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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26878, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477121

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Many free radicles are implicated to activate a number of oncogenic signaling, cause damage to deoxyribonucleic acid and tumor suppressor genes, or promote expression of proto-oncogenes. Reduced level of antioxidants and increases oxidative stress markers are associated with the development of various types of cancer.This prospective study included 60 women who were grouped into equal groups. Patients group included 30 breast cancer women and control group consisting of 30 apparently healthy women. Both groups were compared regarding the serum levels of antioxidants biomarkers (vitamin C, ceruloplasmin, glutathione) and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxynitrite, and gamma-glutamyl transferase.In regard to the antioxidant biomarkers, there was a significant difference between the patients and the controls regarding the levels of serum ceruloplasmin and glutathione, (P values .000) for each while vitamin C showed no significant correlation (P value .053), while regarding oxidative stress biomarkers, the correlation was significant for both peroxynitrite and MDA (P value .000 and .001) respectively, and not significant for gamma-glutamyl transferase (P value 1.00).Reduced level both ceruloplasmin and glutathione is seen in patients with breast cancer while vitamin C is not associated. Elevated levels of both peroxynitrite and MDA is seen in patients with breast cancer which may be used as serum markers for the early detection of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500624

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of natural antioxidants inherent to beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. Vulgaris) on the ageing of environmentally friendly plastics. Certain properties were examined in this context, comprising thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. A visual evaluation of relevant changes in the given polymers (polylactide and polycaprolactone) was conducted during an ageing test in a UV chamber (45 °C, 70% humidity) for 720 h. The films were prepared by a casting process, in which samples with the extract of beetroot were additionally incorporated in a common filler (bentonite), this serving as a carrier for the extract. The results showed the effect of the incorporated antioxidant, which was added to stabilize the biodegradable films. Its efficiency during the ageing test in the polymers tended to exceed or be comparable to that of the reference sample.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poliésteres/química , Bentonita/química , Plásticos/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Verduras/química
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500636

RESUMO

The African pumpkin (Momordica balsamina) contains bioactive phenolic compounds that may assist in reducing oxidative stress in the human body. The leaves are mainly consumed after boiling in water for a specific time; this hydrothermal process and conditions of the gastrointestinal tract may affect the presence and bioactivity of phenolics either positively or negatively. In this study, the effects of hydrothermal processing (boiling) and in vitro simulated human digestion on the phenolic composition, bioaccessibility and bioactivity in African pumpkin were investigated in comparison with those of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). A high-resolution ultra-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection, quadrupole time-of-flight and mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) was used to profile phenolic metabolites. Metabolites such as 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were highly concentrated in the boiled vegetable extracts compared to the raw undigested and all digested samples. The majority of African pumpkin and spinach extracts (non-digested and digested) protected Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), (mouse fibroblast) L929 and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells from 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative damage. From these results, the consumption of boiled African pumpkin leaves, as well as spinach, could be encouraged, as bioactive metabolites present may reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Momordica/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Flavonoides/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500637

RESUMO

The most common cause of iron deficiency is an improperly balanced diet, in which the body's need for iron cannot be met by absorption of this element from food. Targeted iron supplementation and food fortification may be the main treatments for iron deficiency in the population. However, many iron-rich supplements and foods have low bioavailability of this element. In our study, we used yeast enriched with iron ions to produce flatbread. The yeast cells accumulated iron ions from the medium supplemented with Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, additionally one of the cultures was treated with pulsed electric field in order to increase the accumulation. The potential bioavailability of iron from flatbread containing 385.8 ± 4.12 mg of iron in 100 g dry mass was 10.83 ± 0.94%. All the flatbreads had a moderate glycemic index. There were no significant differences in antioxidant activity against DPPH• between flatbread with iron-enriched and non-iron-enriched yeast. Sensory evaluation showed that this product is acceptable to consumers since no metallic aftertaste was detected. Iron enriched flatbread can potentially be an alternative to dietary supplements in iron deficiency states.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Alimentos Fortificados/microbiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos
5.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500648

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts of two types of pepper (sweet and hot) were separated into fractions with increasing lipophilicity. After drying the extracts and fractions, their chemical composition, anti-radical activity in the DPPH radical system, and cytotoxic activity against PC-3 and HTC-116 cells were determined. A detailed qualitative analysis of the fractions was performed with the LC-QTOF-MS method. It was found that the chemical composition of pepper fractions did not always reflect their biological activity. The highest antiradical activity was detected in the fraction eluted with 40% methanol from sweet pepper. The highest total content of phenolic compounds was found in an analogous fraction from hot pepper, and this fraction showed the strongest cytotoxic effect on the PC-3 tumour line. The LC-MS analysis identified 53 compounds, six of which were present only in sweet pepper and four only in hot pepper. The unique chemical composition of the extracts was found to modulate their biological activity, which can only be verified experimentally.


Assuntos
Capsicum/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Piper nigrum/química , Verduras/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246451, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495152

RESUMO

Dipteryx alata Vogel is a tree species widely found in Cerrado, settling preferentially in well drained soils. Studies related to ecophysiology of D. alata may contribute to the decision making about using seedlings of this species in projects aimed at the recovery of degraded areas where seasonal flooding happens. This study aimed to assess the effects of flooding on photosynthetic and antioxidant metabolism and quality of D. alata seedlings cultivated or not under flooding during four assessment periods (0, 20, 40, and 60 days), followed by 100 days after the end of each assessment period (0+100, 20+100, 40+100, and 60+100 days), allowing verifying the potential for post-flooding recovery. Flooded plants showed lower photosynthetic efficiency than non-flooded plants, regardless of the periods of exposure. However, this efficiency was recovered in the post-flooding, with values similar to that of the non-flooded seedlings. Moreover, the damage to FV/FM was evidenced by an increase in the period of exposure to flooding, but recovery was also observed at this stage of the photosynthetic metabolism. Seedling quality decreased under flooding, not varying between periods of exposure, but remained lower although the increase observed in the post-flooding period, with no recovery after flooding. The occurrence of hypertrophied lenticels associated with physiological changes and an efficient antioxidant enzyme system might have contributed to the survival and recovery of these seedlings. Thus, this species is sensitive to flooding stress but capable of adjusting and recovering metabolic characteristics at 100 days after the suspension of the water stress, but with no recovery in seedling quality. Thus, we suggested plasticity under the cultivation condition and determined that the time of 100 days is not enough for the complete resumption of growth.


Assuntos
Dipteryx , Plântula , Antioxidantes , Inundações , Fotossíntese
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474871

RESUMO

This study aimed to fabricate cinnamon essential oil (CO)-laden 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)/soy protein (SP) scaffolds exhibiting antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In this regard, 45S5 BG-based scaffolds were produced by the foam replica method, and subsequently the scaffolds were coated with various concentrations of CO (2.5, 5 and 7 (v/v) %) incorporated SP solution. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the CO-laden SP effectively attached to the 45S5 BG scaffold struts. The presence of 45S5 BG, SP and CO was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive strength results indicated that SP based coatings improved the scaffolds' mechanical properties compared to uncoated BG scaffolds. The loading efficiency and releasing behaviour of the different CO concentrations were tested by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that CO incorporated scaffolds have controlled releasing behaviour over seven days. Furthermore, the coating on the scaffold surfaces slightly retarded, but it did not inhibit, the in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. Moreover, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of CO was studied. The free radical scavenging activity measured by DPPH was 5 ± 1, 41 ± 3, 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 % for BGSP, CO2.5, CO5 and CO7, respectively. The antioxidant activity was thus enhanced by incorporating CO. Agar diffusion and colony counting results indicated that the incorporation of CO increased the antibacterial activity of scaffolds against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was investigated using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The results showed that the BG-SP scaffold was non-toxic under the investigated conditions, whereas dose-dependent toxicity was observed in CO-laden scaffolds. Considered together, the developed phytotherapeutic agent laden 45S5 BG-based scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering exhibiting capability to combat bone infections and to protect against oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cerâmica , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli , Vidro , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Soja , Staphylococcus aureus , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
11.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474889

RESUMO

The nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the oxidative damage of renal tubular epithelial cells are the key factors to induce kidney stones. In this study, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP0) with 14.14% sulfate group (-OSO3-) content was modified via the sulfur trioxide-pyridine method to obtain three kinds of sulfated P. yezoensis polysaccharides (PYPs), namely, PYPS1, PYPS2, and PYPS3, with -OSO3- group contents of 17.11%, 20.28%, and 27.14% respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR analyses showed that the -OSO3- groups replaced the hydroxyl groups at the C2, C4, and C6 positions on (1 â†’ 3)-linked ß-D-galactose, the basic structural skeleton unit of PYP0. The antioxidant activity of the PYPSs increased after sulfation, and their scavenging capacity for OH and DPPH free radicals was enhanced with the increase in their -OSO3- group content. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth experiments showed that sulfated PYPs promoted the conversion of the thermodynamically stable and sharp CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals into the thermodynamically unstable and round CaOx dihydrate crystals. With the increase in the -OSO3- group content of the polysaccharides, the concentration of soluble Ca2+ ions in the supernatant increased and the amount of CaOx precipitate decreased. PYPs were nontoxic to human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and could protect HK-2 from oxidative damage caused by nano-COM and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species in cells. PYPS3, which had the highest degree of sulfation, had the best protective capability. The results of this work showed that sulfation improved the biological activity of PYPs. This study could provide inspiration for the development of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio , Porphyra , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cristalização , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sulfatos
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
14.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468522

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Biomarcadores , Rim , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos
15.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 125-128, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470941

RESUMO

A rapid, easy and versatile analytical method based on three-layer extraction was developed for the determination of tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in foods. In this method, degreasing with n-hexane, partitioning into acetonitrile, and purification by the salting-out were simultaneously performed after extraction with acetone. It allowed to prepare a test solution without concentrating, transferring, and purification using solid phase extraction column. As a result, TBHQ for a wide variety of 11 foods met the management criteria of the guideline for validity assessment (Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan). Thus, the present method could be useful for a rapid determination of TBHQ in foods.


Assuntos
Hidroquinonas , Extração em Fase Sólida , Antioxidantes , Hidroquinonas/análise , Japão
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3091-3101, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467700

RESUMO

The flower of Polygonatum cyrtonema has good edible and medicinal values. In this study, four samples of P. cyrtonema flowers from different regions were selected as test materials. The contents, composition and antioxidant activities of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components were determined under different light and temperature conditions, which help to reveal the discoloration reason and the composition variation patterns during storage. The results showed that light and temperature had different effects on the lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components in the dried flowers during storage. After storage for 4 weeks, the contents of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenols and saponins in the samples exposed to light respectively decreased by 62.62%, 66.4%, 68.7% and 43.4% compared with those in the dark. The decreases in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin were 64.64%, 56.74%, 59.2%, 77.7% and 45.4%, respectively. The contents of pigments and components in the samples stored at-20 ℃ were significantly higher than those at room temperature and 4 ℃, indicating that low temperature was conductive to the stability of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components. The samples stored at low temperature and in the dark had the strongest free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that P. cyrtonema dried flowers should be stored in low temperature environment without light, which can slow down the degradation of internal components. The study provides a theoretical basis for the production, processing and storage of P. cyrtonema flowers.


Assuntos
Polygonatum , Antioxidantes , Carotenoides , Clorofila A , Flores
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4069-4082, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467716

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant of the genus Trigonella in the Leguminosae family. It is widely distributed in China and has a long history of application. According to phytochemistry research, the seeds, stem, and leaves of this herb contain not only a variety of bioactive ingredients, including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, and phenols, but also abundant nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids and various trace elements. Pharmacological studies have shown that both the extract of T. foenum-graecum and its chemical constituents exhibit hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitumor, antioxidative, antimicro-bial, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper reviews the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of T. foenum-graecum, which may contribute to further development, application, and clinical research of this herb.


Assuntos
Trigonella , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes
18.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Acta Cir Bras ; 36(7): e360707, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495142

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To clarify the best protocol for performing remote ischemic conditioning and to minimize the consequences of ischemia and reperfusion syndrome in brain, the present study aimed to evaluate different time protocols and the relation of the organs and the antioxidant effects of this technique. METHODS: The rat's left femoral artery was clamped with a microvascular clamp in times that ranged from 1 to 5 minutes, according to the corresponding group. After the cycles of remote ischemic conditioning and a reperfusion of 20 minutes, the brain and the left gastrocnemius were collected. The samples were used to measure glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase levels. RESULTS: In the gastrocnemius, the 4-minute protocol increased the catalase concentration compared to the 1-minute protocol, but the latter increased both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase compared to the former. On the other hand, the brain demonstrated higher catalase and glutathione peroxidase in 5-minute group, and the 3-minute group reached higher values of glutathione reductase. CONCLUSIONS: Remote ischemic conditioning increases brain antioxidant capacity in a time-dependent way, while muscle presents higher protection on 1-minute cycles and tends to decrease its defence with longer cycles of intermittent occlusions of the femoral artery.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Animais , Encéfalo , Glutationa Peroxidase , Isquemia , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502671

RESUMO

In recent years, the general and scientific interest in nutrition, digestion, and what role they play in our body has increased, and there is still much work to be carried out in the field of developing sensors and techniques that are capable of identifying and quantifying the chemical species involved in these processes. Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder that mainly affects the health of children and women. Iron from the diet may be available as heme or organic iron, or as non-heme or inorganic iron. The absorption of non-heme iron requires its solubilization and reduction in the ferric state to ferrous that begins in the gastric acid environment, because iron in the ferric state is very poorly absorbable. There are chemical species with reducing capacity (antioxidants) that also have the ability to reduce iron, such as ascorbic acid. This paper aims to develop a sensor for measuring the release of encapsulated active compounds, in different media, based on dielectric properties measurement in the radio frequency range. An impedance sensor able to measure the release of microencapsulated active compounds was developed. The sensor was tested with calcium alginate beads encapsulating iron ions and ascorbic acid as active compounds. The prediction and measurement potential of this sensor was improved by developing a thermodynamic model that allows obtaining kinetic parameters that will allow suitable encapsulation design for subsequent release.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico , Ferro , Antioxidantes , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Compostos Férricos , Compostos Ferrosos , Heme , Humanos
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