Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 610
Filtrar
1.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3176-3183, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590901

RESUMO

This trial compared the rate and time of viral clearance in subjects receiving a combination of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus Zinc versus those receiving supportive treatment. This non-randomized controlled trial included 62 patients on the triple combination treatment versus 51 age- and sex-matched patients on routine supportive treatment. all of them confirmed cases by positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of a nasopharyngeal swab. Trial results showed that the clearance rates were 0% and 58.1% on the 7th day and 13.7% and 73.1% on the 15th day in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. The cumulative clearance rates on the 15th day are 13.7% and 88.7% in the supportive treatment and combined antiviral groups, respectively. This trial concluded by stating that the combined use of nitazoxanide, ribavirin, and ivermectin plus zinc supplement effectively cleared the SARS-COV2 from the nasopharynx in a shorter time than symptomatic therapy.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antimetabólitos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos/uso terapêutico , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Zinco/administração & dosagem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008298, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511226

RESUMO

In Haiti, 22 communes still require mass drug administration (MDA) to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem. Several clinical trials have shown that a single oral dose of ivermectin (IVM), diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB) (IDA) is more effective than DEC plus ALB (DA) for clearing Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae (Mf). We performed a cluster-randomized community study to compare the safety and efficacy of IDA and DA in an LF-endemic area in northern Haiti. Ten localities were randomized to receive either DA or IDA. Participants were monitored for adverse events (AE), parasite antigenemia, and microfilaremia. Antigen-positive participants were retested one year after MDA to assess treatment efficacy. Fewer participants (11.0%, 321/2917) experienced at least one AE after IDA compared to DA (17.3%, 491/2844, P<0.001). Most AEs were mild, and the three most common AEs reported were headaches, dizziness and abdominal pain. Serious AEs developed in three participants who received DA. Baseline prevalence for filarial antigenemia was 8.0% (239/3004) in IDA localities and 11.5% (344/2994) in DA localities (<0.001). Of those with positive antigenemia, 17.6% (42/239) in IDA localities and 20.9% (72/344, P = 0.25) in DA localities were microfilaremic. One year after treatment, 84% percent of persons with positive filarial antigen tests at baseline could be retested. Clearance rates for filarial antigenemia were 20.5% (41/200) after IDA versus 25.4% (74/289) after DA (P = 0.3). However, 94.4% (34/36) of IDA recipients and 75.9% (44/58) of DA recipients with baseline microfilaremia were Mf negative at the time of retest (P = 0.02). Thus, MDA with IDA was at least as well tolerated and significantly more effective for clearing Mf compared to the standard DA regimen in this study. Effective MDA coverage with IDA could accelerate the elimination of LF as a public health problem in the 22 communes that still require MDA in Haiti.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dietilcarbamazina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20200466, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556054

RESUMO

COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in China, and since then, has disrupted global public health and changed economic paradigms. In dealing with the new Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the world has not faced such extreme global fragility since the "Spanish flu" pandemic in 1918. Researchers globally are dedicating efforts to the search for an effective treatment for COVID-19. Drugs already used in a clinical setting for other pathologies have been tested as a new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2, setting off a frenzy over the preliminary data of different studies. This work aims to compile and discuss the data published thus far. Despite the potential effects of some antivirals and antiparasitic against COVID-19, clinical studies must confirm real effectiveness. However, non-pharmacological approaches have proven to be the most efficient strategy to date.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Macrolídeos/química , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/química , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia
4.
Hautarzt ; 71(6): 447-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of scabies has become surprisingly frequent in Germany in recent years and the use of scabicides has risen significantly. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our survey was to determine whether this trend can also be detected among military personnel of the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr). METHODS: The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center study over a period of 8 years from 2012 to 2019 in the Department of Dermatology of the Armed Forces Hospital Berlin, Germany. Data were generated from the hospital information system (KIS), which was searched for all scabies-coded diagnoses according to ICD10 code B86 both as outpatients and inpatients. Only first presentations with scabies diagnosis confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy by a dermatologist were included. Inpatient treatment was required if a patient was not cured after at least three antiscabies treatment cycles in the outpatient setting. RESULTS: The data show that there has been a steady increase in the diagnosis of scabies in Bundeswehr personnel. Moreover, our data show that the number of unsuccessfully treated outpatients increased and required in-hospital treatment. CONCLUSION: We observed an increase of scabies among German military personnel who represent a typical at-risk group. These results support the observations of an increased incidence of scabies in Germany in general and especially in an at-risk population. With the general increase in scabies cases, there are also increasing numbers of German military personnel who are refractory to treatment, which was largely attributed to inadequate treatment of contact persons and individual treatment errors. Nevertheless, the data also emphasize the low overall prevalence of scabies; therefore, all diagnoses should be confirmed by dermoscopy or microscopy after 14 days whenever possible to rule out the bias of overreporting due to false-positive cases diagnosed only by clinical examination.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Brasilia; s.n; 22 abr. , 2020. 24 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, BRISA/RedTESA, PIE | ID: biblio-1095198

RESUMO

O objetivo da revisão sistemática foi investigar a eficácia e a segurança de tratamentos com antivirais para COVID-19, SARS e MERS. Ao todo, 22 estudos foram incluídos: 1 ensaio clínico, 16 séries de casos e 5 relatos de caso. Os antivirais mais utilizados foram lopinavir / ritonavir, oseltamivir, ribavirina e arbidol. Todos os estudos usaram outras terapias, como antibióticos, imunoglobulina, interferon, glicocorticoides, metilprednisolona e medicamentos antiparasitários e antifúngicos, além da terapia antiviral para pacientes com COVID-19. No único ECR incluído, os pacientes que receberam lopinavir / ritonavir tiveram um processo de recuperação semelhante aos pacientes que receberam tratamento padrão. Os desfechos de mortalidade em 28 dias e carga viral de RNA não foram significativamente diferentes entre os dois grupos. Dentre os achados dos demais estudos, vale destacar que estudos de séries e relatos de casos não avaliam a eficácia de medicamentos, e que em geral as amostras foram pequenas. O estudo de Guan, com 1099 pacientes, chegou a conclusão que oseltamivir foi ineficaz na diminuição da taxa de admissão na UTI, na necessidade de ventilação e na taxa de mortalidade entre os pacientes. O estudo de Shang, com 416 pacientes, indicou que medicamentos antivirais não têm efeito na taxa de mortalidade de pacientes com COVID-19. O estudo de Li, com cinco crianças com COVID-19, indicou que os agentes antivirais não alteraram o resultado ou a duração da internação. A revisão cita outros estudos que foram publicados com os pacientes ainda sob tratamento, sem o desfecho final dessas populações. Quanto a busca por ensaios clínicos para SARS e MERS, foram encontrados protocolos, mas nenhum resultado publicado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Oseltamivir/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Terapias em Estudo/instrumentação
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008106, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176703

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis has remained endemic in Fiji despite repeated mass drug administration using the well-established and safe combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (DA) since 2002. In certain settings the addition of ivermectin to this combination (IDA) remains a safe strategy and is more efficacious. However, the safety has yet to be described in scabies and soil-transmitted helminth endemic settings like Fiji. Villages of Rotuma and Gau islands were randomised to either DA or IDA. Residents received weight-based treatment unblinded with standard exclusions. Participants were actively found and asked by a nurse about their health daily for the first two days and then asked to seek review for the next five days if unwell. Anyone with severe symptoms were reviewed by a doctor and any serious adverse event was reported to the Medical Monitor and Data Safety Monitoring Board. Of 3612 enrolled and eligible participants, 1216 were randomised to DA and 2396 to IDA. Age and sex in both groups were representative of the population. Over 99% (3598) of participants completed 7 days follow-up. Adverse events were reported by 600 participants (16.7%), distributed equally between treatment groups, with most graded as mild (93.2%). There were three serious adverse events, all judged not attributable to treatment by an independent medical monitor. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 8.5%, with headache, dizziness, nausea and arthralgia being the next four most common symptoms. Adverse events were more likely in participants with microfilaremia (43.2% versus 15.7%), but adverse event frequency was not related to the presence of scabies or soil-transmitted helminth infection. IDA has comparable safety to DA with the same frequency of adverse events experienced following community mass drug administration. The presence of co-endemic infections did not increase adverse events. IDA can be used in community programs where preventative chemotherapy is needed for control of lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Dietilcarbamazina/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fiji , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 191-198, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191175

RESUMO

Scabies is a highly contagious, globally prevalent, parasitic skin infestation caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, also known as the itch mite. There have been outbreaks not only in the developing world, but also in the developed world among refugees and asylum seekers. Once infested with scabies mites, symptomatic patients, as well as asymptomatic carriers, quickly spread the disease through direct skin-to-skin contact. Typically, symptoms of scabies are characterized by an erythematous, papular, pruritic rash associated with burrows. Treatment of scabies involves using topical or systemic scabicides and treating secondary bacterial infections, if present. Given the prevalence and contagiousness of scabies, measures to prevent its spread are essential. Through application of the novel Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool, emergency medical providers can readily identify risk factors for exposure and important symptoms of the disease, thus limiting its spread through prompt scabicide therapy; isolate the patient until after treatment; and inform local public health authorities and hospital infection prevention, when appropriate. Ultimately, these three actions can aid public health in controlling the transmission of scabies cases, thus ensuring the protection of the general public from this highly contagious skin infestation.


Assuntos
Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Escabiose , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Humanos , Prevalência , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/terapia
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 176: 104914, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066028

RESUMO

Investigation of thymol efficacy to control pigeon coccidiosis was performed using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The in-vitro experiment was conducted by treatment of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria species of pigeon by five concentrations (0.625-10%) from either thymol, eucalyptus essential oil or amprolium anticoccidial drug and incubation for 72 h. The in-vitro study revealed that thymol concentrations ≥1.25 % caused significant deformity on sporulated and unsporulated oocysts compared to the other two products. Eucalyptus oil was active at both 5 and 10 % concentrations on unsporulated oocysts but showed non-significant changes on sporulated ones at all tested concentration. Meanwhile, in-vivo testing of thymol was conducted using 45 squabs which were equally divided into three groups; untreated uninfected (UU) negative control, untreated infected (UI) positive control and thymol treated (TT). TT group received 40 mg/kg BWt thymol in feed for 15 days. At day five post thymol supplementation, the UI and TT groups were orally infected by 25 × 103sporulated oocysts of pigeon Eimeria labbeana. The in-vivo study showed that thymol minimized the adverse effect of Eimeria infection in pigeon as observed by less severity of clinical signs, low oocysts count and improvement of body weight when compared with untreated infected birds. In addition, the biochemical parameters including liver and kidney functions tests proved thymol safety in pigeon. Moreover, thymol showed excellent antioxidant activity that was estimated by significantly lower value of malondialdehyde in TT than UI groups. The histopathological findings of TT group showed intact intestinal villi with mild sloughed epithelium, degenerated coccidian developmental stages and massive infiltrations of mononuclear cells in lamina propria. In conclusion, thymol can be safely used to control pigeon coccidiosis as a natural effective compound.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Timol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Egito , Timol/administração & dosagem
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007966, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923177

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent findings from onchocerciasis-endemic foci uphold that increasing ivermectin coverage reduces the epilepsy incidence, and anecdotal evidence suggests seizure frequency reduction in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, when treated with ivermectin. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess whether ivermectin treatment decreases seizure frequency. METHODS: A proof-of-concept randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Logo health zone in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo, to compare seizure frequencies in onchocerciasis-infected persons with epilepsy (PWE) randomized to one of two treatment arms: the anti-epileptic drug phenobarbital supplemented with ivermectin, versus phenobarbital alone. The primary endpoint was defined as the probability of being seizure-free at month 4. A secondary endpoint was defined as >50% reduction in seizure frequency at month 4, compared to baseline. Both endpoints were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. In longitudinal analysis, the probability of seizure freedom during the follow-up period was assessed for both treatment arms by fitting a logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations (GEE). RESULTS: Ninety PWE enrolled between October and November 2017 were eligible for analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed a borderline association between ivermectin treatment and being seizure-free at month 4 (OR: 1.652, 95% CI 0.975-2.799; p = 0.062). There was no significant difference in the probability of experiencing >50% reduction of the seizure frequency at month 4 between the two treatment arms. Also, treatment with ivermectin did not significantly increase the odds of being seizure-free during the individual follow-up visits. CONCLUSION: Whether ivermectin has an added value in reducing the frequency of seizures in PWE treated with AED remains to be determined. A larger study in persons with OAE on a stable AED regimen and in persons with recent epilepsy onset should be considered to further investigate the potential beneficial effect of ivermectin treatment in persons with OAE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03052998.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Oncocercose/complicações , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Infect Dis ; 221(5): 766-774, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is an important cause of miscarriage or adverse fetal effects, including neurological and ocular manifestations in humans. Current anti-Toxoplasma drugs have limited efficacy against toxoplasmosis and also have severe side effects. Therefore, novel efficacious drugs are urgently needed. Here, we identified metacytofilin (MCF) from a fungal Metarhizium species as a potential anti-Toxoplasma compound. METHODS: Anti-Toxoplasma activities of MCF and its derivatives were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using nonpregnant and pregnant mice. To understand the mode of action of MCF, the RNA expression of host and parasite genes was investigated by RNAseq. RESULTS: In vitro, MCF inhibited the viability of intracellular and extracellular T. gondii. Administering MCF intraperitoneally or orally to mice after infection with T. gondii tachyzoites increased mouse survival compared with the untreated animals. Remarkably, oral administration of MCF to pregnant mice prevented vertical transmission of the parasite. Interestingly, RNA sequencing of T. gondii-infected cells treated with MCF showed that MCF inhibited DNA replication and enhanced RNA degradation in the parasites. CONCLUSIONS: With its potent anti-T. gondii activity, MCF is a strong candidate for future drug development against toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Oxazinas/uso terapêutico , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/mortalidade , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA de Protozoário , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxazinas/administração & dosagem , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(1): 9, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797083

RESUMO

Increased human-pet interactions have led to concerns related to the prevention and treatment of ectoparasite infestations. Fipronil (FIP) is a widely used ectoparasiticide in veterinary medicine available for topical administration; however, its use may cause damage to the owners and the environment. The aim of the study was to develop immediate-release tablets of FIP, as well as to determine its pharmacokinetic properties after oral administration in beagle dogs. The prepared FIP tablets were evaluated for pre-compression (angle of repose, speed flow, and Carr's index) and post-compression (weight variation, friability, thickness, hardness, disintegration time, and dissolution rate) parameters. Orally administered FIP at a dose of 2 mg/kg was rapidly absorbed with Cmáx of 3.13 ± 1.39 µg/mL at 1.83 ± 0.40 h post treatment (P.T.) and metabolized with 1.27 ± 1.04 µg/mL at 2.33 ± 0.82 h P.T. for fipronil sulfone (SULF) (the primary metabolite). The elimination of FIP and SULF occurred slowly and had maintained quantifiable plasma levels in the blood for up to 28 days P.T. The goal of the study is aligned with the concept of One Health, which aims to collaboratively achieve the best health for people, animals, and the environment. Therefore, the use of FIP tablets for the control of ectoparasites in dogs may be a safer alternative for owners and the environment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/química , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Cães , Dureza , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 760-763, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058003

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of oral afoxolaner in controlling fleas in cats. Fourteen cats were used. The cats were given identification numbers, housed individually, artificially infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis, and treated (or not) with afoxolaner. Were divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 7/group), on the basis of the fleas count hours after an infestation applied on Day (one-by-one allocation after ordering by count). At the start of the experimental protocol (designated day 0), the treated group received afoxolaner in a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg and the control group animals received a placebo. All animals were infested with 100 C. felis felis fleas two days before day 0, as well as on days 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54, and 63, parasite loads being evaluated at 48 h after each infestation. The efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on day 2 and remained above 98% until day 42, decreasing to 95.3% by day 63. The findings confirm that a single dose of oral afoxolaner was effective in controlling C. felis felis in cats, and there were no observed adverse events.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de uma dose única de afoxolaner oral no controle de pulgas em gatos. Foram utilizados 14 gatos. Os animais foram identificados, alojados individualmente, infestados artificialmente com C. felis felis e tratados (ou não) com afoxolaner. Foram divididos em um grupo de tratamento e um grupo controle (n = 7/ grupo), com base na contagem de pulgas, horas após a infestação aplicada no dia (alocação de um por um após o período por contagem). No início do protocolo experimental (dia 0), o grupo tratado recebeu afoxolaner em dose inicial de 2,5 mg / kg e os animais do grupo controle receberam um placebo. Todos os animais foram infestados com 100 pulgas C. felis felis dois dias antes do dia 0, assim como nos dias 5, 12, 19, 26, 33, 40, 47, 54 e 63, sendo avaliadas as cargas parasitárias às 48 h após cada infestação. A eficácia do afoxolaner foi de 100% no dia 2 e permaneceu acima de 98% até o dia 42, diminuindo para 95,3% no dia 63. Os resultados confirmam que uma dose única de afoxolaner oral foi eficaz no controle de C. felis felis em gatos, e não houve eventos adversos observados.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gatos , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Resultado do Tratamento , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Parasitária , Sifonápteros
13.
Drug Deliv ; 26(1): 1206-1221, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746243

RESUMO

As an emerging novel drug carrier, nanoparticles provide a promising way for effective treatment of parasitic diseases by overcoming the shortcomings of low bioavailability, poor cellular permeability, nonspecific distribution and rapid elimination of antiparasitic drugs from the body. In recent years, some kinds of ideal nanocarriers have been developed for antiparasitic drug delivery. In this review, the progress of the enhanced antiparasitic effects of different nanoparticles payload and their influencing factors were firstly summarized. Secondly, the transport and disposition process in the body were reviewed. Finally, the challenges and prospects of nanoparticles for antiparasitic drug delivery were proposed. This review will help scholars to understand the development trend of nanoparticles in the treatment of parasitic diseases and explore strategies in the development of more efficient nanocarriers to overcome the difficulty in the treatment of parasite infections in the future.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Distribuição Tecidual
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemaphysalis longicornis is the major tick affecting dogs in most of the East Asia/Pacific region and has recently been detected in a number of areas of the USA. This tick is a vector for a number of pathogens of dogs, other mammals and humans. In this study, the efficacy of a single oral administration of sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) at the minimum label dosage (2 mg/kg) was evaluated against an existing infestation of H. longicornis and subsequent weekly reinfestations for 5 weeks after treatment. METHODS: Sixteen dogs were ranked on pretreatment tick counts and randomly allocated to treatment on Day 0 with sarolaner at 2 mg/kg or a placebo. The dogs were infested with H. longicornis nymphs on Days - 2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy was determined at 48 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations based on live tick counts relative to placebo-treated dogs. RESULTS: There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single dose of sarolaner provided 100% efficacy on Days 2, 7, 14 and 21; and ≥ 97.4% efficacy on Days 28 and 35. Considering only attached, live ticks, efficacy was 100% for the entire 35 days of the study. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower than those for placebo on all days (11.62 ≤ t(df) ≤ 59.99, where 13.0 ≤ df ≤ 14.1, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a single oral administration of sarolaner at 2 mg/kg provided 100% efficacy against an existing infestation of H. longicornis nymphs and ≥ 97.4% efficacy (100% against attached ticks) against weekly reinfestation for at least 35 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Vetores Aracnídeos , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ixodidae , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
15.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(6): e13093, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579993

RESUMO

Ivermectin is a drug approved for the treatment of papulopustular rosacea (PPR). Although clinical guidelines recommend the use of ivermectin as the first-line treatment in patients with almost clear and mild rosacea, studies concerning its use on them are lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness and the tolerability of ivermectin in almost clear to severe rosacea and assessed the antiparasitic effect on Demodex mites. This is a retrospective study based on 50 patients affected by PPR and treated with topical ivermectin 1% once daily over 16 weeks. The disease severity, the patient-examined improvement, and the safety assessment of patients were evaluated. Demodex mites were studied with the standardized skin surface biopsy. PPR to all severity achieved a therapeutic success. The number of inflammatory lesions was significantly decreased in almost clear (p < .0001), mild, moderate, and severe (p < .001) forms. A complete remission of inflammatory lesions was achieved by almost clear (p < .001) and mild (p = .005) with 82% with none-to-mild cutaneous adverse events. Thirty-two percent were positive for Demodex mites, and all of them turned negative after 16 weeks. Ivermectin is an effective treatment not only in moderate to severe PPR but also in almost clear/mild rosacea.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácaros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rosácea/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 469, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease in humans. This zoonotic parasitic infection remains a major health problem in certain areas of the world where is still endemic. In view of the ineffectiveness of some drug treatments, the surgical removal of cysts remains the preferred treatment option together with the administration of albendazole and mebendazole. However, severe side effects of these drugs have been reported which demands developing new scolicidal agents that confer suitable efficacy and fewer side effects during surgery. METHODS: To that purpose, in the present work we assessed the effectiveness of ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone endectocide that has shown to be an effective nematocidal drug against other important parasitic infections. To overcome the limitations observed in some drug formulations and resistance, we used nano lipid carriers (NLCs) as a targeted and sustained drug delivery system for IVM. We evaluated the in vitro cestocidal and apoptotic effects of NLCs-loaded IVM versus IVM by quantifying the expression of caspase-3 mRNA. RESULTS: We found that after 60 and 120 min of administration, 800 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml NLCs-loaded IVM induced 100% mortality, respectively. On the other hand, the 800 µg/ml of IVM induced 100% mortality rate 150 min after administration. Additionally, we found that NLCs-loaded IVM induced higher mRNA caspase-3 expression suggesting a more potent apoptotic effect on the parasite. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that NLCs-loaded IVM may be a promising alternative to current treatments although in vivo studies are needed.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Echinococcus granulosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Análise de Variância , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Fragmentação do DNA , Portadores de Fármacos , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus granulosus/ultraestrutura , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Lipídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoestruturas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ovinos
19.
Pathology ; 51(7): 737-741, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635949

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), are recognised neglected tropical diseases and have been endemic in patients in tropical Northern Australia. We reviewed the temporal trends in detections of STHs and Hymenolepis nana in faecal samples from Northern Territory (NT) Government Health facilities, representing patients with acute illnesses and comorbidities between 2008 and 2018. Ascaris lumbricoides is not detected in patients in the NT. The number of faecal samples examined yearly was relatively constant with a median of 4458 (range 4246-4933). Faecal samples from patients under the age of 5 years declined by 45% over the 11 years of the study. Detections of Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides spp., and hookworm ova fell significantly by 89% (p<0.001), 71% (p<0.001), and 43% (p<0.01), respectively, over the 11 years. Detections of H. nana declined by 33% absolutely, but not significantly, when assessed relative to the reduction in faecal samples from patients under the age of 5 years. The marked reduction in STH numbers coincided with a 10-fold increase in NT dispensing of ivermectin, predominantly used for scabies control, in widely geographically spaced locations throughout the NT, over the 11 years of the study. Our data support previous findings of the beneficial collateral effects of ivermectin therapy. Ivermectin is not recognised as having anti-cestode activity, hence the continued presence of H. nana endemically in the NT, suggests declines in STHs are not related to other changes in health hardware or existing mass drug administration programs. The reduction in T. trichiura detections may not be explained by this association, as unlike Strongyloides spp., the anti-helminthic effect of ivermectin has been less marked.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Northern Territory/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Solo/parasitologia , Medicina Tropical
20.
Trends Parasitol ; 35(11): 931-943, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474559

RESUMO

Scabies is a common skin disease with an estimated worldwide incidence of 200 million people infected per year. Its morbidity and mortality is principally due to secondary bacterial infections, a link now well recognized and prompting the recent inclusion of this disease-complex in the WHO list of neglected tropical diseases. The few treatments available are poorly effective against Sarcoptes scabiei eggs and appear to induce resistance in the parasite. An ideal alternative would be a single-dose regimen that kills all developmental stages, including eggs. Drugs used in the veterinary field and applied to other arthropods could be tested experimentally in an established pig-scabies model. Moreover, functional genomics combined with target validation through biochemical research should assist in identifying new drugs.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Zigoto/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...