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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(676-7): 92-98, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961093

RESUMO

This article reviews the novelties in the prevention and treatment of HIV infection as well as the perspectives for a potential cure. The PrEP is a key component in the prevention of infection and the control of the epidemic. In order to decrease long-term toxicities, two-drug antiretroviral regimens are being implemented. Long-acting injectable molecules show promising efficacy and safety and are long awaited for patients tired of taking daily pills. Concerning adverse events, the association between integrase inhibitors and weight gain as well as recent data on the safety of dolutegravir during pregnancy are presented. Finally, a second case of sustained virological suppression in a patient who received a stem cell transplant with a mutation of the co-receptor CCR5 was reported, renewing hopes for possible cure by gene therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Humanos
2.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 67(1): 55-65, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended as an intervention for HIV by the World Health Organization. However, the association between the CD4 count at ART initiation and the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) remains unclear. PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the trends related to symptom number and intensity among patients newly diagnosed with HIV in three different CD4-count-based groups and then to investigate the ADR trends for these three groups at different points in time. METHODS: This multi-center cohort study recruited newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients who had not previously used ART from AIDS-designated hospitals in Taiwan from March 2015 to December 2016. Study measures were assessed at the time of case enrollment (T0) and during the 1st month (T1), 4-6th month (T2), and 7-9th month (T3) of ART treatment. Patients were stratified into three groups according to initial CD4 count: ≤ 350 cells/mm3, >350-500 cells/mm3 and >500 cells/mm3. Repeated measures ANOVA and generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relationships between the level of initial CD4 count and ADRs. RESULTS: A total of 207 patients completed the study. Mean symptom numbers and symptom intensities decreased significantly over time in all three groups (p < .01). The largest mean reduction in both symptom number and intensity was achieved by the CD4 count >500 cells/mm3 group. Overall, at least one ADR was reported by 85.7% of the participants at the first month of ART use, and the incidence of ADR had decreased by an average of 22% at the 7-9th month assessment (p < .001). ARDs decreased significantly over time in the CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 group, with the degrees of ADRs in systematic side effect most significantly decreased in this group (p = .03). CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Number and intensity of symptoms significantly improved over time in all three CD4 count groups. The percentage of systematic side effects was most reduced in the CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 group. The results of this study may be referenced by HIV care providers when discussing with patients the initiation of ART and the potential risks of experiencing ADRs.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115287, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590843

RESUMO

Lopinavir (LPV) is currently used in combination with ritonavir for the clinical management of HIV infections due to its limited oral bioavailability. Herein, we report the application of an in silico method to study cyclodextrin (CyD) host-guest molecular interaction with LPV for the rational selection of the best CyD for developing a CyD based LPV delivery system. The predicted CyD, a (2-hydroxy)propyl-gamma derivative with high degree of substitution (HP17-γ-CyD) was synthesized and comparatively evaluated with γ-CyD and the commercially available HP-γ-CyD. All complexes were prepared by supercritical assisted spray drying (SASD) and co-evaporation (CoEva) at molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2); and afterwards fully characterized. Results indicate a higher LPV amorphization and solubilization ability of HP17-γ-CyD. The SASD processing technology also enhanced LPV solubilization and release from complexes. The application of in silico methodologies is a feasible approach for the rational and/or deductive development of CyD drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/química , Lopinavir/química , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Simulação por Computador , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Solubilidade
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 601-609, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215037

RESUMO

We compared invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence rates in Europe, South Africa, Latin and North America among women living with HIV who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1996 and 2014. We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE) in EuroCoord. We used flexible parametric survival models to determine regional ICC rates and risk factors for incident ICC. We included 64,231 women from 45 countries. During 320,141 person-years (pys), 356 incident ICC cases were diagnosed (Europe 164, South Africa 156, North America 19 and Latin America 17). Raw ICC incidence rates per 100,000 pys were 447 in South Africa (95% confidence interval [CI]: 382-523), 136 in Latin America (95% CI: 85-219), 76 in North America (95% CI: 48-119) and 66 in Europe (95% CI: 57-77). Compared to European women ICC rates at 5 years after ART initiation were more than double in Latin America (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.27-4.68) and 11 times higher in South Africa (aHR: 10.66, 95% CI: 6.73-16.88), but similar in North America (aHR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.37-1.71). Overall, ICC rates increased with age (>50 years vs. 16-30 years, aHR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40) and lower CD4 cell counts at ART initiation (per 100 cell/µl decrease, aHR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15-1.36). Improving access to early ART initiation and effective cervical cancer screening in women living with HIV should be key parts of global efforts to reduce cancer-related health inequities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comparação Transcultural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1043, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) and expanded ART policies results in that more and more HIV-infected patients receive ART in Kunming, Yunnan province, China. At the same time, however, the number of patients, who drop-out from ART, are also increasing. In this study, we explored the factors that may account for drop-out. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-nine HIV-infected patients, who received or used to receive ART, were recruited in this study. Their age is among 18 and 75. All patients were divided into two group: ART group (187 patients) and drop-out group (252 patients). Appropriate bio-statistics analysis, including univariate analysis and Multivariate analysis, were used to identify factors associated with drop-out. RESULTS: Data from all patients were analyzed. Univariate analysis suggested that the factors associated with drop-out may include age, residential area, educational level, occupation, monthly income, the access to minimum living allowance, HIV transmission route, and living status. On the other hand, factors including area, monthly income, the access to minimum living allowance, and referral methods of follow-up institutions account for drop-out in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a number of factors associated with drop out from ART. Based on our findings,appropriate interventions should be introduced decrease drop-out.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , China , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1392-1397, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838810

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women and exposed infant in Guangdong province and identify the factors associated with infant HIV infection through mother-to-child transmission. Methods: National Information System for Prevention of mother-to-child HIV Transmission and Early Infant Diagnosis Information Management Platform were used to collect the individual information about HIV-infected pregnant women and exposed infants who were delivered in Guangdong from January 1, 2014 to December 31 in 2017. The differences in pregnant women's demographic data, history of pregnancy and childbirth, the utilization of mother-to-child transmission prevention services and early infant diagnosis between the infected HIV exposed infants and uninfected HIV exposed infants were compared, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors associated with mother-to-child HIV transmission. Results: Among 349 HIV infected pregnant women, the proportions of the pregnant women whose HIV infection status were confirmed before pregnancy, during pregnancy and at or after childbirth were 30.4% (106/349), 49.6% (173/349) and 20.0% (70/349) respectively. The proportions of those with sexual partners whose HIV infection status were unknown and those receiving no antiviral treatment were 39.5% (138/349) and 13.2% (46/349) respectively. Among the HIV exposed infants, the mother-to-child transmission rate was 4.2%(15/353), the HIV exposed infants had the first or second early diagnosis tests within 44 (P(25)-P(75): 42-50) days and 96 (P(25)-P(75): 92-106) days after birth, respectively. Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk for mother-to-child HIV transmission increased in those whose HIV infection status were confirmed at or after childbirth compared with before pregnancy (OR=5.72, 95%CI: 1.52-21.61) and in the group that antiviral treatment was given to either mothers or infants compared with the group that antiviral treatment was given to both mothers and infants (OR=33.56, 95%CI: 9.04-124.55), while there was lower mother-to-child HIV transmission risk in artificial feeding group compared with breast feeding group (OR=0.07, 95%CI: 0.01-0.76). Conclusion: The risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Guangdong can be effectively reduced by the measures of early diagnosis, antiviral treatment and artificial feeding as well as the improvement of mother-to-child transmission prevention service.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1398-1402, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838811

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the survival time and influencing factors of HIV/AIDS cases in Gansu province from 1997 to 2018. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the AIDS epidemic data of Gansu from 1997 to 2018 collected from the National HIV/AIDS information system. Life-span table were used to calculate survival rate, Kaplan-Meier method was used to draw the survival curves and calculate the average survival time, the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to analyze the risk factors for death for HIV/AIDS cases. Results: Among 6 813 HIV/AIDS cases, 715 (10.5%) died, and the average survival time was 195.9 months (95%CI: 189.7-202.2). The survival rates of 12 months, 60 months, 120 months and 180 months were 91.5%, 86.1%, 79.9% and 73.8%, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that the risk factors for death in the HIV/AIDS cases were age (≥51 years old vs. ≤25 years old, HR=1.906, 95%CI: 1.353-2.685), transmission route (blood borne and others transmission vs. heterosexual transmission, HR=1.593, 95%CI: 1.226-2.069), detection way (hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination vs. entry-exit health examination, pre-marital examination and physical examination of recruits, HR=5.113, 95%CI: 2.083-12.547), disease phase (AIDS phase vs. HIV infection phase: HR=4.012, 95%CI: 3.401-4.732), baseline CD(4) count (no CD(4) detected vs. CD(4) count ≥350/µl, HR=5.446, 95%CI: 3.835-7.732), antiretroviral therapy (receiving no antiretroviral therapy vs. receiving antiretroviral therapy, HR=12.019, 95%CI: 9.861-14.648). Conclusions: The average survival time of HIV/AIDS cases was above 16 years in Gansu during 1997 to 2018. Death risk of HIV/AIDS cases might be increased by age ≥51 years, hospital admission detection, blood transfusion and preoperative examination, AIDS phase of disease phase, no baseline CD(4) detected and no receiving antiretroviral therapy. It is necessary to conduct early HIV test, diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and increase antiretroviral treatment rates and CD(4) testing rate to improve the survival of HIV/AIDS cases.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859848

RESUMO

Mycobacterium haemophilum is a nontuberculous mycobacterium that causes localized or disseminated disease, mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report the case of a 35-year-old HIV-infected woman who presented with several enlarging cutaneous lesions over the arms and legs. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of a cutaneous mycobacterial disease. Mycobacterial analyses unveiled M. haemophilum infection. Six months after completion of a successful antimycobacterial treatment, she developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This paradoxical relapse presented as tenderness, redness and swelling at the precise sites of the healed lesions and took place in the setting of significant recovery of the CD4 cell count (from 05 to 318 cells/mm 3 ). Microbiological analyses of these worsening lesions were negative, and they spontaneously remitted without the initiation of a novel antimycobacterial treatment cycle. M. haemophilum infection should always be considered as a cause of skin lesions in immunocompromised subjects. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of IRIS as a complication of successful antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with M. haemophilum infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Mycobacterium haemophilum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/metabolismo , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/imunologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 988, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and haematological abnormalities in HIV positive patients in Limbe, Cameroon from April-July 2014. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and involved 411 participants who were administered structured questionnaires to record socio-demographic and clinical data. Three hundred and nine (309) HIV positive patients and one hundred and two (102) HIV negative individuals were examined clinically and venous blood collected for malaria parasite detection, HIV infection diagnosis and full blood count analysis. RESULTS: Overall malaria parasite prevalence was 14.1% (58/411). This prevalence was significantly higher (P <  0.001) in the HIV negative participants (33.3%, 34/102) compared to the HIV positive patients (7.8%, 24/309). Amongst HIV positive participants, malaria parasite prevalence was significantly higher in female patients (P = 0.003), febrile patients (P <  0.001), anaemic patients (P = 0.015) and in patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (P = 0.03) when compared with their respective counterparts. Among the HIV negative group, though not significant, malaria parasite prevalence was higher in females, febrile and anaemic patients when compared with their respective counterparts. Overall anaemia prevalence was 52.1% (214/309) and was significantly higher (P = 0.004) in HIV positive patients (56%, 173) than in HIV negative participants (40.2%, 41). Malaria/HIV co-infected patients had a significantly lower mean value of Hb (P = 0.002), RBC (P = 0.002) and Hct (P = 0.001) when compared with HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: HIV negative participants had a higher prevalence of malaria parasites than their HIV positive counterparts. Anaemia prevalence was higher in HIV positive patients than in HIV negative participants. Malaria/HIV co-infected patients presented with more red blood cell abnormalities than HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689745

RESUMO

The risk of postnatal HIV transmission exists throughout the breastfeeding period. HIV shedding in breast milk beyond six months has not been studied extensively. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk during continued breastfeedingA cross-sectional study was nested in the PROMISE-PEP trial in Lusaka, Zambia to analyze breast milk samples collected from both breasts at week 38 post-partum (mid-way during continued breastfeeding). We measured concurrent HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) as proxies for cell-associated HIV (CAV) and cell-free HIV (CFV) shedding in breast milk respectively. Participants' socio-demographic date, concurrent blood test results, sub clinical mastitis test results and contraceptive use data were available. Logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of HIV shedding in breast milk (detecting either CAV or CFV).The prevalence of HIV shedding in breast milk at 9 months post-partum was 79.4% (95%CI: 74.0 - 84.0). CAV only, CFV only and both CAV and CFV were detectable in 13.7%, 17.3% and 48.4% mothers, respectively. The odds of shedding HIV in breast milk decreased significantly with current use of combined oral contraceptives (AOR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17 - 0.83) and increased significantly with low CD4 count (AOR: 3.47; 95%CI: 1.23 - 9.80), unsuppressed plasma viral load (AOR: 6.27; 95%CI: 2.47 - 15.96) and severe sub-clinical mastitis (AOR: 12.56; 95%CI: 2.48 - 63.58).This study estimated that about 80% of HIV infected mothers not on ART shed HIV in breast milk during continued breastfeeding. Major factors driving this shedding were low CD4 count, unsuppressed plasma viral load and severe sub-clinical mastitis. The inverse relationship between breast milk HIV and use of combined oral contraceptives needs further clarification. Continued shedding of CAV may contribute to residual postnatal transmission of HIV in mothers on successful ART.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Leite Humano/virologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , DNA Viral , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Modelos Logísticos , Mastite/epidemiologia , Mães , Prevalência , RNA Viral , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 848, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe refractory human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). High cumulative doses of conventional doxorubicin exceeding 500 mg/m2 are known to cause cardiac toxicity. However, the safe cumulative dose of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 40-year-old Japanese man with HIV infection presented with pain, edema, and multiple skin nodules on both legs which worsened over several months. He was diagnosed with HIV-associated KS. He received long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin combined with antiretroviral therapy for advanced, progressive KS. The cumulative dose of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin reached 980 mg/m2. The patient's left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged from baseline during treatment. After he died as a result of cachexia and wasting, caused by recurrent sepsis and advanced KS, an autopsy specimen of his heart revealed little or no evidence of histological cardiac damage. We also conducted a literature review focusing on histological changes of the myocardium in patients treated with a cumulative dose of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin exceeding 500 mg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: This case report and literature review suggest that high (> 500 mg/m2) cumulative doses of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin may be used without significant histological/clinical cardiac toxicity in patients with HIV-associated KS.


Assuntos
Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/etiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1349, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been shown to enhance the survival of people living with HIV worldwide. In Ethiopia, the number of ART users has increased from 47,422 in 2005 to 703,516 in 2017; yet, early mortality of patients has presented challenges to the success of the ART program. Because of gender roles, it is assumed that females are at risk of dying earlier after the start of the medications. Hence, this study aimed to assess the sex difference in the survival status among the ART users. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in March 2017 among sample of 687 ART users registered from 2010 to 2015. Data were extracted from patient records by using a structured checklist. The extracted data were analyzed by STATA version 13. Survival analysis and Cox regression were used to determine survival status and identify associated factors. RESULTS: Among 685 reviewed records of ART users, 20 males and 64 females died in the 5 years period of ART initiation. This makes the overall 5 years survival rate of 84.23%. Females had lower survival probability (80.10%) as compared to males (91.18%) (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.06). Divorced individuals as compared to married (AHR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.97), individuals with less education (AHR = 2.54 95% CI: 1.29, 4.98) or those who attended only primary education (AHR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.65) as compared to those who attended secondary or above had low survival probability. Those who never disclosed their HIV status (AHR = 3.62; 95% CI: 1.25, 10.46) as compared to disclosed, bedridden individuals as compared to normal functional status (AHR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.24, 5.89) and those who had tuberculosis (TB)-co infection (AHR = 2.60; 1.48, 4.45) had lower rates of survival. CONCLUSION: Females were at higher risk of dying within 5 years of ART initiation as compared to males. Hence, intervention to further reduce mortality should take sex differences into account. Behavioral interventions and HIV counseling service should also be strengthened to improve rate of disclosure and functional status as well as reduce TB co-infections.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1329, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uptake of Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) among People Living with HIV in Zambia has continued to be low despite various evidence for its added benefit in reducing TB incidence and mortality when taken with antiretroviral therapy. In 2017, only 18% of People Living with HIV newly enrolled in care were initiated on IPT in Zambia. MAIN TEXT: Various challenges including policy and management level factors, supply chain factors, health worker perceptions about IPT, monitoring and evaluation factors and limited demand creation activities have constrained the scale up of IPT in Zambia. Lessons that have been learnt while addressing the above challenges are shared and they can be applied by government ministries, project managers, public health specialists to strengthen IPT activities in their settings. CONCLUSION: Zambia has both a high burden of TB and HIV and without preventing new cases of TB from reactivation of latent TB infection, it will be difficult to control TB. All stakeholders involved in prevention of TB among PLHIV need to commit to addressing the challenges limiting scale up of IPT.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1382, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Private health facilities are increasingly being recognized as the neglected partner in the provision of HIV services. The non-adherence rate in the study sites ranged from 19 to 22%. This study explored the factors associated with non-adherence from antiretroviral therapy (ART) among adult patients accessing ART services at two privately owned urban health facilities in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive qualitative approach employing in-depth interviews among adults who either defaulted or were retained in HIV care in two privately owned facilities in Malawi from March to July 2017. We purposively selected participants and interviewed a total of 6 ART providers and 24 ART clients. Data were analyzed manually using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Overall, participants identified four facilitators for retention in care and four broad categories of barriers namely individual, psychological, drug related and human resource related factors. The factors that facilitated retention in care included follow up visits after missing a visit, adequate information education and counseling, and supportive relationships. CONCLUSION: The main reason for defaulting from antiretrovirals (ARVs) was fear of disclosing an HIV status to avert potential stigma and discrimination. In implementing ART clinics due consideration and strategies need to be adopted to ensure that privacy and confidentiality is preserved. Although adoption of all the key Malawi Implementing strategies like expert clients and a guardian may optimize retention in care, there is need for prior analysis of how those may lead to unintended disclosure which inadvertently affects adherence. Furthermore, private facilities should orient their clients to the public facilities within the catchment area so that clients have an option for alternative access to HIV care in the event of financial constraints.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações Privadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Revelação , Medo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4739, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628331

RESUMO

HIV viral reservoirs are established very early during infection. Resident memory T cells (TRM) are present in tissues such as the lower female genital tract, but the contribution of this subset of cells to the pathogenesis and persistence of HIV remains unclear. Here, we show that cervical CD4+TRM display a unique repertoire of clusters of differentiation, with enrichment of several molecules associated with HIV infection susceptibility, longevity and self-renewing capacities. These protein profiles are enriched in a fraction of CD4+TRM expressing CD32. Cervical explant models show that CD4+TRM preferentially support HIV infection and harbor more viral DNA and protein than non-TRM. Importantly, cervical tissue from ART-suppressed HIV+ women contain high levels of viral DNA and RNA, being the TRM fraction the principal contributor. These results recognize the lower female genital tract as an HIV sanctuary and identify CD4+TRM as primary targets of HIV infection and viral persistence. Thus, strategies towards an HIV cure will need to consider TRM phenotypes, which are widely distributed in tissues.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Útero/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética , Carga Viral/imunologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 913, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence measures that are associated with plasma viral load (VL) are valuable to clinicians and researchers, but are rarely examined among groups vulnerable to dropping out of care. One-seventh of all those living with HIV pass through incarceration annually and criminal-justice (CJ) involved people living with HIV (PLH) are vulnerable to falling out of care. We examined the association of self-reported ART adherence with VL in a criminal-justice sample compared to a routine-care sample. METHODS: Samples: We examined data from a multisite collaboration of studies addressing the continuum of HIV care among CjJ involved persons in the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain cohort. Data pooled from seven CJ- studies (n = 414) were examined and compared with the routine-care sample from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems' seven sites (n = 11,698). MEASURES: In both samples, data on self-reported percent ART doses taken were collected via the visual analogue scale adherence measure. Viral load data were obtained by blood-draw. ANALYSIS: We examined the associations of adherence with VL in both cohorts using mixed effects linear regression of log-VL, and mixed effects logistic regression of binary VL (≥ 200 copies/mL) outcomes. Interactions by CD4 count and self-reported health status were also tested. RESULTS: Among the CJ sample, the coefficient for log-VL was - 0.31 (95% CI = - 0.43, - 0.18; P < 0.01) and that in the routine-care sample was - 0.42 (95% CI = - 0.45, - 0.38; P < 0.01). For the logistic regression of binary detectable VL on 10% increments of adherence we found the coefficient was - 0.26 (95% CI = - 0.37, - 0.14; P < 0.01) and in the routine-care sample it was - 0.38 (95% CI = - 0.41, - 0.35; P < 0.01). There was no significant interaction by CD4 count level in the CJ sample, but there was in the routine-care sample. Conversely, there was a significant interaction by self-reported health status level in the criminal-justice sample, but not in the routine-care sample. CONCLUSIONS: The visual analogue scale is valid and useful to measure ART adherence, supporting treatment for CJ- involved PLH vulnerable to falling out of care. Research should examine adherence and VL in additional populations.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Criminosos , Adesão à Medicação , Autorrelato , Carga Viral , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Direito Penal , Feminino , HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 914, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmatic data on the baseline risk of tuberculosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) are needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of the ongoing isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) roll-out in India. METHODS: We estimated the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis disease in adult PLHIV initiating first- and second-line anti-retroviral therapy (ART) prior to widespread IPT in a public ART center in Pune, India. RESULTS: 4067 participants contributing 5205.7 person-years of follow-up on first-line ART and 871 participants contributing 1031.7 person-years of follow-up on second-line ART were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 4.39 cases (95%CI 3.86-5.00) per 100 person-years on first-line ART and 1.64 cases (95%CI 1.01-2.63) per 100 person-years on second-line ART (p < 0.001). After adjusting for competing risks, male sex (aSHR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.02-1.74, p = 0.03), urban residence (aSHR = 1.53, 95%CI 1.13-2.07, p = 0.006) and CD4+ counts < 350 cells/mm3 (aSHR = 3.06 vs CD4 > 350 cells/mm3, 95%CI 1.58-5.94, p < 0.001) at ART initiation were associated with higher risk of tuberculosis independent of ART regimen. CONCLUSION: Risk of tuberculosis was lower in PLHIV receiving second-line ART compared to first-line ART. Prioritizing IPT in PLHIV with low CD4+ counts, urban residence and in males may further mitigate the risk of tuberculosis during ART.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 768, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During recent years, Quality of Life (QoL) is a significant assessment factor in clinical trials and epidemiological researches due to the advent of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a manageable,chronic disease. With regards, more attention must be paid to the QoL of infected patients. Limited evidence exists on the impact of ART on QoL among HIV infected patients. Due to lacking of a systematic approach to summarizing the available evidence on the clinical determinants of People Who Live with HIV/AIDS (PWLHs') QoL, this study aimed to analyze the impact of clinical determinants (ART experience, CD4 count < 200, co-morbidities, time diagnosis and accessibility to cares) on QoL among PWLHs'. METHODS: This study was designed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Cochrane electronic databases were searched in February 2017 to identify all past studies that discussed social and behavioral characteristics of QoL in PLWHA. To recognize effective factors on social and behavioral QoL, a meta-analysis was conducted. Polled Odds Ratios (ORs) were utilized at a 95% confidence level. Since sampling methods differed between articles in the systematic review, we evaluated pooled estimates using a random effect model. Metan, metareg, metacum, and metabias commands in STATA version 13.0 were applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Our findings indicated that ART has a positive impact on QoL, with a pooled effect size at approximately 1.04 with a confidence interval between 0.42 to 1.66 which indicates this impact is not very considerable and may be relatively neutral. The pooled effect size for CD4 count on QoL was .29 (95%CI = .22-.35), indicating that there is a negative associate between CD4 count and QoL. The co-morbidity as a negative determinant for QoL among HIV/AIDS infected people. The pooled effect size implies on a relative neutral association, although the confidence interval is wide and ranges between 0.32 to 1.58. The pooled effect size is about 1.82 with confidence interval 1.27 to 2.37 which indicates a considerable positive association with lowest level of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The results illustrated that time diagnosing and availability to hospital services had significant relationship with a higher QoL and CD4 < 200 was associated with a lower QoL. In conclusion, policy makers should set an agenda setting to provide a suitable diagnostic and therapeutic facilities to early detecting and continues monitoring the health status of People Who Live with HIV/AIDS (PWLHs').


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1116-1119, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594156

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the deaths with antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture from 2005 to 2015, in order to understand the epidemiological characteristics and to further reduce the mortality rate in Liangshan Prefecture. Methods: The relevant information was collected through the Management Database of Antiretroviral Treatment from the National AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Information System. Results: From 2005 to 2015, a total of 14 219 adult HIV/AIDS patients received antiretroviral treatment and 1 425 death cases were reported during the treatment. The cause of death was mainly AIDS-related diseases (58.9%), and the cumulative mortality rate was 10.02%. Gender, age, the way of infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, clinical stage when received antiretroviral therapy, and CD(4)(+) T lymphocyte levels were factors for the mortality rate (P<0.001). The mortality increased with older age, higher initiation clinical stage and lower level of CD(4)(+) T lymphocyte. Among the death cases, 82.6% were male, 1 182 (82.9%) were married or cohabited, most aged between 30-39 years old (48.6%). At the initial point of receiving antiretroviral therapy, 49.7% of the cases with CD(4)(+)T lymphocytes levels< 200/µl, 61.2% of the deaths cases were>1 000 copies/ml during the last viral load test, and 16.2% of deaths were ≥500/µl in the last CD(4)(+)T lymphocyte test; 44.5% of deaths were received antiretroviral treatment within one year. Conclusion: Early and timely antiretroviral therapy should be carried out. It is necessary to strengthen the propaganda of antiretroviral therapy and to improve the management quality of follow-up information of antiretroviral therapy case files, and to improve the medication compliance of patients.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
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