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1.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741691

RESUMO

A recent retrospective study has provided evidence that COVID-19 infection may be notably less common in those using supplemental melatonin. It is suggested that this phenomenon may reflect the fact that, via induction of silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), melatonin can upregulate K63 polyubiquitination of the mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein, thereby boosting virally mediated induction of type 1 interferons. Moreover, Sirt1 may enhance the antiviral efficacy of type 1 interferons by preventing hyperacetylation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), enabling its retention in the nucleus, where it promotes transcription of interferon-inducible genes. This nuclear retention of HMGB1 may also be a mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin therapy in COVID-19-complementing melatonin's suppression of nuclear factor kappa B activity and upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. If these speculations are correct, a nutraceutical regimen including vitamin D, zinc and melatonin supplementation may have general utility for the prevention and treatment of RNA virus infections, such as COVID-19 and influenza.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24191, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, has no cure or applicable disease-modifying approach, only symptomatic therapy. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play key roles in PD pathophysiology. Animal studies have demonstrated that photobiomodulation (PBM) may enhance mitochondrial function and boost adenosine triphosphate production, thus alleviating PD symptoms; however, this process can cause increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent and possibly therapeutic antioxidant that can mitigate the effect of ROS. PBM targeting the brainstem may facilitate neuronal activity, and the concomitant H2 may clear additional ROS produced by PBM. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the safety and effectiveness of PBM + H2 in patients with PD. METHODS: We included 18 patients with PD (age 30-80 years) who were at Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III. All the participants received daily PBM + H2 therapy for 2 weeks. The adverse event and the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores were recorded. RESULTS: We noted that the UPDRS scores began significantly decreasing from the first week, and this improvement persisted until the end of therapy. Moreover, no adverse event was recorded. After 1 week of therapy cessation, UPDRS scores slightly increased but the improvement remained significant compared with the baseline. CONCLUSION: This novel, proof-of-concept study demonstrated that PBM+H2 therapy is safe and reduces disease severity. A larger-scaled clinical trial is warranted to completely investigate the effects of PBM + H2 therapy on PD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Água/administração & dosagem , Água/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogênio/química , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Água/efeitos adversos
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111161, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360043

RESUMO

Artificial sunscreens are already gaining traction in order to protect the skin from sunburns, photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. However, the efficacy and safety of most artificial sunscreen constituents are hindered by their photostability, toxicity and damage to marine ecosystems. Natural selection and evolution have ensured that plants and animals have developed effective protective mechanisms against the deleterious side effects of oxidative stress and ultraviolet radiation (UV). Hence, natural antioxidants such as sun blockers are drawing considerable attention. The exact mechanism by which natural components act as sunscreen molecules has not been clearly established. However, conjugated π system is reported to play an important role in protecting the vital genetic material within the organism. Compared to artificial sunscreens, natural sunscreens with strong UV absorptive capacities are largely limited by low specific extinction value and by their inability to spread in large-scale sunscreen cosmetic applications. Previous studies have documented that natural components exert their photoprotective effects (such as improved skin elasticity and hydration, skin texture, and wrinkles) through their antioxidant effects, and through the regulation of UV-induced skin inflammation, barrier impairment and aging. This review focuses on natural antioxidant topical formulations with sun protection factor (SPF). Lignin, melanin, silymarin and other ingredients have been added to high sun protection nature sunscreens without any physical or chemical UV filters. This paper also provides a reference for adopting novel technical measures (extracting high content components, changing the type of solution, optimizing formulation, applying Nano technology, et al) to design and prepare nature sunscreen formulations equated with commercial sunscreen formulations. Another strategy is to add natural antioxidants from plants, animals, microorganisms and marine organisms as special enhancer or modifier ingredients to reinforce SPF values. Although the photoprotective effects of natural components have been established, their deleterious side effects have not been elucidated.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Queimadura Solar/etiologia , Queimadura Solar/metabolismo , Queimadura Solar/patologia , Protetores Solares/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/isolamento & purificação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22249, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To comprehensively evaluate the treatment efficacy and safety of silymarin for patients with glucose/lipid metabolic dysfunction using a meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases was performed up to October 1, 2019. STATA 13.0 software was used to estimate pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). RESULTS: Sixteen studies involving 1358 patients were identified. Overall meta-analysis showed that compared with control, silymarin significantly reduced levels of fasting blood glucose (SMD: -1.27, 95% CI = [-1.78, -0.76]; P < .001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (SMD: -0.41, 95% CI = [-0.70, -0.12]; P = .005), hemoglobin A1c (SMD: -1.88, 95% CI = [-2.57, -1.20]; P < .001), total cholesterol (SMD: -1.13, 95% CI = [-1.82, -0.77]; P < .001), triglyceride (SMD: -0.37, 95% CI = [-0.69, -0.05]; P = .025), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (SMD: -1.30, 95% CI = [-1.93, -0.67]; P < .001), C-reactive protein (SMD: -0.63, 95% CI = [-1.01, -0.27]; P = .001), and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (SMD: 0.17, 95% CI = [0.05, 0.29]; P = .005), but had no impacts on function indicators of liver and kidney (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, creatinine) and the complication rate. Subgroup analyses indicated that insulin (which was negative in overall analysis) was significantly decreased in patients undergoing silymarin monotherapy (SMD: -2.03, 95% CI = [-3.03, -1.04]; P = .044) for more than 3 months (SMD: -0.01, 95% CI = [-0.25, -0.24]; P = .035). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of silymarin may be effective and safe for the management of diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Silimarina/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal , Lipídeos/sangue , Testes de Função Hepática , Silimarina/administração & dosagem , Silimarina/efeitos adversos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e20841, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to provide reliable estimates for dietary antioxidant vitamin (vitamins A, C, and E) intake and their effect on fracture risk at various sites. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify prospective cohort studies published throughout October 2019. The pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: In total, 13 prospective cohort studies involving 384,464 individuals were selected for this meta-analysis. The summary RR indicated that increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86-0.98; P = .015). When stratified by the vitamin types, increased vitamin E intake was found to be associated with a reduced fracture risk (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.95; P = .025), whereas increased vitamin A and C intake did not affect this risk. Increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk, irrespective of fracture sites (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94; P < .001); however, it did not affect hip fracture risk. Furthermore, increased antioxidant vitamin intake was associated with a reduced fracture risk in men (RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68-0.96; P = .017) and combined men and women (RR: 0.83; 95%CI: 0.73-0.93; P = .002); however, it did not affect fracture risk in women. CONCLUSION: Fracture risk at any site is significantly reduced with increased antioxidant vitamin intake, especially vitamin E intake and in men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007807, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2019), with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of relevant studies and searched the trial registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included 63 trials involving 7760 women. Investigators compared oral antioxidants, including: combinations of antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, L-arginine, myo-inositol, carnitine, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D+calcium, CoQ10, and omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids versus placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant. Only 27 of the 63 included trials reported funding sources. Due to the very low-quality of the evidence we are uncertain whether antioxidants improve live birth rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 2.43; P < 0.001, I2 = 29%; 13 RCTs, 1227 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live birth rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 24% and 36%. Low-quality evidence suggests that antioxidants may improve clinical pregnancy rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.89; P < 0.001, I2 = 63%; 35 RCTs, 5165 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected clinical pregnancy rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 25% and 30%. Heterogeneity was moderately high. Overall 28 trials reported on various adverse events in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants makes no difference between the groups in rates of miscarriage (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.55; P = 0.46, I2 = 0%; 24 RCTs, 3229 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of multiple pregnancy (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.56; P = 0.99, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 1886 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of gastrointestinal disturbances (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.47 to 5.10; P = 0.47, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 343 women; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence showed that there was also no difference between the groups in rates of ectopic pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.20; P = 0.69, I2 = 0%; 4 RCTs, 404 women). In the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison, low-quality evidence shows no difference in a lower dose of melatonin being associated with an increased live-birth rate compared with higher-dose melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live-birth rate of 24%, the rate among women using a lower dose of melatonin compared to a higher dose would be between 12% and 40%. Similarly with clinical pregnancy, there was no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates between a lower and a higher dose of melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). Three trials reported on miscarriage in the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison (two used doses of melatonin and one compared N-acetylcysteine versus L-carnitine). There were no miscarriages in either melatonin trial. Multiple pregnancy and gastrointestinal disturbances were not reported, and ectopic pregnancy was reported by only one trial, with no events. The study comparing N-acetylcysteine with L-carnitine did not report live birth rate. Very low-quality evidence shows no evidence of a difference in clinical pregnancy (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.00; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). Low quality evidence shows no difference in miscarriage (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.42 to 5.67; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). The study did not report multiple pregnancy, gastrointestinal disturbances or ectopic pregnancy. The overall quality of evidence was limited by serious risk of bias associated with poor reporting of methods, imprecision and inconsistency. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this review, there was low- to very low-quality evidence to show that taking an antioxidant may benefit subfertile women. Overall, there is no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage, multiple births, gastrointestinal effects or ectopic pregnancies, but evidence was of very low quality. At this time, there is limited evidence in support of supplemental oral antioxidants for subfertile women.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentoxifilina/efeitos adversos , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
7.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(2): 275-287, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706215

RESUMO

Inflammation and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Natural products play an important role as nutritional supplements with potential health benefits in cardiovascular diseases. Polygonum minus (PM) is an aromatic plant that is widely used as a flavoring agent in cooking and has been recognized as a plant with various medicinal properties including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Phytoconstituents found in PM such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds contribute to the plant's antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We conducted this review to systematically identify articles related to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of PM. A computerized database search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, and ACS publication, from 1946 until May 2020, and the following keywords were used: 'Kesum OR Polygonum minus OR Persicaria minor' AND 'inflammat* OR oxida* OR antioxida*'. A total of 125 articles were obtained. Another eight additional articles were identified through Google Scholar and review articles. Altogether, 17 articles were used for data extraction, comprising 16 articles on antioxidant and one article on anti-inflammatory activity of PM. These studies consist of 14 in vitro studies, one in vivo animal study, one combined in vitro and in vivo study and one combined in vitro and ex vivo study. All the studies reported that PM exhibits antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities which are most likely attributed to its high phenolic and flavonoid content.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polygonum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1807941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670409

RESUMO

Nephropathic patients show elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. In order to delve deeper into the understanding of this phenomenon, it is necessary to recognize risk factors that are distinctive to the uremic state, such as oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, gender differences have been reported in nephrology, as it has been observed that chronic kidney disease has higher prevalence in males than in females. The use of an oral food supplement (OFS) containing natural active compounds from Capsicum annuum L., Garcinia cambogia, Centella asiatica L., artichoke, and Aesculus hippocastanum L. which are virtually devoid from side effects, but rich in antioxidant and antiradical properties, could represent a valid therapeutic adjunct in the clinical management of nephropathic patients. Moreover, quantitative analysis performed in vitro on such compounds showed that they expressed good total antioxidant (7.28 gallic acid equivalents) and antiradical activity (above 80%). In this study, 23 male nephropathic patients and 10 age and body composition parameter matched healthy males (control group) were enrolled and took 3 cps/day of OFS for 5 weeks. At the end of the study, the nephropathic patient group showed a statistically significant reduction in the following laboratory parameters: total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.044), atherogenic index TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.010), inflammatory parameters (C-reactive protein, p = 0.048, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, p = 0.019), systolic (p = 0.044), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (p = 0.003). Regarding body composition, there was an increase in total body water % (p = 0.035) with redistribution of extracellular water % (p = 0.030) and intracellular water % (p = 0.049). In the control group, there was a reduction in fat mass % (p = 0.017) and extracellular water % (p = 0.047). Therefore, this OFS may represent a valid adjunct therapy to counteract comorbidities related to uremia.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115033, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387339

RESUMO

N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propylpentamide (HO-AAVPA) is a novel arylamide derivative of valproic acid (VPA) designed in silico, with better antioxidant and antiproliferative effect on cancer cell lines than VPA. This study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity, the toxicity and teratogenicity produced in HO-AAVPA-treated CD1 mice using VPA as positive control. With the maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models, HO-AAVPA reduced the time of hind limb extension, stupor and recovery, the number of clonic and tonic seizures and the mortality rate in a dose-dependent manner, obtaining an ED50 of 370 and 348 mg/kg for MES and PTZ, respectively. On the rotarod test, mice administered with 600 mg/kg HO-AAVPA manifested reduced locomotor activity (2.78%); while HO-AAVPA at 300 mg/kg and VPA at 500 mg/kg gave a similar outcome (∼60%). The LD50 of 936.80 mg/kg herein found for HO-AAVPA reflects moderate toxicity. Concerning teratogenicity, the administration of HO-AAVPA to pregnant females at 300 and 600 mg/kg on gestation day (GD) 8.5 generated less visceral and skeletal alterations in the fetuses, as well as, minor rate of modifications in the expression pattern of the neuronal marker Tuj1 and endothelial marker PECAM1 in embryos, that those induced by VPA administration. Altered embryonic development occurred with less frequency and severity with HO-AAVPA at 600 mg/kg than VPA at 500 mg/kg. In conclusion, the protective effect against convulsions provided by HO-AAVPA was comparable to that of VPA in the MES and PZT seizure models, showed lower toxicity and less damage to embryonic and fetal development.


Assuntos
Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Pentanos/efeitos adversos , Pentanos/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Eletrochoque/métodos , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Dose Letal Mediana , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pentilenotetrazol/efeitos adversos , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Gravidez , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6129, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273549

RESUMO

To eliminate the microbial infection from an injury site, various modalities have been developed such as dressings and human skin substitutes. However, the high amount of reactive oxygen species, microbial infection, and damaging extracellular matrix remain as the main challenges for the wound healing process. In this study, for the first time, green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Teucrium polium extract were embedded in poly lactic acid/poly ethylene glycol (PLA/PEG) film to provide absorbable wound dressing, with antioxidant and antibacterial features. The physicochemical analysis demonstrated, production of AgNPs with size approximately 32.2 nm and confirmed the presence of phytoconstituents on their surface. The antibacterial assessments exhibited a concentration-dependent sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward biosynthesized AgNPs, which showed a suitable safety profile in human macrophage cells. Furthermore, oxidant scavenging assays demonstrated exploitation of plant extract as a reducing agent, endows antioxidant activity to biogenic AgNPs. The formation of PLA/PEG nanofilm and entrapment of AgNPs into their matrix were clearly confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. More importantly, antibacterial examination demonstrated that the introduction of biogenic AgNPs into PLA/PEG nanofibers led to complete growth inhibition of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. In summary, the simultaneous antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of the novel biogenic AgNPs/PLA/PEG nanofilm showed its potential for application as wound dressing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Cicatrização , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactatos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(3)2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139453

RESUMO

Antioxidant drugs form one of the mainstay therapies for pain management in chronic pancreatitis. Heightened oxidative stress and free radical activity is the target for the use of antioxidant therapy in chronic pancreatitis pain relief. One of the chief components of these drugs is beta-carotene, and vitamin A. Vitamin A is a proven hepatotoxic agent which can lead to liver injury ranging from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis. Here, we present a case of chronic pancreatitis who continued antioxidant therapy unsupervised for 7 years and developed vitamin A-induced acute liver failure, which was treated with prednisolone.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Vitamina A/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
13.
Life Sci ; 253: 117581, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209424

RESUMO

AIMS: Cisplatin (CDDP) is an effective antineoplastic agent, however, its serious nephrotoxicity limits therapeutic use. Human growth hormone (hGH) has proved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of hGH against CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying this nephroprotection. MAIN METHODS: Male albino rats injected with CDDP (7 mg/kg) and nephrotoxicity indices, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers (high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)) were assessed. Also, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and Nuclear factor-erythroid-2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: hGH (1 mg/kg) improved kidney function and antioxidant systems and showed intact renal tubular epithelium. Cisplatin upregulated the HMGB-1/NF-κB and downregulated Nrf2/HO-1 pathways which were reversed by hGH and aligned with increased renal IGF-1 expression. Also, IGF-1/sEH crosstalk might be involved in hGH nephroprotection. Moreover, hGH downregulated HSP70 and caspase-3 expressions. SIGNIFICANCE: these results concluded that hGH can attenuate the inflammation and oxidative stress attained by CDDP probably through inhibition of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. We also suggested that Keap1/Nrf2-mediated upregulation of the antioxidant HO-1 might inhibit HMGB-1/NF-κB signaling and thus provide the principal protection mechanism offered by hGH against CDDP-induced kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Cisplatino/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Proteínas HMGB/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 162, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major health and socioeconomic problems in the world. Immune-enhancing enteral formula has been proven to significantly reduce infection rate in TBI patients. One of the ingredients that can be used in immunonutrition formulas to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress is pycnogenol. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work is to survey the effect of pycnogenol on the clinical, nutritional, and inflammatory status of TBI patients. METHODS: This is a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Block randomization will be used. An intervention group will receive pycnogenol supplementation of 150 mg for 10 days and a control group will receive a placebo for the same duration. Inflammatory status (IL-6, IL- 1ß, C-reactive protein) and oxidative stress status (malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity), at the baseline, at the 5th day, and at the end of the study (10th day) will be measured. Clinical and nutritional status will be assessed three times during the intervention. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) questionnaire for assessment of organ failure will be filled out every other day. The mortality rate will be calculated within 28 days of the start of the intervention. Weight, body mass index, and body composition will be measured. All analyses will be conducted by an initially assigned study arm in an intention-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION: We expect that supplementation of 150 mg pycnogenol for 10 days will improve clinical and nutritional status and reduce the inflammation and oxidative stress of the TBI patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (ref: NCT03777683) at 12/13/2018.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 42, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a health problem of global importance; treatments focus on controlling infection and supporting failing organs. Recent clinical research suggests that intravenous vitamin C may decrease mortality in sepsis. We have designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to ascertain the effect of vitamin C on the composite endpoint of death or persistent organ dysfunction at 28 days in patients with sepsis. METHODS: LOVIT (Lessening Organ dysfunction with VITamin C) is a multicenter, parallel-group, blinded (participants, clinicians, study personnel, Steering Committee members, data analysts), superiority RCT (minimum n = 800). Eligible patients have sepsis as the diagnosis for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and are receiving vasopressors. Those admitted to the ICU for more than 24 h are excluded. Eligible patients are randomized to high-dose intravenous vitamin C (50 mg/kg every 6 h for 96 h) or placebo. The primary outcome is a composite of death or persistent organ dysfunction (need for vasopressors, invasive mechanical ventilation, or new and persisting renal replacement therapy) at day 28. Secondary outcomes include persistent organ dysfunction-free days to day 28, mortality and health-related quality of life at 6 months, biomarkers of dysoxia, inflammation, infection, endothelial function, and adverse effects (hemolysis, acute kidney injury, and hypoglycemia). Six subgroup analyses are planned. DISCUSSION: This RCT will provide evidence of the effect of high-dose intravenous vitamin C on patient-important outcomes in patients with sepsis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03680274, first posted 21 September 2018.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Ascórbico/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos
16.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991898

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-dose omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids supplementation, in combination with antioxidant vitamins, on cognitive function and functional capacity of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), over a 6-month period in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-six older adults with MCI (age: 78.8 ± 7.3 years) were randomized 1:1 to receive either a 20 mL dose of a formula containing a mixture of omega-3 (810 mg Eicosapentaenoic acid and 4140 mg Docosahexaenoic acid) and omega-6 fatty acids (1800 mg gamma-Linolenic acid and 3150 mg Linoleic acid) (1:1 w/w), with 0.6 mg vitamin A, vitamin E (22 mg) plus pure γ-tocopherol (760 mg), or 20mL placebo containing olive oil. Participants completed assessments of cognitive function, functional capacity, body composition and various aspects of quality of life at baseline and following three and six months of supplementation. Thirty-six participants completed the study (eighteen from each group). A significant interaction between supplementation and time was found on cognitive function (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination -Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Stroop Color and Word Test (STROOP) color test; p < 0.001, p = 0.011 and p = 0.037, respectively), functional capacity (6-min walk test and sit-to-stand-60; p = 0.028 and p = 0.032, respectively), fatigue (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.007), and daily sleepiness (p = 0.007)-showing a favorable improvement for the participants receiving the supplement. The results indicate that this nutritional modality could be promising for reducing cognitive and functional decline in the elderly with MCI.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Chipre , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estado Nutricional , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
17.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948058

RESUMO

Grapefruit essential oil has been proven to have wide range of bioactivities. However, bioactivity of its molecular distillate has not been well studied. In this study, a light phase oil was obtained by molecular distillation from cold-pressed grapefruit essential oil and GC-MS was used to identify its chemical composition. The antimicrobial activity of the light phase oil was tested by filter paper diffusion method, and the anticancer activity was determined by the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Twenty-four components were detected with a total relative content of 99.74%, including 97.48% of terpenes and 1.66% of oxygenated terpenes. The light phase oil had the best antimicrobial effect on Bacillus subtilis, followed by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonellaty phimurium. DPPH and ABTS assays demonstrated that the light phase oil had good antioxidant activity. The CCK-8 assay of cell proliferation showed that the light phase oil had a good inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 liver cancer cells and HCT116 colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citrus paradisi/química , Destilação/métodos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968635

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infectious disease that leads to inflammation of the gingiva, resulting in teeth loss by various causes such as inflammation-mediated bone resorption. Recently, many investigators have reported that the periodontitis resulting from persistent low-grade infection of Gram-negative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is associated with increased atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and other systemic diseases through blood stream. On the other hand, carotenoids belong among phytochemicals that are responsible for different colors of the foods. It is important to examine whether carotenoids are effective to the inhibition of periodontal infection/inflammation cascades. This review summarizes the advanced state of knowledge about suppression of periodontal infection by several carotenoids. A series of findings suggest that carotenoids intake may provide novel strategy for periodontitis treatment, although further study will be needed.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Carotenoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(4): 292-298, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895874

RESUMO

Healthy vascular endothelial cells regulate vascular tone and permeability, prevent vessel wall inflammation, enhance thromboresistance, and contribute to general vascular health. Furthermore, they perform important functions including the production of vasoactive substances such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, as well as the regulation of smooth muscle cell functions. Conversely, vascular endothelial dysfunction leads to atherosclerosis, thereby enhancing the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Observational studies and randomized trials showed that green tea intake was inversely related to CVD risk. Furthermore, evidence indicates that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green tea might exert a preventive effect against CVDs. EGCG acts as an antioxidant, inducing NO release and reducing endothelin-1 production in endothelial cells. EGCG enhances the bioavailability of normal NO by reducing levels of the endogenous NO inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. Furthermore, it inhibits the enhanced expression of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and attenuates monocyte adhesion. In addition, EGCG prevents enhanced oxidative stress through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. These effects indicate that it might prevent the production of reactive oxygen species, inhibit inflammation, and reduce endothelial cell apoptosis during the initial stages of atherosclerosis. The current review summarizes recent research in this area and discusses novel findings regarding the protective effect of EGCG on endothelial dysfunction and CVDs in general.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Catequina/efeitos adversos , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30(1): 83-90, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Actovegin is a biological drug with a controversial history of use in the treatment of sports injuries during the past 60 years. Particular concerns have been raised about its ergogenic potential to enhance performance, but some of these have been based on little more than anecdote. OBJECTIVES: In this article, we review the most recent scientific evidence to determine the clinical efficacy, safety profile, and legal status of Actovegin. METHODS: We considered all studies directly commenting on experience with Actovegin use as the primary intervention within the past 10 years. Outcomes included mechanisms of action, clinical efficacy in enhancing muscle repair, any report of safety issues, and any evidence for ergogenic effect. RESULTS: Our database search returned 212 articles, abstracts were screened, and after inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied, 25 articles were considered: Publications included 11 primary research articles (7 in vitro studies and 4 clinical trials), 8 review articles, 5 editorials, and a single case report. CONCLUSIONS: Current literature is still yet to define the active compound(s) of Actovegin, but suggests that it shows antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, and may also upregulate macrophage responses central to muscle repair. Clinical efficacy was supported by one new original research article, and the use of Actovegin to treat muscle injuries remains safe and supported. Two articles argued the ergogenic effect of Actovegin, but in vitro findings did not to translate to the outcomes of a clinical trial. An adequate and meaningful scientific approach remains difficult in a field where there is immense pressure to deliver cutting-edge therapies.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos em Atletas/tratamento farmacológico , Heme/análogos & derivados , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme/efeitos adversos , Heme/farmacologia , Heme/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico
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