation in patients with urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients with urinary stone diseases were included in a single-center prospective randomized study. All patients were divided into 2 groups of 30 people, depending on the treatment. In the main group, patients followed standard diet, received general recommendations and dietary supplements Nefradoz for 28-30 days, 1 capsule (150 mg) 2 times a day with meals. In the control group, patients received only general recommendations and followed standard diet therapy for 28-30 days. The blood biochemical profile and 24-hour urine analysis were evaluated, as well as a urinalysis was performed on daily basis. RESULTS: In patients receiving Nefradoz, urinary uric acid excretion increased by 0.9 mmol/day. It must be emphasized that an increase in uric acid excretion did not exceed the upper normal limit. A tendency towards an increase in urine excretion of sodium (by 54 mmol / day), magnesium (by 1 mmol / day) and citrates (by 0.6 mmol / day) was also found. The analysis of urinalysis showed that in the main group, urine specific gravity was lower than in the control group. Higher urine pH in the main group compared to the control group was also shown. The severity of hematuria with the use of Nefradoz was almost two times lower than in patients who did not receive dietary supplement. CONCLUSION: Considering our data on the ability of dietary supplement Nefradoz to increase the concentration of main inhibitors of stone formation (magnesium and citrates), Nefradoz can be recommended for patients with urinary stone diseases, especially with concomitant hypomagnesuria and hypocitraturia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cálculos Urinários , Urolitíase , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Cálculos Urinários/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(14): 2133-2146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922174

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 spread quickly across the globe. The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11 declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The mortality rate, hospital disorders and incalculable economic and social damages, besides the unproven efficacy of the treatments evaluated against COVID-19, raised the need for immediate control of this disease. Therefore, the current study employed in silico tools to rationally identify new possible SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors. That is an enzyme conserved among the coronavirus species; hence, the identification of an Mpro inhibitor is to make it a broad-spectrum drug. Molecular docking studies described the binding sites and the interaction energies of 74 Mpro-ligand complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). A structural similarity screening was carried out in order to identify possible Mpro ligands that show additional pharmacological properties against COVID-19. We identified 59 hit compounds and among them, melatonin stood out due to its prominent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities; it can reduce oxidative stress, defence cell mobility and efficiently combat the cytokine storm and sepsis. In addition, melatonin is an inhibitor of calmodulin, an essential intracellular component to maintain angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) on the cell surface. Interestingly, one of the most promising hits in our docking study was melatonin. It revealed better interaction energy with Mpro compared to ligands in complexes from PDB. Consequently, melatonin can have response potential in early stages for its possible effects on ACE-2 and Mpro, although it is also promising in more severe stages of the disease for its action against hyper-inflammation. These results definitely do not confirm antiviral activity, but can rather be used as a basis for further preclinical and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Descoberta de Drogas , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico
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