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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361848

RESUMO

The industrial processing of crude propolis generates residues. Essential oils (EOs) from propolis residues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds to replace antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants in pig production. In this study, we determined the antibacterial/antioxidant activity of EOs from crude organic propolis (EOP) and from propolis residues, moist residue (EOMR), and dried residue (EODR), and further elucidated their chemical composition. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their volatile profile was tentatively identified by GC-MS. All EOs had an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum as they caused disturbances on the growth kinetics of both bacteria. However, EODR had more selective antibacterial activity, as it caused a higher reduction in the maximal culture density (D) of E. coli (86.7%) than L. plantarum (46.9%). EODR exhibited mild antioxidant activity, whereas EOMR showed the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS = 0.90 µmol TE/mg, FRAP = 463.97 µmol Fe2+/mg) and phenolic content (58.41 mg GAE/g). Each EO had a different chemical composition, but α-pinene and ß-pinene were the major compounds detected in the samples. Interestingly, specific minor compounds were detected in a higher relative amount in EOMR and EODR as compared to EOP. Therefore, these minor compounds are most likely responsible for the biological properties of EODR and EOMR. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EOs from propolis residues could be resourcefully used as natural antibacterial/antioxidant additives in pig production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Própole/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105680, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365154

RESUMO

The present study optimised the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Amaranthus hypochondriacus var. Nutrisol. Influence of temperature (25.86-54.14 °C) and ultrasonic power densities (UPD) (76.01-273.99 mW/mL) on total betalains (BT), betacyanins (BC), betaxanthins (BX), total polyphenols (TP), antioxidant activity (AA), colour parameters (L*, a*, and b*), amaranthine (A), and isoamaranthine (IA) were evaluated using response surface methodology. Moreover, betalain extraction kinetics and mass transfer coefficients (KLa) were determined for each experimental condition. BT, BC, BX, TP, AA, b*, KLa, and A were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by temperature extraction and UPD, whereas L*, a*, and IA were only affected (p < 0.05) by temperature. All response models were significantly validated with regression coefficients (R2) ranging from 87.46 to 99.29%. BT, A, IA, and KLa in UAE were 1.38, 1.65, 1.50, and 29.93 times higher than determined using conventional extraction, respectively. Optimal UAE conditions were obtained at 41.80 °C and 188.84 mW/mL using the desired function methodology. Under these conditions, the experimental values for BC, BX, BT, TP, AA, L*, a*, b*, KLa, A, and IA were closely related to the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the developed quadratic models. This study proposes a simple and efficient UAE method to obtain betalains and polyphenols with high antioxidant activity, which can be used in several applications within the food industry.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Betalaínas/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361616

RESUMO

The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastes is important, not only to avoid environmental damages, but also because of the intrinsic value of those biophenols, well-known for their high antioxidant potential and health benefits. This study focuses on tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), two of the main phenolic compounds found in olive mill wastes. A new, simple, and eco-friendly extraction process for the removal of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions using native ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) in the solid state has been developed. Several ß-CD/biophenol molar ratios and biophenol concentrations were investigated, in order to maintain ß-CD mostly in the solid state while optimizing the extraction yield and the loading capacity of the sorbent. The extraction efficiencies of Tyr and HT were up to 61%, with a total solid recovery higher than 90% using an initial concentration of 100 mM biophenol and 10 molar equivalents of ß-CD. The photochemical stability of the complexes thus obtained was estimated from ∆E*ab curve vs. illumination time. The results obtained showed that the phenols encapsulated into solid ß-CD are protected against photodegradation. The powder obtained could be directly developed as a safe-grade food supplement. This simple eco-friendly process could be used for extracting valuable biophenols from olive mill wastewater.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Suplementos Nutricionais , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Álcool Feniletílico/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
4.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361618

RESUMO

Lactic acid fermentation increases the bioactive properties of shrimp waste. Astaxanthin is the principal carotenoid present in shrimp waste, which can be found esterified in the liquid fraction (liquor) after its lactic acid fermentation. Supercritical CO2 technology has been proposed as a green alternative to obtain astaxanthin from fermented shrimp waste. This study aimed to optimize astaxanthin extraction by supercritical CO2 technology from fermented liquor of shrimp waste and study bioaccessibility using simulated gastrointestinal digestion (GD) of the optimized extract. A Box-Behnken design with three variables (pressure, temperature, and flow rate) was used to optimize the supercritical CO2 extraction. The optimized CO2 extract was obtained at 300 bar, 60 °C, and 6 mL/min, and the estimated characteristics showed a predictive extraction yield of 11.17%, antioxidant capacity of 1.965 mmol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/g, and astaxanthin concentration of 0.6353 µg/g. The experiment with optimal conditions performed to validate the predicted values showed an extraction yield of 12.62%, an antioxidant capacity of 1.784 mmol TE/g, and an astaxanthin concentration of 0.52 µg/g. The astaxanthin concentration decreased, and the antioxidant capacity of the optimized extract increased during gastrointestinal digestion. In conclusion, our optimized supercritical CO2 process is suitable for obtaining astaxanthin from shrimp by-products after lactic acid fermentation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Penaeidae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fermentação , Resíduos , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361654

RESUMO

Growing attention to environmental protection leads food industries to adopt a model of "circular economy" applying safe and sustainable technologies to recover, recycle and valorize by-products. Therefore, by-products become raw material for other industries. Tomato processing industry produces significant amounts of by-products, consisting of skins and seeds. Tomato skin is very rich in lycopene, and from its seeds, high nutritional oil can be extracted. Alternative use of the two fractions not only could cut disposal costs but also allow one to extract bioactive compounds and an oil with a high nutritional value. This review focused on the recent advance in extraction of lycopene, whose beneficial effects on health are widely recognized.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Licopeno/isolamento & purificação , Lycopersicon esculentum , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361704

RESUMO

Significant growth of interest in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.), especially its natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties, has been observed recently. This narrative review aimed to present the state of the art of research concerning the anti-inflammatory activity of all classes of cannabinoids published in the last five years. Multimodal properties of cannabinoids include their involvement in immunological processes, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects. Cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid compounds of cannabis proved their anti-inflammatory effects in numerous animal models. The research in humans is missing, and the results are unconvincing. Although preclinical evidence suggests cannabinoids are of value in treating chronic inflammatory diseases, the clinical evidence is scarce, and further well-designed clinical trials are essential to determine the prospects for using cannabinoids in inflammatory conditions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/química , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/classificação , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/classificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/classificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Canabinoides/química , Canabinoides/classificação , Canabinoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361727

RESUMO

Enzymatic pretreatment of seeds is a novel approach that enhances the health benefits of the extracted oil. The study investigated the influence of the enzymatic pretreatment of seeds on the quality of oil from different pomegranate cultivars. The quality of the ultrasound-assisted (and ethanol-extracted) oil was studied, with respect to the refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), peroxide value (PV) ρ-anisidine value (AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC), fatty acid composition, phytosterol composition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The seeds of three different pomegranate cultivars ('Wonderful', 'Herskawitz', and 'Acco') were digested with an equal mixture of Pectinex Ultra SPL, Flavourzyme 100 L, and cellulase crude enzymes, at a concentration, pH, temperature, and time of 1.7%, 4.5, 40 °C, and 5 h, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of PS increased oil yield, PV, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity, but decreased the YI. The levels of K232, AV and TOTOX, fatty acids, phytosterols, RI, and FRAP, were not significantly affected by enzymatic pretreatment of PS. Principal component analysis (PCA) established that oil extracted from the 'Acco' seed after enzymatic pretreatment had higher yield, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, enzyme-pretreated 'Acco' pomegranate fruit seed is a source of quality seed oil with excellent antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Sonicação/métodos
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361742

RESUMO

The biological activities of propolis samples are the result of many bioactive compounds present in the propolis. The aim of the present study was to determine the various chemical compounds of some selected propolis samples collected from Palestine and Morocco by the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection (HPLC-PDA) method, as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this bee product. The chemical analysis of propolis samples by HPLC-PDA shows the cinnamic acid content in the Palestinian sample is higher compared to that in Moroccan propolis. The results of antioxidant activity demonstrated an important free radical scavenging activity (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and reducing power assays) with EC50 values ranging between 0.02 ± 0.001 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Additionally, all tested propolis samples possessed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. Notably, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacterial strains and from 0.09 to 0.125 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The S2 sample from Morocco and the S4 sample from Palestine had the highest content of polyphenol level. Thus, the strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties were apparently due to the high total phenolic and flavone/flavonol contents in the samples. As a conclusion, the activities of propolis samples collected from both countries are similar, while the cinnamic acid in the Palestinian samples was more than that of the Moroccan samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cinamatos/química , Fenóis/química , Própole/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oriente Médio , Marrocos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Polifenóis , Análise de Componente Principal , Própole/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361745

RESUMO

The edible parts of the plants Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera and Withania somnifera were extensively used in ancient practices such as Ayurveda, owing to their potent biomedical significance. They are very rich in secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, which are very good antioxidants and exhibit anti-carcinogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the anti-cancerous properties of these plant crude extracts on human liver cancer HepG2 cells. The leaves of Camellia sinensis, Withania somnifera and the seeds of Vitis vinifera were collected and methanolic extracts were prepared. Then, these extracts were subjected to DPPH, α- amylase assays to determine the antioxidant properties. A MTT assay was performed to investigate the viability of the extracts of HepG2 cells, and the mode of cell death was detected by Ao/EtBr staining and flow cytometry with PI Annexin- V FITC dual staining. Then, the protein expression of BAX and BCl2 was studied using fluorescent dye to determine the regulation of the BAX and BCl2 genes. We observed that all the three extracts showed the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols or phytochemicals. The W. somnifera bioactive compounds were found to have the highest anti-proliferative activity on human liver cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camellia sinensis/química , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/química , Withania/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Transdução de Sinais , Taninos/química , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361766

RESUMO

Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. is a native species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine for treatment of rheumatism, bronchitis, cold, cough, asthma, bone pain, and stomach pain. In this study, fresh H. racemosum leaves of male and female specimens were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of male and female essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and two dermatophytes fungi. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify forty-three compounds that represent more than 98% of the total composition. In the non-polar and polar column, α-phellandrene was the principal constituent in male (28.24 and 25.90%) and female (26.47 and 23.90%) essential oil. Other main compounds were methyl chavicol, germacrene D, methyl eugenol, and α-pinene. Female essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 9997) with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 µg/mL and a scavenging capacity SC50 of 800 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Equador , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361786

RESUMO

Silver birch, Betula pendula Roth, is one of the most common trees in Europe. Due to its content of many biologically active substances, it has long been used in medicine and cosmetics, unlike the rare black birch, Betula obscura Kotula. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the antioxidant properties of extracts from the inner and outer bark layers of both birch trees towards the L929 line treated with acetaldehyde. Based on the lactate dehydrogenase test and the MTT test, 10 and 25% concentrations of extracts were selected for the antioxidant evaluation. All extracts at tested concentrations reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion radical, and 25% extract decreased malonic aldehyde formation in acetaldehyde-treated cells. The chemical composition of bark extracts was accessed by IR and HPLC-PDA methods and surprisingly, revealed a high content of betulin and lupeol in the inner bark extract of B. obscura. Furthermore, IR analysis revealed differences in the chemical composition of the outer bark between black and silver birch extracts, indicating that black birch may be a valuable source of numerous biologically active substances. Further experiments are required to evaluate their potential against neuroinflammation, cancer, viral infections, as well as their usefulness in cosmetology.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betula/química , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetaldeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Acetaldeído/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Betula/classificação , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Oxidantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/classificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polônia , Superóxidos/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361788

RESUMO

This research investigated a UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS-based phytochemical profiling of Combretum indicum leaf extract (CILEx), and explored its in vitro antioxidant and in vivo antidiabetic effects in a Long-Evans rat model. After a one-week intervention, the animals' blood glucose, lipid profile, and pancreatic architectures were evaluated. UPLC-QTOF/ESI-MS fragmentation of CILEx and its eight docking-guided compounds were further dissected to evaluate their roles using bioinformatics-based network pharmacological tools. Results showed a very promising antioxidative effect of CILEx. Both doses of CILEx were found to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol (TC), and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Pancreatic tissue architectures were much improved compared to the diabetic control group. A computational approach revealed that schizonepetoside E, melianol, leucodelphinidin, and arbutin were highly suitable for further therapeutic assessment. Arbutin, in a Gene Ontology and PPI network study, evolved as the most prospective constituent for 203 target proteins of 48 KEGG pathways regulating immune modulation and insulin secretion to control diabetes. The fragmentation mechanisms of the compounds are consistent with the obtained effects for CILEx. Results show that the natural compounds from CILEx could exert potential antidiabetic effects through in vivo and computational study.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Combretum/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arbutina/química , Arbutina/isolamento & purificação , Sítios de Ligação , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , HDL-Colesterol/agonistas , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Insulina/agonistas , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Pâncreas/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361795

RESUMO

Although Australia is the largest exporter of faba bean globally, there is limited information available on the levels of bioactive compounds found in current commercial faba bean varieties grown in this country. This study profiled the phenolic acid and flavonoid composition of 10 Australian faba bean varieties, grown at two different locations. Phenolic profiling by HPLC-DAD revealed the most abundant flavonoid to be catechin, followed by rutin. For the phenolic acids, syringic acid was found in high concentrations (72.4-122.5 mg/kg), while protocatechuic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, and trans-ferulic acid were all found in low concentrations. The content of most individual phenolics varied significantly with the variety, while some effect of the growing location was also observed. This information could be used by food processors and plant breeders to maximise the potential health benefits of Australian-grown faba bean.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Flavonoides/química , Vicia faba/química , Antioxidantes/classificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Catequina/química , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/classificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Parabenos/química , Parabenos/isolamento & purificação , Rutina/química , Rutina/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Vanílico/química , Ácido Vanílico/isolamento & purificação , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361800

RESUMO

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography is an evolving technology that integrates the separation and analysis technology of TLC with biological activity detection technology, which has shown a steep rise in popularity over the past few decades. It connects TLC with convenient, economic and intuitive features and bioautography with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we discuss the research progress of TLC bioautography and then establish a definite timeline to introduce it. This review summarizes known TLC bioautography types and practical applications for determining antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant compounds and for inhibiting glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase and cholinesterase activity constitutes. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify original, natural products with anti-COVID potential compounds from Chinese traditional medicine and natural medicinal plants. We also give an account of detection techniques, including in situ and ex situ techniques; even in situ ion sources represent a major reform. Considering the current technical innovations, we propose that the technology will make more progress in TLC plates with higher separation and detection technology with a more portable and extensive scope of application. We believe this technology will be diffusely applied in medicine, biology, agriculture, animal husbandry, garden forestry, environmental management and other fields in the future.


Assuntos
Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104993, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284073

RESUMO

A new skeleton flavonoid, identified as (5aR)-10-hydroxy-8-methoxy-5aH,11H-chromeno[2,3-b]chromen-11-one (1), named oleracone G, and a new lignan, confirmed as 8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxynaphthalen-2-ol (2), named oleralignan B, were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and the structures of them were determined using spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UHPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS. In addition, compounds 1-2 were applied to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and scavenging effects in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The results showed that the two compounds at 10 µM and 20 µM could dose-dependently decrease the secretion of interleukin 1ß in RAW 264.7 cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, moreover, presented remarkable antioxidant activities with IC50 values of 27.57, 20.12 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Portulaca/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , China , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
18.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104997, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302917

RESUMO

Eight new stilbene dimer xylosides (1-8) and one new flavanol (9), along with seven known ones (10-16) were isolated from the roots of Lysidice rhodostegia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (IR, UV, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR), ECD calculations and acid hydrolysis. Compounds 1-16 were evaluated for their antioxidant activities using DPPH radical-scavenging assay. Especially, compounds 9 and 10 exhibited stronger antioxidant effects than the positive control (vitamin E), with IC50 values of 9.57 ± 1.30 and 13.60 ± 1.47 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , China , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299472

RESUMO

The impact of the composition of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) and extraction conditions on the simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic ascorbic acid (AA), phlorotannins (TPhC), and lipophilic fucoxanthin (FX) from Fucus vesiculosus was investigated for the first time. In biological tests, the NADES extracts showed the promising ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. A positive correlation was observed between DPPH scavenging activity and AA, TPhC, and FX contents. We calculate the synergistic effect of antioxidants extracted by NADES from F. vesiculosus based on the mixture effect (ME). The addition of 30% water to the NADES and the prolongation of sonication time from 20 min up to 60 min were favorable for the ME. The ME for extracts with the NADES was increased by two folds (ME > 2). In contrast, conventional extraction by maceration with steering at 60 °C does not lead to the synergistic effect (ME = 1). It is notable that the NADES provides high stability and preserves the antioxidant activity of the extracts from F. vesiculosus during storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fucus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise
20.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299637

RESUMO

This study intends to valorize by-products of the industrial processing of tobacco to obtain nicotine and phenolics as value-added compounds. Three influential parameters of the microwave-assisted extraction-MAE (temperature, treatment time, and solvent/solid ratio) were studied for the optimization of the extraction protocol for tobacco leaves and three types of waste-scrap, dust, and midrib, respectively. Nicotine was the dominant bioactive compound in all extracts, ranging from 1.512 to 5.480% in leaves, 1.886 to 3.709% in scrap, 2.628 to 4.840% dust, and 0.867 to 1.783% in midrib extracts. Five phenolic compounds were identified and quantified, predominated by chlorogenic acid and rutin. Additionally, total phenol content and antioxidant activity were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Optimization was performed in two aspects: to obtain a maximum extraction yield with minimum nicotine content and to obtain a maximum extraction yield with maximum nicotine content. These findings demonstrate that tobacco waste is a valuable source of bioactive compounds and MAE can be a promising alternative technique to obtain extracts rich in targeted bioactive compounds, especially nicotine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nicotina , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Tabaco/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Nicotina/química , Nicotina/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos Sólidos
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