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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 203, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244867

RESUMO

Capsanthin, a brightly orange-red-coloured pigment responsible for the peculiar red colour of paprika fruits (Capsicum annuum), belongs to xanthophylls, a class of oxygen-containing carotenoids. The characteristic chemical structure of capsanthin containing a keto group in conjunction with a long chain of 11 conjugated dienes is responsible for its strong radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching ability. Chemopreventive, antitumour, skin photo-protective, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities demonstrated by capsanthin are a consequence of its potent antioxidant action. Anti-obesity, anti-adipogenic, and antihyperlipidaemic activities are some of the more important features of capsanthin. With natural origin, bright red colour, and array of health benefits, capsanthin has a potential to be translated into a commercial cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, and/or pharmaceutical. However, the very low aqueous solubility of capsanthin is responsible for its highly variable and poor oral bioavailability. Moreover, its susceptibility to degradation due to heat, light, oxygen, and moisture poses challenges in the development of stable formulations for this otherwise meritorious compound. The current review presents various pharmacological activities of capsanthin and their underlying mechanisms. The review further discusses hitherto explored formulation strategies to improve solubility and stability of capsanthin. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Capsicum/química , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Xantofilas/uso terapêutico
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 3889-3905, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135583

RESUMO

Introduction: Delayed wound healing represents a common health hazard. Traditional herbal products have been often utilized to promote wound contraction. The current study aimed at assessing the wound healing activity of Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil (OFI) and its self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (OFI-SNEDDS) formula in a rat model of full-thickness skin excision. Methods: Based on droplet size, an optimized OFI-SNEDDS formula was prepared and used for subsequent evaluation. Wound healing activity of OFI and OFI-SNEDDS was studied in vivo. Results: The optimized OFI-SNEDDS formula droplet size was 50.02 nm. The formula exhibited superior healing activities as compared to regular OFI seed oil-treated rats at day 14 of wounding. This effect was further confirmed by histopathological examinations of H&E and Masson's Trichrome-stained skin sections. Moreover, OFI-SNEDDS showed the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as compared to OFI seed oil-treated animals. Both OFI and OFI-SNEDDS significantly enhanced hydroxyproline skin content and upregulated Col1A1 mRNA expression, accompanied by enhanced expression of transforming factor-beta (TGF-ß). Further, OFI-SNEDDS improved angiogenesis as evidenced by increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Conclusion: OFI possesses wound healing properties that are enhanced by self-emulsification of the oil into nano-droplets. The observed activity can be attributed, at least partly, to its anti-inflammatory, pro-collagen and angiogenic properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Opuntia/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/farmacologia , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Cicatrização/genética
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 44, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive physical exercise that competitive sports athletes participate in can negatively affect their pro-oxidative-antioxidant balance. Compounds with high antioxidant potential, such as those present in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), can prevent these adverse changes. We here investigated the effect of antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress balance in young footballers. METHODS: The study was designed as a double-blind randomized trial. Diet of a group of young football players (male; n = 20; mean age, 15.8 years-old) was supplemented with 200 ml of chokeberry juice per day, for 7 weeks. The players were randomly assigned to the experimental (supplemented, FP-S; n = 12) and control (placebo, FB-C; n = 8) groups. Before and after the supplementation period, the participants performed a beep test. Venous blood was sampled for serum analysis before, immediately after, 3 h, and 24 h after the beep test. Serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive products, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant capacity, iron, hepcidin, ferritin, myoglobin, and albumin, and morphological blood parameters (red blood cells, (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT) mean corpuscular volume (MCV) mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and lactic acid) were determined. RESULTS: Chokeberry juice supplementation did not significantly affect the outcome of the beep test. The supplementation did not significantly affect any of the morphological, biochemical, or performance parameters analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Chokeberry juice supplementation did not affect the measured parameters in the studied population, which may indicate insufficient antioxidant capacity of the juice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Estresse Oxidativo , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Testes Hematológicos , Hepcidinas/sangue , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Photinia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
4.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(5): 167, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080078

RESUMO

In developing countries, populations have employed herbal medicines for primary health care because they are believed to be more appropriate to the human body and have less side effects than chemically synthesized drugs. The present study aimed to develop and evaluate herbal tablets incorporated with a Thai traditional medicinal extract, U-pa-ri-waat (URW), using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The extraction efficiency for URW using MAE and traditional solvent extraction was compared based on the percent yield after spray drying. URW tablets were prepared using the dry granulation method. The optimized products were assessed using standard characterization methods based on the United States and British Pharmacopeias. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays were performed to analyze the antioxidant capacity of the microwave-assisted extracts. The results revealed that the flowability of the dry granule with added maltodextrin was improved compared to a granule without additives, as indicated by an angle of repose of 33.69 ± 2.0°, a compressibility index of 15.38 ± 0.66, and a Hausner's ratio of 1.18 ± 0.06. The resulting formulation produced flat tablets with uniform weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability, and optimum disintegration time. The URW extracts showed antioxidant activity and MAE with maltodextrin carrier displayed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical activities with IC50 values of 1.60 ± 0.02 µg/mL and 4.02 ± 0.24 µg/mL, respectively. The URW tablet formulation passed the quality control tests. Storage of the formulation tablets for 90 days under accelerated conditions had minimal effects on tablet characteristics.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Micro-Ondas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/síntese química , Preparações de Plantas/síntese química , Administração Oral , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/administração & dosagem , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/síntese química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacocinética , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Plantas/farmacocinética , Comprimidos , Tailândia
5.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(4): 496-505, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941070

RESUMO

Antioxidant properties of rat galanin GWTLNSAGYLLGPHAIDNHRSFSDKHGLT-NH2 (Gal), N-terminal fragment of galanin (2-15 aa) WTLNSAGYLLGPHA (G1), and its modified analogue WTLNSAGYLLGPßAH (G2) were studied in vivo in the rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and in vitro in the process of Cu2+-induced free radical oxidation of human blood plasma low-density lipoproteins. Intravenous administration of G1, G2, and Gal to rats after ischemia induction reduced the infarction size and activities of the necrosis markers, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase, in blood plasma at the end of reperfusion. G1, G2, and Gal reduced formation of the spin adducts of hydroxyl radicals in the interstitium of the area at risk during reperfusion, moreover, G2 and Gal also reduced formation of the secondary products of lipid peroxidation in the reperfused myocardium. It was shown in the in vivo experiments and in the in vitro model system that the ability of galanin peptides to reduce formation of ROS and attenuate lipid peroxidation during myocardial reperfusion injury was not associated directly with their effects on activities of the antioxidant enzymes of the heart: Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. The peptides G1, G2, and Gal at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1 mM inhibited Cu2+-induced free radical oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins in vitro. The results of oxidative stress modeling demonstrated that the natural and synthetic agonists of galanin receptors reduced formation of the short-lived ROS in the reperfused myocardium, as well as of lipid radicals in blood plasma. Thus, galanin receptors could be a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Galanina/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Catalase , Cobre/química , Cobre/toxicidade , Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Galanina/administração & dosagem , Galanina/uso terapêutico , Glutationa Peroxidase , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase
6.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(4): 317-329, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997945

RESUMO

Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS), representing approximately 5% of all MS cases, affects the central nervous system during its ongoing development. POMS is most commonly diagnosed during adolescence but can occur in younger children as well. For pediatric patients with MS, it is critical to manage the full impact of the disease and monitor for any effects on school and social functioning. Disease management includes not only disease-modifying therapies but also strategies to optimize wellbeing. We review the interventions with the highest evidence of ability to improve the disease course and quality of life in POMS. High levels of vitamin D and a diet low in saturated fat are associated with lower relapse rates. Exercise ameliorates fatigue and sleep. Behavioral strategies for sleep hygiene and mood regulation can also improve fatigue and perceived health. POMS management should be addressed holistically, including assessing overall symptom burden as well as the psychological and functional impact of the disease.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Criança , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Fadiga/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Maconha Medicinal/administração & dosagem , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946456

RESUMO

Maternal nutritional imbalances, in addition to maternal overweight and obesity, can result in long-term effects on the metabolic health of the offspring, increasing the risk of common non-communicable disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This increased disease risk may also be transmitted across generations. Unfortunately, lifestyle interventions have shown reduced compliancy and limited efficacy. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound reported to have pleiotropic beneficial actions including a possible protective effect against the metabolic programming induced by poor dietary habits during development. However, studies to date are inconclusive regarding the potential metabolic benefits of maternal resveratrol supplementation during pregnancy and lactation on the offspring. Moreover, the responses to metabolic challenges are suggested to be different in males and females, suggesting that the effectiveness of treatment strategies may also differ, but many studies have been performed only in males. Here we review the current evidence, both in humans and animal models, regarding the possible beneficial effects of maternal resveratrol intake on the metabolic health of the offspring and highlight the different effects of resveratrol depending on the maternal diet, as well as the differential responses of males and females.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem
8.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808281

RESUMO

Aging is associated with a drastic decline in fertility/fecundity and with an increased risk of pregnancy complications. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenolic compound, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in both human and animal models, thus representing a potential therapeutic and prophylactic anti-aging supplement. Here, we investigated whether preconceptional resveratrol supplementation improved reproductive outcomes in mid-aged (8-month-old) and old (12-month-old) C57BL/6J female mice. Female siblings were cohoused and assigned to either RES or vehicle supplementation to drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks. Subsequently, females were mated with non-supplemented males and their pregnancy outcomes were monitored. RES improved mating success in old, but not in mid-aged females, and prevented the occurrence of delivery complications in the latter. These results indicate that preconceptional RES supplementation could partially improve age-related reproductive complications, but it was not sufficient to restore fecundity in female mice at a very advanced age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
9.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808322

RESUMO

Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Compositae), an annual herb indigenous to Korean mountainous regions and has been eaten as a food in Korea. This study investigated ABTS, DPPH and nitric oxide (NO) radical-scavenging activities, and melanin production and TYR inhibitory effects-guided fractionation to identify therapeutic phytochemicals from S. glabrescens that can attenuate oxidation and melanogenesis in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Nine compounds with inhibitory effects on melanin production, and TYR activity, and ABTS, DPPH, and NO radical scavenging activity were isolated from the 100% ethanol fraction from S. glabrescens. Among the nine compounds, kirenol (K), methyl ent-16α, 17-dihydroxy-kauran-19-oate (MDK) had strong inhibitory effects on melanin production and TYR activity with antioxidant effects. Western blot analysis revealed that K and MDK suppressed tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1, TYRP-2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression. Moreover, these two compounds inhibited intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-treated B16F10 cells. Our results suggest that S. glabrescens containing active compounds such as K and MDK, which has antioxidant and antimelanogenesis effects, is the potent therapeutic and functional material for the prevention of oxidation-induced hyperpigmentation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Diterpenos , Hiperpigmentação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808318

RESUMO

Liver disorders have been recognized as one major health concern. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the brown seaweed Fucus serratus, has previously been reported as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. However, the discovery and validation of its hepatoprotective properties and elucidation of its mechanisms of action are still unknown. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect and possible modes of action of a treatment of fucoidan against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury in male C57BL/6 mice by serum biochemical and histological analyses. The mouse model for liver damage was developed by the administration of TAA thrice a week for six weeks. The mice with TAA-induced liver injury were orally administered fucoidan once a day for 42 days. The treated mice showed significantly higher body weights; food intakes; hepatic antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)); and a lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Additionally, a reduced hepatic IL-6 level and a decreased expression of inflammatory-related genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was observed. These results demonstrated that fucoidan had a hepatoprotective effect on liver injury through the suppression of the inflammatory responses and acting as an antioxidant. In addition, here, we validated the use of fucoidan against liver disorders with supporting molecular data.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167677

RESUMO

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that serves as antioxidant and plays a major role as co-factor and modulator of various pathways of the immune system. Its therapeutic effect during infections has been a matter of debate, with conflicting results in studies of respiratory infections and in critically ill patients. This comprehensive review aimed to summarize the current evidence regarding the use of vitamin C in the prevention or treatment of patients with SARS-CoV2 infection, based on available publications between January 2020 and February 2021. Overall, 21 publications were included in this review, consisting of case-reports and case-series, observational studies, and some clinical trials. In many of the publications, data were incomplete, and in most clinical trials the results are still pending. No studies regarding prevention of COVID-19 with vitamin C supplementation were found. Although some clinical observations reported improved medical condition of patients with COVID-19 treated with vitamin C, available data from controlled studies are scarce and inconclusive. Based on the theoretical background presented in this article, and some preliminary encouraging studies, the role of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
12.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3405-3419, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900307

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of an early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on liver metabolism in suckling piglets. Sixty newborn piglets with an average initial body weight (BW) of 1.51 ± 0.05 kg were assigned to a control (CON) group and an LF group. At age 1 to 7 days, the piglets in the LF group were orally administered LF solution (0.5 g per kg BW daily), whereas the piglets in the CON group were orally administered the same dose of physiological saline. Plasma, jejunum and liver samples were collected on days 8 and 21. The LF piglets showed a decreased plasma urea nitrogen level on day 8 and an increased plasma albumin level on day 21. Pathway analysis of the metabolomic profiles showed that the LF treatment affected amino acid metabolism in the liver. In addition, the LF treatment upregulated the gene expression levels of proteolytic enzymes and amino acid transporters (APA, APN, EAAC1, Pept1, CAT1, B0AT1 and ASCT2) in the jejunum, and it enhanced the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and p70S6K in the liver. The LF treatment also upregulated the expression of a ß-oxidation-related gene (CPT1) and affected the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the liver on day 21. Furthermore, the LF piglets showed a decreased level of malondialdehyde and increased levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GCLC in the liver mitochondria. Overall, the early-life LF intervention affected the protein synthesis, energy production and antioxidative capacity in the liver of the neonatal piglets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Suínos
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924335

RESUMO

Obesity and its related complications are a world-wide health problem. Dietary tocotrienols (TT) have been shown to improve obesity-associated metabolic disorders, such as hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, and gut dysbiosis. This study examined the hypothesis that the antioxidant capacity of TT alters metabolites of oxidative stress and improves systemic metabolism. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD control) or HFD supplemented with 800 mg annatto-extracted TT/kg (HFD+TT800) for 14 weeks. Sera from obese mice were examined by non-targeted metabolite analysis using UHPLC/MS. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD+TT800 group had higher levels of serum metabolites, essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), sphingomyelins, phosphatidylcholine, lysophospholipids, and vitamins (pantothenate, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal, and retinol). TT-treated mice had lowered levels of serum metabolites, dicarboxylic fatty acids, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers (trimethylamine N-oxide, kynurenate, 12,13-DiHOME, and 13-HODE + 9-HODE) compared to the control. The results suggest that TT supplementation lowered inflammation and oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione and GSH/GSSH) and improved macronutrient metabolism (carbohydrates) in obese mice. Thus, TT actions on metabolites were beneficial in reducing obesity-associated hypercholesterolemia/hyperglycemia. The effects of a non-toxic dose of TT in mice support the potential for clinical applications in obesity and metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bixaceae/química , Carotenoides/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tocotrienóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tocotrienóis/isolamento & purificação
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924714

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been postulated as an underlying pathophysiologic mechanism of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the main cause of avoidable blindness in working-aged people. This review addressed the current daily clinical practice of DR and the role of antioxidants in this practice. A systematic review of the studies on antioxidant supplementation in DR patients was presented. Fifteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria. The analysis of these studies concluded that antioxidant supplementation has a IIB level of recommendation in adult Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects without retinopathy or mild-to-moderate nonproliferative DR without diabetic macular oedema as a complementary therapy together with standard medical care.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Administração Oral , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917107

RESUMO

Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) therapy has diverse health benefits but high doses or prolonged therapy might induce oxidative cellular injuries especially in the brain. Therefore, we conducted the current study to investigate the protective role of quercetin supplementation against the oxidative alterations induced in the brains of rats due to IONPs. Forty adult male albino rats were allocated into equal five groups; the control received a normal basal diet, the IONP group was intraperitoneally injected with IONPs of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W.) and quercetin-treated groups had IONPs + Q25, IONPs + Q50 and IONPs + Q100 that were orally supplanted with quercetin by doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg quercetin/kg B.W. daily, respectively, administrated with the same dose of IONPs for 30 days. IONPs induced significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Consequently, IONPs significantly induced severe brain tissue injuries due to the iron deposition leading to oxidative alterations with significant increases in brain creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Furthermore, IONPs induced significant reductions in brain epinephrine, serotonin and melatonin with the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) mRNA expressions. IONPs induced apoptosis in the brain monitored by increases in caspase 3 and decreases in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) expression levels. Quercetin supplementation notably defeated brain oxidative damages and in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, quercetin supplementation during IONPs is highly recommended to gain the benefits of IONPs with fewer health hazards.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro/química , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro/ultraestrutura , Melatonina/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Ratos , Serotonina/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 2829-2849, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877242

RESUMO

In recent years, people have become increasingly interested in bioactive ingredients from plants, especially antioxidant molecules such as melatonin, which are beneficial to human health. The purpose of this article is to provide new information on plant-derived foods with a high content of melatonin. We comprehensively summarize the content of melatonin in plant-derived foods and discuss the factors that influence melatonin levels to provide new ideas on enhancement. Additionally, we describe the biosynthetic pathway of melatonin and identify its major functions. Medicinal herbs are often rich in melatonin while many vegetables and fruits exhibit somewhat lower levels with wide variations among species. The genetic traits of plants, the phenological stage of the cultivar, the photoperiod, the level of stress to which the plants are exposed at the time of harvest, exposure to agrochemicals and determination methods are the main factors affecting the melatonin content. To date, standardization of uniform sampling times and the use of suitable pretreatments as well as determination methods have not been achieved. The results of the studies reviewed highlight the potentially important role of plant melatonin in influencing the progression of human diseases. Based on the health promotional aspects of melatonin, consuming foods containing higher concentrations of tryptophan and melatonin is suggested.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Melatonina/análise , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Frutas/química , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Melatonina/fisiologia , Fotoperíodo , Plantas Comestíveis/genética , Plantas Comestíveis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sono , Especificidade da Espécie , Verduras/química
17.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805693

RESUMO

Lecithins of different origins and compositions were used for the liposomal encapsulation of carvacrol within the framework of the development of active films for food packaging. Liposomes were incorporated into aqueous polymeric solutions from fully (F) and partially (P) hydrolysed Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to obtain the films by casting. The particle size distribution and ζ-potential of the liposomal suspensions, as well as their stability over time, were evaluated. Liposomal stability during film formation was analysed through the carvacrol retention in the dried film and the film microstructure. Subtle variations in the size distributions of liposomes from different lecithins were observed. However, the absolute values of the ζ-potential were higher (-52, -57 mV) for soy lecithin (SL) liposomes, followed by those of soy lecithin enriched with phosphatidylcholine (SL-PC) (-43, -50 mV) and sunflower lecithin (SFL) (-33, -38 mV). No significant changes in the liposomal properties were observed during the study period. Lyotropic mesomorphism of lipid associations and carvacrol leakage occurred to differing extents during the film drying step, depending on the membrane lipid composition and surface charge. Liposomes obtained with SL-PC were the most effective at maintaining the stability of carvacrol emulsion during film formation, which led to the greatest carvacrol retention in the films, whereas SFL gave rise to the least stable system and the highest carvacrol losses. P-PVA was less sensitive to the emulsion destabilisation due to its greater bonding capacity with carvacrol. Therefore, P-PVA with carvacrol-loaded SL-PC liposomes has great potential to produce active films for food packaging applications.


Assuntos
Cimenos/administração & dosagem , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Lipossomos/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Lecitinas/química , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916257

RESUMO

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that serves as antioxidant and plays a major role as co-factor and modulator of various pathways of the immune system. Its therapeutic effect during infections has been a matter of debate, with conflicting results in studies of respiratory infections and in critically ill patients. This comprehensive review aimed to summarize the current evidence regarding the use of vitamin C in the prevention or treatment of patients with SARS-CoV2 infection, based on available publications between January 2020 and February 2021. Overall, 21 publications were included in this review, consisting of case-reports and case-series, observational studies, and some clinical trials. In many of the publications, data were incomplete, and in most clinical trials the results are still pending. No studies regarding prevention of COVID-19 with vitamin C supplementation were found. Although some clinical observations reported improved medical condition of patients with COVID-19 treated with vitamin C, available data from controlled studies are scarce and inconclusive. Based on the theoretical background presented in this article, and some preliminary encouraging studies, the role of vitamin C in the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800788

RESUMO

The present study aimed to develop n-propyl gallate (PG)-encapsulated liposomes through a novel direct pouring method using the quality-by-design (QbD) approach. A further aim was to coat liposomes with hyaluronic acid (HA) to improve the stability of the formulation in nasal mucosa. The QbD method was used for the determination of critical quality attributes in the formulation of PG-loaded liposomes coated with HA. The optimized formulation was determined by applying the Box-Behnken design to investigate the effect of composition and process variables on particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. Physiochemical characterization, in vitro release, and permeability tests, as well as accelerated stability studies, were performed with the optimized liposomal formulation. The optimized formulation resulted in 90 ± 3.6% encapsulation efficiency, 167.9 ± 3.5 nm average hydrodynamic diameter, 0.129 ± 0.002 PDI, and -33.9 ± 4.5 zeta potential. Coated liposomes showed significantly improved properties in 24 h in an in vitro release test (>60%), in vitro permeability measurement (420 µg/cm2) within 60 min, and also in accelerated stability studies compared to uncoated liposomes. A hydrogen-peroxide-scavenging assay showed improved stability of PG-containing liposomes. It can be concluded that the optimization of PG-encapsulated liposomes coated with HA has great potential for targeting several brain diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Galato de Propila/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Lipossomos/química , Camundongos , Galato de Propila/química
20.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800848

RESUMO

Despite its proven efficacy in diverse metabolic disorders, quercetin (QU) for clinical use is still limited because of its low bioavailability. D-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) is approved as a safe pharmaceutical adjuvant with marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In the current study, several QU-loaded self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were investigated to improve QU bioavailability. A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed, for the first time, as a simple and sensitive technique for pharmacokinetic studies of QU in the presence of TPGS SNEDDS formula in rat plasma. The analyses were performed on a Xterra C18 column (4.6 × 100 mm, 5 µm) and UV detection at 280 nm. The analytes were separated by a gradient system of methanol and phosphate buffer of pH 3. The developed RP-HPLC method showed low limit of detection (LODs) of 7.65 and 22.09 ng/mL and LOQs of 23.19 and 66.96 ng/mL for QU and TPGS, respectively, which allowed their determination in real rat plasma samples. The method was linear over a wide range, (30-10,000) and (100-10,000) ng/mL for QU and TPGS, respectively. The selected SNEDDS formula, containing 50% w/w TPGS, 30% polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200), and 20% w/w pumpkin seed oil (PSO), showed a globule size of 320 nm and -28.6 mV zeta potential. Results of the pharmacokinetic studies showed 149.8% improvement in bioavailability of QU in SNEDDS relative to its suspension. The developed HPLC method proved to be simple and sensitive for QU and TPGS simultaneous determination in rat plasma after oral administration of the new SNEDDS formula.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Quercetina/sangue , Succinatos/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tensoativos , Distribuição Tecidual
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