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1.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(5): 517-524, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin C on cardiac reperfusion injury and plasma levels of creatine kinase-muscle/brain (CK-MB), troponin I, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial study. Fifty patients (50-80 years old) who had CABG surgery were selected. The intervention group received 5 g of intravenous vitamin C before anesthesia induction and 5 g of vitamin C in cardioplegic solution. The control group received the same amount of placebo (normal saline). Arterial blood samples were taken to determine the serum levels of CK-MB, troponin I, and LDH enzymes. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured and hemodynamic parameters were recorded at intervals. RESULTS: High doses of vitamin C in the treatment group led to improvement of ventricular function (ejection fraction [EF]) and low Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay. The cardiac enzymes level in the vitamin C group was lower than in the control group. These changes were not significant between the groups in different time intervals (anesthesia induction, end of bypass, 6 h after surgery, and 24 h after surgery) for CK-MB, LDH, and troponin I. Hemodynamic parameters, hematocrit, potassium, urinary output, blood transfusion, arrhythmia, and inotropic support showed no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Vitamin C has significantly improved the patients' ventricular function (EF) 72 h after surgery and reduced the length of ICU stay. No significant changes in cardiac biomarkers, including CK-MB, troponin I, and LDH, were seen over time in each group. IRCT CODE: IRCT2016053019470N33.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma BB/sangue , Creatina Quinase Forma MM/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue , Função Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1179-1188, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184643

RESUMO

Los patrones dietéticos ricos en antioxidantes podrían contribuir a la prevención y el tratamiento de las fases previas de demencia. Los frutos secos tienen una apreciable carga antioxidante y hay evidencia de sus efectos beneficiosos sobre la incidencia de varias enfermedades crónicas y las tasas de mortalidad general. Además, son ricos en ácidos grasos polinsaturados, que también parecen desempeñar un papel positivo en la neurogénesis. El objetivo de esta revisión fue resumir la evidencia de los estudios relacionados con los efectos del consumo de frutos secos sobre la función cognitiva en personas adultas. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de artículos publicados en PubMed, Scopus y Web of Science. Un total de 19 artículos cumplieron los criterios de inclusión (siete transversales, cuatro de cohortes y ocho experimentales), que fueron extraídos y revisados de forma independiente por dos revisores. La evidencia proveniente de los estudios transversales y de cohortes resultó incierta, por la disparidad de resultados y su riesgo de sesgo. Sin embargo, en la mayoría de estudios experimentales se observó un efecto protector del consumo de frutos secos sobre alguna dimensión de la función cognitiva, y la calidad metodológica de estos fue aceptable. Además, los efectos parecen independientes del tipo de fruto seco, la cantidad ingerida, la edad y el estado basal de los consumidores. En resumen, estos resultados sugieren que incluir el consumo diario moderado de algún fruto seco en la dieta saludable de las personas adultas podría tener efectos beneficiosos sobre su función cognitiva. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios observacionales longitudinales y experimentales bien diseñados, que proporcionen firmeza a esta evidencia, hasta la fecha sugestiva y de una calidad moderadamente baja


Antioxidant-rich diet patterns could contribute to the prevention and treatment of early stages of dementia. Nuts have an appreciable antioxidant load and there is evidence of their positive effects on several chronic diseases incidence and death rates. Moreover, they are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which might also play a positive role in neurogenesis. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from studies related to the effects of nut consumption on cognitive function among adults. We conducted a systematic search of articles published in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (seven cross-sectional, four prospective cohorts and eight experimental); these were independently extracted and reviewed by two reviewers. The evidence from the cross-sectional and cohort studies was uncertain, due to the disparity of results and risk of bias. However, in most experimental studies a protective effect of nut consumption on some dimension of cognitive function was observed and the methodological quality of these studies was acceptable. In addition, the effects appear to be independent of nut type, amount of intake, age and baseline status of subjects. In summary, these results suggest that the inclusion of daily nut consumption in the healthy diet pattern of adults could have positive effects on their cognitive function. Nevertheless, more well-designed longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to provide strength to this suggestive evidence


Assuntos
Humanos , Proteínas de Nozes/administração & dosagem , Memória/fisiologia , Cognição , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Nozes , Demência/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle
3.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 853-861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399939

RESUMO

Intake of individual antioxidants has been related to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the overall diet may contain many antioxidants with additive or synergistic effects. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations between total dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes, prediabetes and insulin resistance. We estimated the dietary antioxidant capacity for 5796 participants of the Rotterdam Study using a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) score. Of these participants, 4957 had normoglycaemia and 839 had prediabetes at baseline. We used covariate-adjusted proportional hazards models to estimate associations between FRAP and risk of type 2 diabetes, risk of type 2 diabetes among participants with prediabetes, and risk of prediabetes. We used linear regression models to determine the association between FRAP score and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We observed 532 cases of incident type 2 diabetes, of which 259 among participants with prediabetes, and 794 cases of incident prediabetes during up to 15 years of follow-up. A higher FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the total population (HR per SD FRAP 0.84, 95% CI 0.75; 0.95) and among participants with prediabetes (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73; 0.99), but was not associated with risk of prediabetes. Dietary FRAP was also inversely associated with HOMA-IR (ß - 0.04, 95% CI - 0.06; - 0.03). Effect estimates were generally similar between sexes. The findings of this population-based study emphasize the putative beneficial effects of a diet rich in antioxidants on insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Resistência à Insulina , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10059-10068, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431007

RESUMO

Torularhodin is a natural product extracted from Sporidiobolus pararoseus and has a similar chemical structure to ß-carotene. The antioxidative effects of torularhodin were investigated using DPPH, ABTS, a cell oxidative damage model in vitro, and a d-galactose-induced liver-injured mouse model in vivo. Cell experiments demonstrated that torularhodin had a powerful effect on oxidative damage caused by H2O2 to AML12 cells. Torularhodin significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes both in mouse serum and the liver. The inhibition of d-galactose-induced oxidative damage in the liver was correlated with the torularhodin-mediated effects on improving the activity of Nrf2/HO-1, reducing the expression of Bax and NF-κB p65 by western blot analysis. RT-PCR results demonstrated torularhodin upregulated the antioxidative mRNA expression of Nrf2, NQO1, and HO-1 in the liver. In summary, torularhodin significantly scavenged free radicals and prevented oxidative damage in vitro and reduced d-galactose-induced liver oxidation via promotion of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in vivo.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Basidiomycota/química , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8609-8616, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314514

RESUMO

Quercetin (QUE)-loaded nanoparticles (QCG-NPs) were fabricated by ionic gelation between chitosan (CS) and gum arabic (GA) at pH 3.5. At constant CS (0.5 mg/mL) and QUE (60 µM) concentrations, QCG-NPs (260-490 nm) were prepared uniformly with 0.8-2.2 mg/mL GA and exhibited high QUE encapsulation efficiency (94.8-98.0%) and sustained QUE release (4.42-8.89% after 8 h). Because of the electrostatic interaction between QCG-NPs and the mucin layer, in vitro mucin and cell adhesion of QUE were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in QCG-NPs (0.44-0.48 mg/mL and 31.7-78.5%), respectively, and the adhesiveness was significantly (p < 0.05) increased with an increase of GA. Because particle size and adhesion properties affect the surface area and retention time of QCG-NPs at the absorption site, cell permeation of QUE through simple diffusion by QCG-NPs exhibited the same tendency as the adhesion results. These data were verified in cellular antioxidant and in vivo ferric reducing abilities of plasma assays that evaluated the antioxidant activities of QUE absorbed into an intestinal cell model and rat blood, respectively. The results provide a better understanding of QCG-NP absorption and indicate that QCG-NPs with mucoadhesion properties can be an effective delivery system for improving QUE absorption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Quitosana/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 250, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297635

RESUMO

Melanoma is regarded as the fifth and sixth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, and it is estimated that one person dies from melanoma every hour in the USA. Unfortunately, the treatment of melanoma is difficult because of its aggressive metastasis and resistance to treatment. The treatment of melanoma continues to be a challenging issue due to the limitations of available treatments such as a low response rate, severe adverse reactions, and significant toxicity. Natural polyphenols have attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy. It has been suggested that poorly soluble polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, coumarin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate may have significant benefits in the treatment of melanoma due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and chemoprotective efficacies. The major obstacles for the use of polyphenolic compounds are low stability and poor bioavailability. Numerous nanoformulations, including solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes, have been formulated to enhance the bioavailability and stability, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of polyphenols. This review will provide an overview of poorly soluble polyphenols that have been reported to have antimetastatic efficacy in melanomas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e15404, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335666

RESUMO

This study retrospectively evaluated the effect of lutein supplement (LS) on patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).A total of 72 patients with NPDR were included in this study. All patients received Zeaxanthin during the study period. In addition, 36 patients also received LS and were assigned to the treatment group, while the other 36 patients did not receive LS and were assigned to the control group. All patients were treated for a total of 4 months. The endpoints included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and glare sensitivity (GS). In addition, any adverse events were also assessed. All endpoints were measured before and after 4-month treatment.Before treatment, there were no significant differences in VA (P = .75), CS (P = .71), and GS (P = .73) between two groups. After 4-month treatment, there were still no significant differences in all endpoints of VA (P = .66), CS (P = .58), and GS (P = .61) between two groups. No adverse events were recorded in either group.The results of this retrospective study showed that LS may not benefit for patients with NPDR after 4-month treatment. More high quality randomized controlled trials should still be needed to warrant the results of this study.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Luteína , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/administração & dosagem , Luteína/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23209-23218, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243654

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal and an environmental pollutant, particularly because of its anthropogenic activity. The main impacts of Pb is recognized to cause injurious influences of various levels of the tropic chain, due to bio-accumulated lead causes many health issues such as intoxication of different body organs, such as kidneys and liver, and reproductive and nervous systems. Industrial lead toxicity has reduced as a result of the attempts to decrease the lead levels in the surrounding work environment. Conversably, health risks related with long-term environmental exposure to a low dose of Pb have been steadily demonstrated. Long-term exposure to lead toxicity caused inflammatory infiltration, degenerative changes in testicular tissues, reduction in spermatocytes, necrosis of hepatocytes, degeneration in renal tubules, and renal epithelium hypertrophy. Hence, we need an influential approach to vanquish lead toxicity. This consequence has emerged the necessity for potentially safe represent remedy, favorably keeping both enhancement and chelating of the antioxidant competences. Many antioxidants have been used for chelating heavy toxic pollutants such as lead and oxidative stress released in excess during lead exposure. Several studies have stated the noticeable gathering of herbal singly or in combination in modulating lead-induced disturbances, therefore proposing great promise in enhancing health status and welfare of man as well as animals. For this, in the current review, we tried to discuss the enormous harmful influences of lead toxicity on the animal model and the disturbing truth that this detrimental toxic substance can be found quite simply in the surroundings and amplitude.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/normas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quelantes/farmacologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Chumbo/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7118-7133, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155249

RESUMO

Grass-based production systems use concentrate supplementation primarily when pasture quality and availability have declined. Barley is a common concentrate ingredient; however, oat grain grows well in Ireland, is a source of lipids and fiber, and may provide an alternative to barley. The antioxidant α-tocopherol (α-TOC) plays a role in cell membrane structure, and it has the potential to improve tight junction structures of the mammary gland that deteriorate in late lactation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of cereal type and α-TOC level on milk yield, milk composition, rumen fermentation, and N excretion in late-lactation dairy cows at pasture and when housed indoors on grass silage. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian dairy cows were blocked on days in milk (+185 d in milk) and balanced for parity, pre-experimental milk yield, milk composition, and body condition score and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (n = 12). The dietary treatments were control (C) base diet; base diet + barley-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (B); base diet + oat-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (O); and base diet + oat-based concentrate + high α-TOC (1,050 IU/kg) (O+T). Following a 14-d acclimation period, diets were offered for a 49-d experimental period at pasture (P1) and a 21-d experimental period indoors (P2). The base diet was grazed grass in P1 and grass silage in P2. In P2, cows on C also received 2.65 kg (dry matter) of a standard concentrate. In P1, supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield (B: 20.7 kg/d, 1.74 kg/d; O: 20.6 kg/d, 1.81 kg/d; O+T: 20.5 kg/d, 1.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with C (17.8 kg/d, 1.60 kg/d). Cows offered B had a lower milk fat (4.60%) concentration than C (5.00%) and O (4.90%). In P2, cereal type and α-TOC level did not alter milk production. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield and cows offered O had a higher milk fat concentration than cows offered B. Increasing the level of α-TOC had no major effect on production parameters measured in P1 or in P2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Irlanda , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite/química , Poaceae , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
11.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(7): 593-603, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185180

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress toxicity (OST) has been implicated in almost all pathological conditions. Despite the widespread use of natural antioxidants, no pharmaceutical antioxidants have yet been developed or prescribed in medical practise. Antioxidant drugs such as Deferiprone and N-acetylcysteine can target essential pathways of OST in many pathological conditions. The pharmacological parameters required by antioxidant drugs in relation to the OST target characteristics include the determination of the therapeutic index, ADMET and drug interactions. Antioxidant drug development efforts are currently targeting the treatment of severe diseases with no proven effective therapies. AREAS COVERED: This article addresses the damaging effects of OST, prospects for the development of pharmaceutical antioxidants and clinical studies using other drugs with antioxidant potential. EXPERT OPINION: Effective antioxidant therapeutic strategies should include the design of protocols for the inhibition of OST through iron chelation, administration of synthetic and natural antioxidants and enhancement of the antioxidant defences by increasing the production of endogenous antioxidants and activation of antioxidant mechanisms. Different therapeutic strategies apply in the use of antioxidant drugs for one or more targets, for prevention, treatment, or of post-treatment effects and for systematic, long-term or short-term applications. The design of new antioxidant drugs and effective protocols which can include Deferiprone and N-acetylcysteine combinations, could lead to the development of a new class of therapeutics for clinical use.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Deferiprona/administração & dosagem , Deferiprona/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/administração & dosagem , Radicais Livres , Humanos , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
12.
J Microencapsul ; 36(2): 204-214, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164027

RESUMO

Nigella sativa extract (NSE) was incorporated in alginate microcapsules using aerosolisation and homogenisation methods, respectively, with the aim of delivering high concentrations of the active species, thymoquinone (TQ), directly to sites of inflammation in the colon following oral administration. Encapsulation of NSE was accomplished either by direct loading or diffusion into blank microparticles. Microcapsules in the size range 40-60 µm exhibited significantly higher NSE loading up to 42% w/w and encapsulation efficiency (EE) up to 63% when the extract was entrapped by direct encapsulation compared with 4.1 w/w loading, 6.2% EE when NSE was incorporated by diffusion loading. Sequential exposure of samples to simulated intestinal fluids (SIFs) revealed that the microcapsules suppressed NSE release in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) for 2 h and SIF for 4 h and liberated most of the NSE content (80%) in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) over 18 h. NSE released in SCF at 12 h exhibited antioxidant activity, when measured using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay at levels comparable with the activity of unencapsulated extract. These findings demonstrate the potential of oral alginate microcapsules as highly efficient, targeted carriers for colonic delivery of NSE in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Benzoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Benzoquinonas/farmacocinética , Cápsulas/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Nigella sativa/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207976

RESUMO

Curcumin, a natural polyphenol extracted from a perennial herb Curcuma longa has been verified for many physiological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. The direct use of curcumin cytotoxicity studies are limited due to its unstable chemical structure, low bioavailability, easy oxidation, and degradation by ultraviolet (UV) light etc. Trying to overcome this problem, silica-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (SCNP) and chitosan with silica co-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (CSCNP) were prepared by silicification and biosilicification methods, respectively, and encapsulated curcumin within it. We investigated the antitumor properties of SCNP and CSCNP on different tumor cell lines. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that both SCNP and CSCNP were almost spherical in shape and the average particle size of CSCNP was 75.0 ± 14.62 nm, and SCNP was 61.7 ± 23.04 nm. The results show that CSCNP has more anti-oxidant activity as compared to curcumin and SCNP. The higher cytotoxicity towards different cancerous cell lines was also observed in CSCNP treated tumor cells. It was noted that the SCNP and CSCNP has a high percentage of IC50 values in Hep G2 cells. The encapsulation of curcumin improved instability, antioxidant activity, and antitumor activity. Our results demonstrated that nanoencapsulation of curcumin with silica and chitosan not only increase curcumin stability but also enhance its cytotoxic activity on hepatocellular carcinoma cells. On the basis of these primary studies, the curcumin-loaded nanoparticles appear to be promising as an innovative therapeutic material for the treatment of tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Curcumina/toxicidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Células HT29 , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Dióxido de Silício/química
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 129, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green tea has polyphenols like flavonoids and catechins; mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC) and epicatechin (EC), out of which EGCG is of higher abundance. EGCG has shown preventive role in hypercholesterolemia. However, due to low oral bioavailability, a need arises to improve its membrane permeability and transporter-mediated intestinal efflux. Therefore, an attempt was made to enhance permeability and bioavailability of EGCG using curcumin to treat hyperlipidemia. Further, it was formulated in herbal tea bags to achieve patient compliance. METHODS: EGCG extracted from green tea leaves was confirmed by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Green tea extract (GTE), curcumin and their mixtures were subjected to Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for compatibility studies. Powder formulation was prepared comprising GTE, curcumin, sucralose and cardamom. RESULTS: Ex-vivo study was performed on everted goat intestine, analyzed by HPLC and demonstrated highest permeation of GTE:curcumin (220:50) (53.15%) than GTE (20.57%). Antihyperlipidemic activity was performed in rats for 15 days. Blood sample analysis of rats of test groups (formulation and GTE solution) fed on high fat diet showed (mg/dl):cholesterol 80 and 90, triglycerides 73.25 and 85.5, HDL 50.75 and 46, LDL 43.9 and 46, VLDL 14.65 and 17.1 respectively with significant lipid regulating effect. CONCLUSION: Curcumin enhanced permeability of EGCG. Therefore, P-glycoprotein pump inside intestine can be potential mechanism to enhance permeability of EGCG. Thus, EGCG-curcumin herbal tea bag is promising nutraceutical to treat hyperlipidemia in day-to-day life achieving patient compliance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/farmacocinética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Fitoterapia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Chá
15.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 279-287, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146535

RESUMO

1. This study analysed whether in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation and at high incubation temperature influenced blood characteristics and performance in broilers reared in different temperature conditions. 2. A total of 3,000 fertile eggs from broiler breeders (Cobb®) were randomly divided into three incubation treatments: no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 37.5°C (control); no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 39°C; in ovo ascorbic acid injection prior to incubation (6 µg AA/100 µl water) and egg incubation at 39°C. 3. Male chicks hatched from the three incubation treatments were submitted to three distinct rearing temperatures (control, cold and hot) from the third week of age onwards (540 chicks were divided into 6 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment). 4. Measurements at 42 d showed that, after egg incubation at 39°C, the haematocrit, haemoglobin values, ionised calcium and glucose concentrations were increased and base excess values were reduced. However, in ovo injection of ascorbic acid normalised all these parameters. 5. Partial CO2 and O2 pressure were higher with increased rearing temperature. Blood pH was lower when eggs were incubated at 39°C and injected with ascorbic acid. In ovo injection of ascorbic acid induced leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis and heterophilia, restored basophils rate and led to monocytopoenia. Leucocytosis was triggered by hot rearing temperature due to lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and heterophilia. 6. The results obtained in this study showed that in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation may serve as a long-term stimulator and modulator of the broiler immune system, and that high incubation temperatures induce adaptations in the electrolytic balance, minimising or avoiding the occurrence of respiratory alkalosis under hot rearing temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Óvulo/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Análise Química do Sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos , Injeções/veterinária , Masculino
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 428-437, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002239

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are the key players in the development of motor dysfunction post-spinal cord ischemic reperfusion injury (SC-IRI). This study investigated the protective effect of concomitant pre-administration of melatonin and alpha-tocopherol on the early complications (after 48 hours) of spinal cord IRI injury in rats. Melatonin or α-tocopherol were preadministered either individually or in combination for 2 weeks, then rats were exposed SC-IRI. Neurological examinations of the hind limbs and various biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the SC tissue were assessed. Solely pre-administration of either melanin or α-tocopherol significantly but partially improved motor and sensory function of the hind limbs mediated by partial decreases in SC levels of MDA, AOPP and PGE2 levels and activities of SOD, partial significant decreases in plasma levels of total nitrate/nitrite and significant increases in AC activity of GSH-Px. However, combination therapy of both drugs resulted in the maximum improvements in all neurological assessments tested and biochemical endpoints. In conclusion, by their synergistic antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions, the combination therapy of melatonin and α-tocopherol alleviates SC-IRI induced paraplegia.


El estrés oxidativo y la inflamación son claves en el desarrollo de la disfunción motora posterior a lesión isquémica de la médula espinal (SC-IRI). Este estudio investigó acerca del efecto protector de la administración previa concomitante de la melatonina y alfa-tocoferol en las complicaciones tempranas (después de 48 horas) de la lesión de IRI de la médula espinal en ratas. La melatonina o el α-tocoferol se administraron individualmente o en combinación durante 2 semanas, luego las ratas fueron expuestas a SC-IRI. Se evaluaron los exámenes neurológicos de las miembros pélvicos y diversos marcadores bioquímicos de estrés oxidativo e inflamación en el tejido subcutáneo. Solo la administración previa de melatonina o α-tocoferol mejoró parcial y significativamente la función motora y sensorial de los miembros pélvicos mediadas por disminuciones parciales en los niveles de SC de los niveles de MDA, AOPP y PGE2 y las actividades de la SOD, disminuciones significativas parciales en los niveles plasmáticos del total nitrato / nitrito y aumentos significativos en la actividad de AC de GSH-Px. Sin embargo, se observaron los mejores resultados durante la combinación de ambos fármacos en todas las evaluaciones neurológicas y en los puntos finales bioquímicos. En conclusión, debido a sus acciones antioxidantes y antiinflamatorias sinérgicas, la terapia de melatonina y α-tocoferol alivia la paraplejía inducida por SC-IRI.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Paraplegia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/patologia , Dinoprostona/sangue , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocoferóis/farmacologia , Melatonina/farmacologia , Nitritos/sangue , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
17.
J Microencapsul ; 36(2): 169-179, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104531

RESUMO

Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has numerous pharmacological activities; while it faces several bioavailability problems, due to its poor solubility and stability. So, many nanostructures have been designed to overcome these drawbacks. The aim of this study was to prepare a polymeric niosomal structure by incorporating hyaluronan to improve curcumin efficiencies. Hyaluronan containing niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration medium with slight modifications. In the formulation of hyaluronan containing niosomes size and zeta potential studies, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), in-vitro release test, DPPH antioxidant assay and in-vivo anti-inflammatory test were investigated. The results showed that hyaluronan containing niosomes were 249.83 ± 6.38 nm and the entrapment of curcumin was 98.28 ± 0.278% (w/w). In addition, the shape of the hyaluronan containing niosomes was spherical. 500 µl of the prepared formulation with 4.002 × 10-7 moles of curcumin showed 100% antioxidant effect. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect of the hyaluronan containing niosomes was higher than the anti-inflammatory effect of the simple suspension of curcumin.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Curcumina/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(5): 2453-2458, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cisplatin is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent that is used to treat solid tumors; however, its severe side effects remain a limitation. In particular, the high incidence of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity has attracted interest. Melatonin has been shown to decrease the toxic effects of cisplatin due to its antioxidant activity, and could increase the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin against ototoxicity in rats treated with cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into four groups (saline, melatonin, cisplatin+saline, and melatonin+cisplatin). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements were carried out on days 1 and 8. RESULTS: There was a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes in the animals that received cisplatin (10 mg/kg); however, the group treated with cisplatin+melatonin presented DPOAE amplitudes comparable to those of the control groups. CONCLUSION: Melatonin can be used as an adjuvant tumor treatment due to its ability to decrease cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas/fisiologia , Ratos
19.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(9): 1430-1437, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099952

RESUMO

This article presents the results of experiments, which examine cell mechanisms with the goal of confirming the effective action of the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics. Skin stiffness measurements with the use of an atomic force microscope on two forms of vitamin C (ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate and l-ascorbic acid) have been presented. The estimated Young's modulus for three types of cells (a control as well as cells treated with two forms of vitamin C) has shown significant differences in the stiffness of the tested cells which was confirmed in the histological staining experiment. The presented results indicate the dependence between collagen synthesis and the stiffness of cells treated with two forms of vitamin C.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Cosméticos/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Elasticidade , Camundongos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 64, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of severe visual deficits and blindness. Meanwhile, there is convincing evidence implicating oxidative stress, inflammation, and neovascularization in the onset and progression of AMD. Several studies have identified berberine hydrochloride and chrysophanol as potential treatments for ocular diseases based on their antioxidative, antiangiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, their poor stability and bioavailability have limited their application. In order to overcome these disadvantages, we prepared a compound liposome system that can entrap these drugs simultaneously using the third polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM G3.0) as a carrier. RESULTS: PAMAM G3.0-coated compound liposomes exhibited appreciable cellular permeability in human corneal epithelial cells and enhanced bio-adhesion on rabbit corneal epithelium. Moreover, coated liposomes greatly improved BBH bioavailability. Further, coated liposomes exhibited obviously protective effects in human retinal pigment epithelial cells and rat retinas after photooxidative retinal injury. Finally, administration of P-CBLs showed no sign of side effects on ocular surface structure in rabbits model. CONCLUSIONS: The PAMAM G3.0-liposome system thus displayed a potential use for treating various ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Dendrímeros/química , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipossomos/química , Poliaminas/química , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Córnea/citologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propriedades de Superfície
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