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1.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(1): 111-121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148012

RESUMO

During the menopause women may experience increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity and, together with the decline of neurosteroids, this represents a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present study was to test a functional food (FPP-ORI, Osato Research Institute, Gifu, Japan) on redox and mitochondrial efficiency in post-menopausal women. The study population consisting of 69 untreated post-menopausal women were given supplements as follows: Group A was given a multivitamin (MV) 1c 2 times a day, and group B was given FPP 4.5 g 2 times a day. Group C consisted of 23 fertile premenopausal women as the control group. The tests carried out on entry, and at 3 and 6 months were erythrocyte redox parameters, plasma oxidated proteins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) mitochondria cytochrome c oxidase Vmax activity. Menopausal women showed an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.05 vs control) which was normalized by both treatments (p<0.05), but MV failed to do so in the BMI ≥26 subgroup (p<0.05). All other redox enzymes and BDNF were significantly lower in menopausal women and they responded only to FPP (p<0.05). Carbonyl protein level was higher in "BMI ≥ 26" subgroup (p<0.05) and reduced only by FPP (p<0.05). The PBMC cyclooxygenase to citrate synthase activity was reduced (<40%) in the menopausal group (p<0.01) and only FPP caused a significant restoration (p<0.05). Although preliminary, these data confirm the redox and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in post-menopause and responsive to FPP but very poorly to high dosage antioxidants. This may lead to potential preventive opportunities in menopause-associated neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Risco
2.
Physiol Plant ; 168(2): 345-360, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343742

RESUMO

We conducted a study to evaluate the interactive effect of NO and H2 S on the cadmium (Cd) tolerance of wheat. Cadmium stress considerably reduced total dry weight, chlorophyll a and b content and ratio of Fv/Fm by 36.7, 48.6, 26.7 and 19.5%, respectively, but significantly enhanced the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA), endogenous H2 S and NO, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Exogenously applied sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), donors of NO and H2 S, respectively, enhanced total plant dry matter by 47.8 and 39.1%, chlorophyll a by 92.3 and 61.5%, chlorophyll b content by 29.1 and 27.2%, Fv/Fm ratio by 19.7 and 15.2%, respectively, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, but lowered oxidative stress and proline content in Cd-stressed wheat plants. NaHS and SNP also considerably limited both the uptake and translocation of Cd, thereby improving the levels of some key mineral nutrients in the plants. Enhanced levels of NO and H2 S induced by NaHS were reversed by hypotuarine application, but they were substantially reduced almost to 50% by cPTIO (a NO scavenger) application. Hypotuarine was not effective, but cPTIO was highly effective in reducing the levels of NO and H2 S produced by SNP in the roots of Cd-stressed plants. The results showed that interactive effect of NO and H2 S can considerably improve plant resistance against Cd toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and uptake of Cd in plants as well as by enhancing antioxidative defence system and uptake of some essential mineral nutrients.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila A/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Malondialdeído/análise , Triticum/fisiologia
3.
J Plant Physiol ; 244: 153071, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756571

RESUMO

Tetraploids are usually more tolerant to environmental stresses than diploids. Citrus plants face numerous abiotic stresses, including salinity, which negatively affect growth and yield. Double diploid citrus rootstocks have been shown to be more tolerant to abiotic stresses than their diploid relatives. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidative and osmotic adjustment mechanisms of diploid (2x) and double diploid (4x) volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana Tan. and Pasq.) rootstocks, which act against salt stress (75 and 150 mM). Results indicated that, under salt stress, all physiological variables (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and leaf greenness) decreased, and these decreases were more noticeable in 2x plants than in 4x plants. On the other hand, accumulation of oxidative markers (malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide) was greater in the leaves and roots of 2x seedlings than in 4x seedlings. Similarly, the activities of antioxidative enzymes (peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were higher in the leaves and roots of 4x plants than in 2x plants. However, superoxide dismutase activity was higher in the roots of 2x seedlings than 4x seedlings. Double diploid plants affected by salt stress accumulated more osmolytes (i.e. proline and glycine betaine) in their leaves and roots than that by 2x plants. Total protein content, antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content were also higher in 4x plants than 2x plants under salinity. At 150 mM, both 2x and 4x plants showed more symptoms of stress than those at 75 mM. Sodium content was the highest in the roots of 2x plants and in the leaves of 4x plants, while chloride content peaked in the leaves of 2x plants and in the roots of 4x plants. Overall, our results demonstrate that the active antioxidative defence mechanisms of 4x plants increase their tolerance to salinity compared to their corresponding 2x relatives. Thus, the use of newly developed tetraploid rootstocks may be a strategy for enhancing crop production in saline conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Citrus/fisiologia , Osmose/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Citrus/genética , Diploide , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Tetraploidia
4.
Angiology ; 71(2): 112-121, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185723

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a multistep process that progresses over a long period of time and displays a broad range of severity. In its final form, it manifests as a lesion of the intimal layer of the arterial wall. There is strong evidence supporting that oxidative stress contributes to coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and antioxidant high-density lipoprotein (HDL) could have a beneficial role in the prevention and prognosis of the disease. Indeed, certain subspecies of HDL may act as natural antioxidants preventing oxidation of lipids on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and biological membranes. The antioxidant function may be attributed to inhibition of synthesis or neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen species by HDL lipids and associated enzymes or transfer of oxidation prone lipids from LDL and biological membranes to HDL for catabolism. A limited number of clinical trials suggest that the increased antioxidant potential of HDL correlates with decreased risk for atherosclerosis. Some nutritional interventions to increase HDL antioxidant activity have been proposed with limited success so far. The limitations in measuring and understanding HDL antioxidant function in vivo are also discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(11)2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671553

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Premature newborns have a number of oxidative stress-inducing disorders. Antioxidant defense is deficient in premature newborns. Hydrogen donors can be used to evaluate the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. By measuring hydrogen donors, a group of antioxidants can be assessed: tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione. These represent the most relevant group of non-enzymatic antioxidants. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense capacity of premature newborns by measuring hydrogen donors. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity by hydrogen donor measurement in 24 premature newborns with various oxidative stress-inducing disorders and in 14 premature newborns without oxidative stress-inducing conditions. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica program (v. 8, StatSoft, Round Rock, TX, USA). Differences between groups were tested with Wilcoxon matched test for quantitative paired data or Mann-Whitney test for quantitative independent data. The Z test for proportions was used to compare qualitative data among subgroups. Results: Hydrogen donors in the study group had a significantly lower value on the first day of life compared to the value of the control group. Also, the hydrogen donor value in the study group was significantly lower on the first day compared to the third day of life (p < 0.05). Neonates with mild respiratory distress (14 cases) had increased hydrogen donor values on their third day of life compared to the first day of life. Conclusions: The antioxidant capacity is influenced by oxidative stress-inducing disorders. Respiratory distress influenced the hydrogen donor value and antioxidant defense. Antioxidant defense gradually improves after birth according to gestational age.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Hidrogênio/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Hidrogênio/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(10): 744-751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Simvastatin (SIM), a member of statin family, on the cellular antioxidant system, autophagy and apoptosis in NSCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide. BACKGROUND: Reduction in cellular oxidative stress increases the survival of neural stem cells (NSCs) after transplantation into the damaged area of the affected central nervous system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NSCs derived from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were exposed to H2O2 (100 µM) for 48 hours after pretreatment with SIM (2 µM). Next, the expressions of the master antioxidant transcription factor, Nrf2/nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2, autophagy-related proteins (microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B known as LC3I and LC3II and also p62/Sequestosome), and apoptosis (Bcl-2/ B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax/BCL2 associated X protein) were analyzed. RESULTS: SIM caused Nrf2 over-activation (more localizations in the cellular nucleus), reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of autophagy (decrease in p62 expression and increase in LC3II/LC3I ratio) and inhibition of apoptosis (decrease in Bax protein and increase in Bcl-2) in NSCs exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, thereby prolonging the cell viability within 48 hours at low concentration (2 µM). CONCLUSION: SIM protects NSCs against H2O2-induced apoptosis in a pleiotropic signaling manner (Fig. 7, Ref. 35).


Assuntos
Apoptose , Autofagia , Células-Tronco Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
7.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 138: 105038, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398394

RESUMO

Antioxidants play a vital role in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the reduction of molecular oxygen from various cellular mechanisms. Under oxidative stress, an increase in the levels of ROS overwhelms the antioxidant response, causing oxidative damage to biological molecules, and leading to the development of various diseases. Drug compounds with potent antioxidant properties are typically poorly water soluble and highly hydrophobic. An extreme case is Probucol (PB), a potent antioxidant with reported water solubility of 5 ng/ml, and oral bioavailiability of <10%. In this study, PB was loaded in mesoporous silica at various drug loadings to understand the changes to the physical properties of the loaded drug, and it's in vitro drug release. Further in vitro studies were conducted in endothelial and microglia cell models to compare the free radical scavening efficiency of ascorbic acid, PB, and PB release from mesoporous silica particles. Out of the three different mesostructured particles studied, the maximum loading of PB was achieved for large pore mesoporous particles (SBA-15) at 50 wt% drug loading, before complete pore filling was observed. For all materials, loadings above complete pore filling resulted in the recrystallization of PB on the external surface. In vitro drug release measurements showed a rapid dissolution rate at low drug loadings compared to a bimodal release profile of amorphous and crystalline drug at higher drug loadings. PB loaded in mesoporous particle was shown to enhance the antioxidant response to extracellular ROS in the endothelial cell line model, and to intracellular ROS in the microglia cell model. Our results indicate that the antioxidant properties of PB can be significantly improved by using mesoporous silica as a delivery vehicle.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Probucol/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Probucol/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/química , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344874

RESUMO

Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll (U. pinnatifida) is a major byproduct of U. pinnatifida (a brown algae) processing. Its phenolic constituents, phlorotannins, are of special interest due to their intrinsic ability to precipitate proteins. Herein, a high-temperature extraction procedure was used to isolate these biologically active compounds. The heating temperature, heating time, and extraction solvent (ethanol) concentration were examined with response surface analysis to determine the optimal conditions to achieve the maximum extraction rate. The analysis revealed the optimal conditions to be: 170 °C of heating temperature, 5.2 h of heating time, and 52% ethanol concentration for a yield of 10.7 ± 0.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (GAE/g DW) of sample. Compared to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the extracted phlorotannins displayed higher antioxidant activity on H2O2-induced RAW 264.7 cells with improved efficiency. Furthermore, the compounds exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity. These findings potentially can be utilized to guide development of novel functional foods and food supplements from sea-originated resources such as brown algae.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Undaria/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Alimento Funcional , Camundongos , Feófitas/química , Fenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7
9.
Pharmacol Res ; 146: 104336, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271846

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized as the universal neurodegenerative diseases, with the involvement of misfolded proteins pathology, leading to oxidative stress, glial cells activation, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cellular apoptosis. Several discoveries indicate that accumulation of pathogenic proteins, i.e. amyloid ß (Aß), the microtubule-binding protein tau, and α-synuclein, are parallel with oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Whether the causative factors are misfolded proteins or these pathophysiological changes, leading to neurodegeneration still remain ambiguous. Importantly, directing pharmacological researches towards the prevention of AD and PD seem a promising approach to detect these complicating mechanisms, and provide new insight into therapy for AD and PD patients. Mangiferin (MGF, 2-C-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthone), well-known as a natural product, is detached from multiple plants, including Mangifera indica L. With the structure of C-glycosyl and phenolic moiety, MGF possesses multipotent properties starting from anti-oxidant effects, to the alleviation of mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and cellular apoptosis. In particular, MGF can cross the blood-brain barrier to exert neuronal protection. Different researches implicate that MGF is able to protect the central nervous system from oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis under in vitro and in vivo models. Additional facts support that MGF plays a role in improving the declined memory and cognition of rat models. Taken together, the neuroprotective capacity of MGF may stand out as an agent candidate for AD and PD therapy.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Xantonas/farmacologia , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 4921-4931, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273612

RESUMO

Response of heavy metals namely cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on the expression of stress responsive genes in the fresh water ciliate, Tetmemena sp. (single cell eukaryote) was studied. Stress responsive genes include heat shock protein genes and genes involved in antioxidant defence system. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to evaluate the effects of Cd and Cu on the expression of cytosolic hsp70 and Mn-sod genes. Increase in the expression of these genes was observed after exposure with the heavy metals. The macronuclear cytosolic hsp70 and Mn-sod (SOD2) genes were also sequenced and characterized using various bioinformatics tools. In antioxidant defence system, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) family is a first line antioxidant enzyme group involved in catalysing reactive oxygen species (ROS) to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Influence of Cd and Cu on the activity of SOD has already been reported by our group. Therefore, the enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were studied in the presence of Cd and Cu and there was significant increase in activity of these enzymes in concentration dependent manner. This study suggests that cytosolic hsp70, Mn-sod and the antioxidant enzymes such as CAT and GPx can be used as effective molecular biomarkers for heavy metal toxicity and Tetmemena sp. can be used as potential model for understanding the molecular response to heavy metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Cádmio/efeitos adversos , Cádmio/farmacologia , Catalase/análise , Catalase/metabolismo , Cilióforos/genética , Cobre/efeitos adversos , Cobre/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326544

RESUMO

Microcystins constitute a serious threat to the quality of drinking water worldwide. However, the eco-physiological role of them is not completely known and it is suggested that toxins can play a role in the antioxidant protection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microcystin antioxidant capacity in vitro by Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance, highly specific for the different reactive oxygen species and in vivo by 7 days exposure of Microcystis aeruginosa to high (29 °C) temperature in addition to a 26 °C control condition. An effective in vitro antioxidant activity was observed for [D-Leu1]MC-LR against hydrosoluble radicals. As far as we know, this is the first in vitro record of the role of MC as antioxidant. In addition, a significant increase in cellular biomass was observed under 26 °C in cultures with [D-Leu1]MC-LR supplementation in coincidence with a significant decrease of reactive species. For cultures at 29 °C, the antioxidant role of toxins was inconclusive probably due to the presence of different reactive species generated during the experiment. Thus, MC could scavenge certain reactive species associated with the antioxidant role of CAT or the OH content by SOD activity (not measured) and then CAT activity could be lower in the presence of MC. Reinforcing our hypothesis, the [D-Leu1]MC-LR consumption after 7 days was significantly higher in cells with [D-Leu1]MC-LR supplementation in both 26 °C and 29 °C.When the production of reactive species was controlled by the scavenger activity of antioxidants plus MC, cells avoided the potential oxidative damage and started with exponential growth.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Microcistinas/fisiologia , Microcystis , Biomassa , Catalase/metabolismo , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microcystis/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Temperatura
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208096

RESUMO

The role of oxidative stress, an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and antioxidants, has been described in several patho-physiological conditions, including cardiovascular, neurological diseases and cancer, thus impacting on individuals' lifelong health. Diet, environmental pollution, and physical activity can play a significant role in the oxidative balance of an organism. Even if physical training has proved to be able to counteract the negative effects caused by free radicals and to provide many health benefits, it is also known that intensive physical activity induces oxidative stress, inflammation, and free radical-mediated muscle damage. Indeed, variations in type, intensity, and duration of exercise training can activate different patterns of oxidant-antioxidant balance leading to different responses in terms of molecular and cellular damage. The aim of the present review is to discuss (1) the role of oxidative status in athletes in relation to exercise training practice, (2) the implications for muscle damage, (3) the long-term effect for neurodegenerative disease manifestations, (4) the role of antioxidant supplementations in preventing oxidative damages.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Oxidantes/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Atletas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Radicais Livres , Humanos , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Doenças Musculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
13.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(5): 589-596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195808

RESUMO

1. The purpose of this study was to examine if the concentration of thymol as the main compound of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) influenced the antioxidant defence system in broilers. 2. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided at the day of hatching into three dietary treatment groups (0%, 0.05% and 0.1%, w/w TEO) with eight birds in each and were fed until four weeks of age. 3. Thymol content in plasma, duodenal wall and breast muscle significantly increased when 0.1% of thyme oil was added to the diet (P < 0.05). Thymol concentration in plasma significantly correlated with levels measured in the duodenal wall and feed (rs = 0.7857, P < 0.05; rs = 0.7647, P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in blood from chickens fed 0.1% TEO supplementation. Although the thymol concentration did not significantly decrease MDA amounts in breast muscle, a declining trend was observed. 4. The trial data confirmed the efficient absorption of thymol from the digestive tract into the systemic circulation, but only traces were found in breast muscle. Thymol content was sufficient for expressing its antioxidant properties in blood, but its low content in breast muscle was insufficient to significantly affect lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Timol/administração & dosagem , Timol/análise
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6863-6875, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178173

RESUMO

Some Lactobacillus strains have been reported to have antioxidative activity. In our previous work, we screened Lactobacillus plantarum Y44 for its antioxidative activity. In this study, we further studied the antioxidative activities of L. plantarum Y44 using chemical antioxidant methods, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) free radical scavenging assays, the ferric reducing antioxidant power test, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity test, and we assessed damage caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (ABAP) in a Caco-2 cell model. The results of the chemical antioxidant assays confirmed the antioxidative activity of L. plantarum Y44, which was consistent with the protection of Caco-2 cells against ABAP injury by L. plantarum Y44. We also found that L. plantarum Y44 significantly promoted expression of Nrf2 pathway-associated proteins, downregulated expression of inflammatory-related cytokines IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α in ABAP-damaged Caco-2 cells, and enhanced expression of the tight junction proteins ß-catenin and E-cadherin. We determined that L. plantarum Y44 exerted antioxidative effects by quenching oxygen free radicals and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells.


Assuntos
Amidinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137620

RESUMO

Background: The optimal use of oxygen at greater than atmospheric pressures in any operational or therapeutic application (hyperbaric oxygen, HBO2) requires awareness of the fact that the beneficial effects of oxygen coexist with toxic effects depending on the pressure and duration of exposure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of HBO2 therapy on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in commonly used protocol for acute HBO2 indications, such as carbon monoxide intoxication, central retinal artery occlusion, crush injury, gas gangrene, and to compare it with normobaric oxygen (NBO2) in healthy rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six male, young adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into seven groups and named as Group I through Group VII. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels in control group were compared to the levels in other groups. Results: The increases in MDA levels and the decrease in SOD activities were statistically significant in HBO2 groups at the end of the first 24 h when compared to the control group, and the significant decrease in erythrocyte GSH level was only at 2.4 atmospheres absolute. Conclusions: The present study showed that pressure and frequency of exposure are important factors to consider when investigating HBO2-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant response.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Pressão , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/sangue , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038539

RESUMO

Dynamic thiol-disulfide homeostasis is considered to have critical roles in maintenance of physiological functioning. We aimed to reveal whether there is any specific aberration in thiol-disulfide homeostasis in three distinct categories of individuals, including those who 1) exercise regularly (fitness group), 2) have a sedentary lifestyle (sedentary group) and 3) are overweight or obese (overweight/obese group). 72 male individuals were included in the study, 21 of whom were in fitness group, 28 of whom were overweight or obese and 23 of whom had a sedentary lifestyle. Plasma native thiol (-SH) and total thiol [(-SH) + (-S-S-)] levels were quantitatively determined. Total thiol levels in sedentary group were significantly lower than those in overweight/obese (p<0.05) and fitness groups (p<0.001). Also, disulfide values in fitness group were significantly higher than those in sedentary and overweight/obese groups (p<0.005, p<0.05). On the other hand, disulfide level, reduced and oxidized thiol ratios and oxidation/reduction ratio in fitness group differed significantly from the other groups (p<0.05). Thiol-disulfide homeostasis varies depending on lifestyle. The results of our study indicate that higher total thiol and disulfide levels are conspicuously distinctive features of thiol-disulfide homeostasis in individuals exercising regularly.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Comportamento Sedentário , Compostos de Sulfidrila/sangue , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(4): 607-616, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930420

RESUMO

Liver regeneration is a very complex process and is regulated by several cytokines and growth factors. It is also known that liver transplantation and the regeneration process cause massive oxidative stress, which interferes with liver regeneration. The placenta is known to contain various physiologically active ingredients such as cytokines, growth factors, and amino acids. In particular, human placenta hydrolysate (hPH) has been found to contain many amino acids. Most of the growth factors found in the placenta are known to be closely related to liver regeneration. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether hPH is effective in promoting liver regeneration in rats undergoing partial hepatectomy. We confirmed that cell proliferation was significantly increased in HepG2 and human primary cells. Hepatocyte proliferation was also promoted in partial hepatectomized rats by hPH treatment. hPH increased liver regeneration rate, double nucleic cell ratio, mitotic cell ratio, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Ki-67 positive cells in vivo as well as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Moreover, Kupffer cells secreting IL-6 and TNF-α were activated by hPH treatment. In addition, hPH reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and significantly increased glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Taken together, these results suggest that hPH promotes liver regeneration by activating cytokines and growth factors associated with liver regeneration and eliminating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/fisiologia , Regeneração Hepática , Placenta , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213699, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870480

RESUMO

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of a lethal human disease known as tularemia. Due to its extremely high virulence and potential to be used as a bioterror agent, F. tularensis is classified by the CDC as a Category A Select Agent. As an intracellular pathogen, F. tularensis during its intracellular residence encounters a number of oxidative and nitrosative stresses. The roles of the primary antioxidant enzymes SodB, SodC and KatG in oxidative stress resistance and virulence of F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) have been characterized in previous studies. However, very fragmentary information is available regarding the role of peroxiredoxin of the AhpC/TSA family (annotated as AhpC) of F. tularensis SchuS4; whereas the role of AhpC of F. tularensis LVS in tularemia pathogenesis is not known. This study was undertaken to exhaustively investigate the role of AhpC in oxidative stress resistance of F. tularensis LVS and SchuS4. We report that AhpC of F. tularensis LVS confers resistance against a wide range of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and serves as a virulence factor. In highly virulent F. tularensis SchuS4 strain, AhpC serves as a key antioxidant enzyme and contributes to its robust oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance, and intramacrophage survival. We also demonstrate that there is functional redundancy among primary antioxidant enzymes AhpC, SodC, and KatG of F. tularensis SchuS4. Collectively, this study highlights the differences in antioxidant defense mechanisms of F. tularensis LVS and SchuS4.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Francisella tularensis/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxirredoxinas/fisiologia , Tularemia/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Francisella tularensis/patogenicidade , Teste de Complementação Genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Superóxido Dismutase/fisiologia , Tularemia/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Virulência
19.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(8): 1027-1036, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30855727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of diets as well as proper nutritional status may partially slow down depletion in antioxidant capacity, and may therefore have an impact on antioxidant/ oxidant status in lung cancer patients. However, no studies concerning these associations had previously been conducted. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GI or GL and nutritional status and antioxidant/oxidant status in lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted among 180 lung cancer patients (82 women and 98 men) and 171 control subjects (78 women and 93 men). Exclusion criteria for the control subjects included cancers, pro-inflammatory conditions, brain diseases, and psychiatric disorders. All participants were evaluated in terms of their systemic antioxidant/oxidant status, nutritional status (anthropometric parameters), dietary GI and GL and parameters related to circulating glucose: fasting glucose, insulin level and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: In women who were lung cancer-positive, associations were observed between total antioxidant status (TAS) and parameters of nutritional status, and between oxidative stress index (OSI) and fasting glucose. In men with lung cancer, we found a positive correlation between total oxidant status (TOS) and GI. In the control group of women, TAS positively correlated with anthropometric parameters, but negatively with dietary fiber and total carbohydrate content. Additionally, TOS and OSI negatively correlated with parameters related to body weight and positively with insulin. In control men, we observed significant negative correlations between parameters related to fasting glucose and TAS and positive ones with TOS and OSI. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that in lung cancer oxidative stress is related to GI, while TAS is related to nutritional status. Further investigations performed on a larger cohort are required to better clarify the observed relationships as well as to explain the potential mechanisms involved.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estado Nutricional , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Oxidantes
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(2): 112-119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713270

RESUMO

Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which are administered without water, are beneficial for elderly patients and patients with dysphagia. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor associated with adherence of patients consuming ODTs. We prepared cocoa powder-containing ODTs of bitter-tasting rebamipide (rebamipide chocolet) and evaluated their clinical palatability. We prepared rebamipide ODTs by adding a sweetener and 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% cocoa powder (Ch0-ODTs, Ch2.5-ODTs, Ch5-ODTs, and Ch10-ODTs, respectively). Rebamipide ODTs without cocoa powder and sweetener were used as controls (Cont-ODTs). We performed a gustatory sensation test in 30 healthy adult volunteers. We used the 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) to evaluate bitterness, sweetness, scent, and overall palatability of the ODTs. The acceptability of each ODT was evaluated on a 5-point scale. Compared to Cont-ODTs, Ch0-ODTs showed no significant improvement in the VAS score for bitterness, scent, and overall palatability during disintegration. However, compared to Cont-ODTs, Ch2.5-ODTs, Ch5-ODTs, and Ch10-ODTs showed an improvement in all items evaluated using the VAS. In particular, Ch2.5-ODTs showed a significant improvement compared to the Cont-ODTs in the VAS score of all items. Evaluation on a 5-point scale indicated that Ch2.5-ODTs and Ch10-ODTs had the highest acceptability. We prepared rebamipide chocolet with excellent palatability properties, which could not be achieved using a sweetener alone, by using the combination of a sweetener and cocoa powder as a new agent for masking bitterness. Our results indicate that cocoa powder may be used as a taste-masking agent in ODTs.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antioxidantes , Chocolate , Quinolonas , Administração Oral , Adulto , Alanina/química , Alanina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Excipientes , Humanos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Edulcorantes , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos/química
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