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1.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(2): 74-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods can prevent or reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness after exercise. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. RESULTS: In total, 50 studies were included in this review which included a total of 1089 participants (961 were male and 128 were female) with an age range of 16-55 years. All studies used an antioxidant dosage higher than the recommended daily amount. The majority of trials (47) had design features that carried a high risk of bias due to selective reporting and poorly described allocation concealment, potentially limiting the reliability of their findings. We rescaled to a 0-10 cm scale in order to quantify the actual difference between groups and we found that the 95% CIs for all five follow-up times were all well below the minimal important difference of 1.4 cm: up to 6 hours (MD -0.52, 95% CI -0.95 to -0.08); at 24 hours (MD -0.17, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.07); at 48 hours (mean difference (MD) -0.41, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.12); at 72 hours (MD -0.29, 95% CI -0.59 to 0.02); and at 96 hours (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.37). Thus, the effect sizes suggesting less muscle soreness with antioxidant supplementation were very unlikely to equate to meaningful or important differences in practice. CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate to low-quality evidence that high-dose antioxidant supplementation does not result in a clinically relevant reduction of muscle soreness after exercise of up to 6 hours or at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exercise. There is no evidence available on subjective recovery and only limited evidence on the adverse effects of taking antioxidant supplements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Alimentos Fortificados , Mialgia/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos
2.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 539-550, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827327

RESUMO

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), as assessed by measurement of left ventricular mass (LVM), is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. It is commonly present in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), irrespective of the level of blood pressure; recently, oxidative stress has been shown to be an important factor in its development. The question then arises: can this risk factor be modified by antioxidant treatment (e.g., with allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor)? Methods: This is an observational study with a cross-sectional design which explored the association between long-term (>12 months) allopurinol therapy and LV mass index (LVMI) as well as geometry in patients generally receiving standard treatments for IHD. The primary endpoint was LVMI measurement (by 2D-echocardiography) and secondary endpoints included the association of allopurinol use with LV function (ejection fraction), blood pressure, glycemic control, and lipid profile. Results: Ninety-six patients on standard anti-ischemic drug treatment (control group) and 96 patients who were additionally taking allopurinol (minimum dose 100 mg/day) were enrolled. Both groups were matched for age, sex, height, and co-morbidities, but poorer kidney function in the allopurinol group required further sub-group analysis based on renal function. Allopurinol treatment was associated with the lowest LVMI in the patients with normal serum creatinine (median LVMI; 70.5 g/m2): corresponding values were 76.0 and 87.0 in the control group with, respectively, normal and elevated serum creatinine, and 89.5 in the allopurinol group with elevated serum creatinine (P=0.027). In addition, allopurinol was associated with better glycemic control (HbA1c) with a difference of 0.8% (95% CI; 1.3, 0.2) (P=0.004) as compared with control patients. Conclusion: In our population, treatment with allopurinol (presumably because of its anti-oxidant properties) has shown a tendency to be associated with smaller LVM in IHD patients with normal serum creatinine, along with better glycemic control.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(3): 185-191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687097

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is among the most widely used dietary and nutritional supplements on the market. CoQ10 has several fundamental properties that may be beneficial in several clinical situations. This article reviews the pertinent chemical, metabolic, and physiologic properties of CoQ10 and the scientific data and clinical trials that address its use in two common clinical settings: statin-associated myopathy syndrome (SAMS) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Although clinical trials of CoQ10 in SAMS have conflicting conclusions, the weight of the evidence, as seen in meta-analyses, supports the use of CoQ10 in SAMS overall. In CHF, there is a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trial data regarding the use of statins in patients receiving contemporary treatment. However, one relatively recent randomized clinical trial, Q-SYMBIO, suggests an adjunctive role for CoQ10 in CHF. Recommendations regarding the use of CoQ10 in these clinical situations are presented.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , /epidemiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Ubiquinona/efeitos adversos , Ubiquinona/farmacocinética , Ubiquinona/uso terapêutico
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626217

RESUMO

AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of mexidol dripped intravenously (500 mg once a day) in the form of infusions for 14 days, followed by oral administration of mexidol FORTE 250 at a dose of 250 mg (1 tablet) 3 times a day for 60 days, in treatment of chronic brain ischemia in patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The open observation program included 60 patients with an established diagnosis of chronic brain ischemia confirmed by neuroimaging methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of the study show the high efficacy and safety of sequential therapy (injections followed by tablets of mexidol FORTE 250). The treatment improves emotional and cognitive status, decreases motor disorders and severity of subjective manifestations. High adherence of patients to the therapy is shown.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Isquemia Encefálica , Picolinas , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Picolinas/efeitos adversos , Picolinas/uso terapêutico
5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514292

RESUMO

The use of a complete nutritional approach seems increasingly promising to combat chronic inflammation. The choice of healthy sources of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, associated with regular physical activity and avoidance of smoking is essential to fight the war against chronic diseases. At the base of the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or antioxidant action of the diets, there are numerous molecules, among which some of a lipidic nature very active in the inflammatory pathway. One class of molecules found in diets with anti-inflammatory actions are ALIAmides. Among all, one is particularly known for its ability to counteract the inflammatory cascade, the Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). PEA is a molecular that is present in nature, in numerous foods, and is endogenously produced by our body, which acts as a balancer of inflammatory processes, also known as endocannabionoid-like. PEA is often used in the treatment of both acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies, either alone or in association with other molecules with properties, such as antioxidants or analgesics. This review aims to illustrate an overview of the different diets that are involved in the process of opposition to the inflammatory cascade, focusing on capacity of PEA and new formulations in synergy with other molecules.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Palmíticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Etanolaminas/efeitos adversos , Etanolaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ácidos Palmíticos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Palmíticos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(4): 251-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colon surgery can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). There is a recent trend towards the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention or alleviation of the severity of postoperative SIRS, but its use is controversial as studies have shown conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: Investigate the efficacy and tolerability of perioperative intravenous administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in patients undergoing colon surgery. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, and controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Surgical critical care unit in Egypt. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients who required admission to the ICU following colon surgery were enrolled in the study between July 2015 and October 2016. Eligibility included the need for parenteral nutrition for at least 5 days due to failure of or contraindication to enteral nutrition. Patients were randomly allocated using a computer-generated list to a loading dose of NAC followed by continuous infusion started one hour prior to induction, and continued over 48 hours, or to the control group, who received the same volume of dextrose 5%. Allocation was concealed using opaque, sealed envelopes under pharmacy control. The researcher, the anesthesiologist, the surgeon, and patients were blinded to the treatment allocation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical and laboratory evaluation for manifestations of SIRS, serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and malondialdehyde, and occurrence of side effects in the study group. SAMPLE SIZE: 60 patients with mean (SD) ages of 56 (15.1) years in the study group (n=30) and 57.7 (12.3) years in the control group (n=30). RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the mean serum level of ALT (22.6 (9.9) U/L in the study group vs. 31.1 (17.8) U/L in the control group, P=.028) after treatment with NAC, but differences between the groups in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha and malondialdehyde after treatment were not significant. Serum levels of malondialdehyde increased in both groups after treatment P<.001. There was no statistically significant difference from baseline or between the groups after treatment in other clinical data and laboratory parameters following NAC administration, and only 6.6% of the patients in the study group experienced mild side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative administration of NAC is safe, but its efficacy as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent was not statistically significant and requires further investigation in a larger sample. LIMITATIONS: Single-center study, small sample size, and short duration of NAC administration. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY: NCT03589495. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Colo/cirurgia , Dipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Acetilcisteína/efeitos adversos , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Dipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416212

RESUMO

Human and animal studies have shown that Hesperidin has the ability to modulate antioxidant and inflammatory state and to improve aerobic performance. The main objective of this study was to assess whether the acute intake of 500 mg of 2S-Hesperidin (Cardiose®) improves antioxidant status, metabolism, and athletic performance, during and after a rectangular test (aerobic and anaerobic effort). For this, a crossover design was used in 15 cyclists (>1 year of training), with one week of washout between placebo and Cardiose® supplementation. After the intervention, significant differences in average power (+2.27%, p = 0.023), maximum speed (+3.23%, p = 0.043) and total energy (∑ 4 sprint test) (+2.64%, p = 0.028) between Cardiose® and placebo were found in the best data of the repeated sprint test. Small changes were also observed in the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione concentration and oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH) ratio, as well as the lipoperoxidation products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), at different points of the rectangular test, although not significant. Our findings showed improvements in anaerobic performance after Cardiose® intake, but not in placebo, suggesting the potential benefits of using Cardiose® in sports with a high anaerobic component.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Hesperidina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Chin Med ; 47(5): 959-1003, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416340

RESUMO

The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary of the botanical characteristics, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies of the genus Ajuga L. The extensive literature survey revealed Ajuga L. species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of rheumatism, fever, gout, sclerosis, analgesia, inflammation, hypertension, hyperglycemia, joint pain, palsy, amenorrhea, etc., although only a few reports address the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Currently, more than 280 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants. Among these constituents, neo-clerodane diterpenes and diterpenoids, phytoecdysteroids, flavonoids, and iridoids are the major bioactive compounds, possessing wide-reaching biological activities both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antifeedant, antidiarrhoeal, hypolipidemic, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, immunomodulatory, vasorelaxant, larvicidal, antimutagenic, and neuroprotective activity. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Ajuga L. to reveal its therapeutic potentials, offering opportunities for future researches. Therefore, more focus should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical application of the bioactive ingredients from Ajuga L. species.


Assuntos
Ajuga/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antidiarreicos/efeitos adversos , Antidiarreicos/química , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
9.
Trials ; 20(1): 469, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muscle satellite cells (SCs) are crucial for muscle regeneration following muscle trauma. Acute skeletal muscle damage results in inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may be implicated in SCs activation. Protection of these cells from oxidative damage is essential to ensure sufficient muscle regeneration. The aim of this study is to determine whether SCs activity under conditions of aseptic skeletal muscle trauma induced by exercise is redox-dependent. METHODS/DESIGN: Based on the SCs content in their vastus lateralis skeletal muscle, participants will be classified as either high or low respondents. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, repeated-measures design, participants will then receive either placebo or N-acetylcysteine (alters redox potential in muscle) during a preliminary 7-day loading phase, and for eight consecutive days following a single bout of intense muscle-damaging exercise. In both trials, blood samples and muscle biopsies will be collected, and muscle performance and soreness will be measured at baseline, pre-exercise, 2 and 8 days post exercise. Biological samples will be analyzed for redox status and SCs activity. Between trials, a 4-week washout period will be implemented. DISCUSSION: This study is designed to investigate the impact of redox status on SCs mobilization and thus skeletal muscle potential for regeneration under conditions of aseptic inflammation induced by exercise. Findings of this trial should provide insight into (1) molecular pathways involved in SCs recruitment and muscle healing under conditions of aseptic skeletal muscle trauma present in numerous catabolic conditions and (2) whether skeletal muscle's potential for regeneration depends on its basal SCs content. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03711838 . Registered on 19 Oct 2018.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Exercício , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcisteína/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/metabolismo , Mialgia/patologia , Oxirredução , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284389

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of this multifactorial disease has not been clearly defined. Conventional medical treatment of MS has progressed, but is still based on symptomatic treatment. One of the key factors in the pathogenesis of MS is oxidative stress, enhancing inflammation and neurodegeneration. In MS, both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are formed in the CNS mainly by activated macrophages and microglia structures, which can lead to demyelination and axon disruption. The course of MS is associated with the secretion of many inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators, including cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, INF-γ) and chemokines (MIP-1a, MCP-1, IP10). The early stage of MS (RRMS) lasts about 10 years, and is dominated by inflammatory processes, whereas the chronic stage is associated with neurodegenerative axon and neuron loss. Since oxidative damage has been known to be involved in inflammatory and autoimmune-mediated processes, antioxidant therapy could contribute to the reduction or even prevention of the progression of MS. Further research is needed in order to establish new aims for novel treatment and provide possible benefits to MS patients. The present review examines the roles of oxidative stress and non-pharmacological anti-oxidative therapies in MS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/dietoterapia , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261645

RESUMO

In recent years, the consumption of chocolate and, in particular, dark chocolate has been "rehabilitated" due to its high content of cocoa antioxidant polyphenols. Although it is recognized that regular exercise improves energy metabolism and muscle performance, excessive or unaccustomed exercise may induce cell damage and impair muscle function by triggering oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. The aim of this review was to revise the available data from literature on the effects of cocoa polyphenols on exercise-associated tissue damage and impairment of exercise performance. To this aim, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched with the following keywords: "intervention studies", "cocoa polyphenols", "exercise training", "inflammation", "oxidative stress", and "exercise performance". We selected thirteen randomized clinical trials on cocoa ingestion that involved a total of 200 well-trained athletes. The retrieved data indicate that acute, sub-chronic, and chronic cocoa polyphenol intake may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress but not inflammation, while mixed results are observed in terms of exercise performance and recovery. The interpretation of available results on the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of cocoa polyphenols remains questionable, likely due to the variety of physiological networks involved. Further experimental studies are mandatory to clarify the role of cocoa polyphenol supplementation in exercise-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Chocolate/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercício , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Miosite/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/análise , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miosite/etiologia , Miosite/metabolismo , Miosite/fisiopatologia , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/análise , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e15404, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335666

RESUMO

This study retrospectively evaluated the effect of lutein supplement (LS) on patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).A total of 72 patients with NPDR were included in this study. All patients received Zeaxanthin during the study period. In addition, 36 patients also received LS and were assigned to the treatment group, while the other 36 patients did not receive LS and were assigned to the control group. All patients were treated for a total of 4 months. The endpoints included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and glare sensitivity (GS). In addition, any adverse events were also assessed. All endpoints were measured before and after 4-month treatment.Before treatment, there were no significant differences in VA (P = .75), CS (P = .71), and GS (P = .73) between two groups. After 4-month treatment, there were still no significant differences in all endpoints of VA (P = .66), CS (P = .58), and GS (P = .61) between two groups. No adverse events were recorded in either group.The results of this retrospective study showed that LS may not benefit for patients with NPDR after 4-month treatment. More high quality randomized controlled trials should still be needed to warrant the results of this study.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Luteína , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Luteína/administração & dosagem , Luteína/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 64, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of severe visual deficits and blindness. Meanwhile, there is convincing evidence implicating oxidative stress, inflammation, and neovascularization in the onset and progression of AMD. Several studies have identified berberine hydrochloride and chrysophanol as potential treatments for ocular diseases based on their antioxidative, antiangiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, their poor stability and bioavailability have limited their application. In order to overcome these disadvantages, we prepared a compound liposome system that can entrap these drugs simultaneously using the third polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM G3.0) as a carrier. RESULTS: PAMAM G3.0-coated compound liposomes exhibited appreciable cellular permeability in human corneal epithelial cells and enhanced bio-adhesion on rabbit corneal epithelium. Moreover, coated liposomes greatly improved BBH bioavailability. Further, coated liposomes exhibited obviously protective effects in human retinal pigment epithelial cells and rat retinas after photooxidative retinal injury. Finally, administration of P-CBLs showed no sign of side effects on ocular surface structure in rabbits model. CONCLUSIONS: The PAMAM G3.0-liposome system thus displayed a potential use for treating various ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Dendrímeros/química , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipossomos/química , Poliaminas/química , Administração Oftálmica , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular , Córnea/citologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Humanos , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141884

RESUMO

All over the world, metabolic syndrome constitutes severe health problems. Multiple factors have been reported in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic disorders result in reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative stress, playing a vital role in the development and pathogenesis of major health issues, including neurological disorders Alzheimer's disease (AD) Parkinson's disease (PD). Considerable increasing evidence indicates the substantial contribution of ROS-induced oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. An imbalanced metabolism results in a defective antioxidant defense system, free radicals causing inflammation, cellular apoptosis, and tissue damage. Due to the annual increase in financial and social burdens, in addition to the adverse effects associated with available synthetic agents, treatment diversion from synthetic to natural approaches has occurred. Antioxidants are now being considered as convincing therapeutic agents against various neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, medicinal herbs and fruits currently receive substantially more attention as commercial sources of antioxidants. In this review, we argue that ROS-targeted therapeutic interventions with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoid, anthocyanin, and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles might be the ultimate treatment against devastating illnesses. Furthermore, we elucidate the hidden potential of the neuroprotective role of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-loaded nanoparticles in AD and PD neuropathies, which lack sufficient attention compared with other polyphenols, despite their strong antioxidant potential. Moreover, we address the need for future research studies of native anthocyanins and nano-based-anthocyanins, which will be helpful in developing anthocyanin treatments as therapeutic mitochondrial antioxidant drug-like regimens to delay or prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and PD.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Neural , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antocianinas/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Neurochem Res ; 44(7): 1549-1566, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093902

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) on rat cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) and to elucidate the corresponding mechanisms. Primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to OGD/R, which is commonly used in vitro to mimic ischemic injury, and then treated with 5- or 20-nm Au-NPs. We then evaluated cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial respiration in these neurons. We found that 20-nm Au-NPs increased cell viability, alleviated neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress, and improved mitochondrial respiration after OGD/R injury, while opposite effects were observed for 5-nm Au-NPs. In terms of the underlying mechanisms, we found that Au-NPs could regulate Akt signaling. Taken together, these results show that 20-nm Au-NPs can protect primary cortical neurons against OGD/R injury, possibly by decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress, while activating Akt signaling and mitochondrial pathways. Our results suggest that Au-NPs may be potential therapeutic agents for ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Ouro/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Ouro/efeitos adversos , Ouro/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(4)2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046915

RESUMO

Exogenous ochronosis (EO) is an entity that manifests as black-bluish or grayish-brown cutaneous hyperpigmentation, which is a consequence of the deposition of ochronotic pigment with characteristic banana-like morphology between the collagen fibers of the dermis. Both the clinical presentation and histopathology appearance are superimposable with endogenous ochronosis or alcaptonuria, a hereditary disease in which ochronotic pigment deposition occurs at a multisystemic level. The most frequent cause of EO is the use of facial depigmenting creams containing hydroquinone, a common practice among women with high phototypes. We present a woman who developed EO on the face, upper chest, and back after prolonged use of a depigmenting cream containing hydroquinone.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Hidroquinonas/efeitos adversos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Ocronose/induzido quimicamente , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/efeitos adversos , Dorso , Dermatoses Faciais/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocronose/patologia , Tórax
17.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 104, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date there are no head-to-head studies comparing different mucolytic/antioxidant agents. Considering the inconsistent evidence resulting from the pivotal studies on mucolytic/antioxidant agents tested in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the recent publication of Reducing Exacerbations and Symptoms by Treatment with ORal Erdosteine in COPD (RESTORE) study, we have performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of erdosteine 600 mg/day, carbocysteine 1500 mg/day, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 1200 mg/day in COPD. METHODS: A pairwise and network meta-analyses were performed to assess the efficacy of erdosteine, carbocysteine, and NAC on acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), duration of AECOPD, and hospitalization. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was also investigated. RESULTS: Data obtained from 2753 COPD patients were extracted from 7 RCTs published between 2004 and 2017. In the pairwise meta-analysis mucolytic/antioxidant agents significantly reduced the risk of AECOPD (RR 0.74 95%CI 0.68-0.80). The network meta-analysis provided the following rank of effectiveness: erdosteine>carbocysteine>NAC. Only erdosteine reduced the risk of experiencing at least one AECOPD (P < 0.01) and the risk of hospitalization due to AECOPD (P < 0.05). Erdosteine and NAC both significantly reduced the duration of AECOPD (P < 0.01). The AEs induced by erdosteine, carbocysteine, and NAC were mild in severity and generally well tolerated. The quality of evidence of this quantitative synthesis is moderate. CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy/safety profile of erdosteine is superior to that of both carbocysteine and NAC. Future head-to-head studies performed on the same COPD populations are needed to definitely confirm the results of this meta-analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42016053762 .


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carbocisteína/uso terapêutico , Expectorantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tioglicolatos/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Acetilcisteína/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Carbocisteína/efeitos adversos , Expectorantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tioglicolatos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Phytother Res ; 33(6): 1627-1638, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069872

RESUMO

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a medicinal plant from the Asteraceae family. Silymarin is the major constituent of milk thistle extract and is a mixture of some flavonolignans such as silybin, which is the most active component of silymarin. It is most commonly known for its hepatoprotective effect. Also, studies have shown other therapeutic effects such as anticancer, anti-Alzheimer, anti-Parkinson, and anti-diabetic, so its safety is very important. It has no major toxicity in animals. Silymarin was mutagen in Salmonella typhimurium strains in the presence of metabolic enzymes. Silybin, silydianin, and silychristin were not cytotoxic and genotoxic at concentration of 100 µM. Silymarin is safe in humans at therapeutic doses and is well tolerated even at a high dose of 700 mg three times a day for 24 weeks. Some gastrointestinal discomforts occurred like nausea and diarrhea. One clinical trial showed silymarin is safe in pregnancy, and there were no anomalies. Consequently, caution should be exercised during pregnancy, and more studies are needed especially in humans. Silymarin has low-drug interactions, and it does not have major effects on cytochromes P-450. Some studies demonstrated that the use of silymarin must be with caution when co-administered with narrow therapeutic window drugs.


Assuntos
Cardo Mariano/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Silimarina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/classificação , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardo Mariano/efeitos adversos , Degeneração Neural/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Silimarina/efeitos adversos
19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(5): 1513-1521, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945042

RESUMO

A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of linseed oil (LO) on growth, plasma biochemistry, hepatic metabolism enzymes, and antioxidant capacity of juvenile largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides. Four isonitrogenous (crude protein, 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy, 18 MJ/kg) diets were formulated by replacing 0 (the control), 33.3%, 66.7%, and 100% of fish oil with linseed oil. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of fish (initial body weight, 22.02 ± 0.61 g) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed diet with 100% LO substitution level had lower weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than the other groups (P < 0.05), while feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Feed intake (FI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) of 66.7% LO substitution level were significantly lower than the control groups (P < 0.05). Glycogen, lipid, and non-esterified fatty acid content in the liver decreased significantly with increasing dietary LO levels (P < 0.05). Moreover, the replacement of fish oil (FO) with LO could significantly reduce the content of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the activity of alanine amiotransferase (ALT) in plasma of M. salmoides (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in hepatic metabolism enzymes in fish fed diets with different dietary LO levels. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-α) activities in liver significantly increased with increasing dietary LO level (P < 0.05). In addition, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) activities in the liver significantly increased with decreasing dietary LO level (P < 0.05). Both the lowest superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the liver were recorded in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, nitric oxide content, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities in the liver significantly increased with increasing dietary LO level, while malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly reduced. These findings demonstrated that LO can improve liver function and antioxidant ability of M. salmoides. In addition, replacing partial FO with LO cannot affect growth performance, but all substitutions inhibit growth performance of M. salmoides.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bass/fisiologia , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária , Óleos de Peixe , Óleo de Semente do Linho/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Fígado/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987058

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by degeneration of retinal neurons and neoangiogenesis, causing a severe threat to vision. Nowadays, the principal treatment options for DR are laser photocoagulation, vitreoretinal surgery, or intravitreal injection of drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor. However, these treatments only act at advanced stages of DR, have short term efficacy, and cause side effects. Treatment with nutraceuticals (foods providing medical or health benefits) at early stages of DR may represent a reasonable alternative to act upstream of the disease, preventing its progression. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that a variety of nutraceuticals have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may inhibit the early diabetes-driven molecular mechanisms that induce DR, reducing both the neural and vascular damage typical of DR. Although most studies are limited to animal models and there is the problem of low bioavailability for many nutraceuticals, the use of these compounds may represent a natural alternative method to standard DR treatments.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Retina/fisiopatologia , Neovascularização Retiniana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia , Neovascularização Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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