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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031362

RESUMO

During 2018, estimated incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanic and Latino (Hispanic/Latino) persons in the United States was four times that of non-Hispanic White persons (1). Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 24% (138,023) of U.S. MSM living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2018 (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, which improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission (2). Barriers to ART adherence among Hispanic/Latino MSM have been explored in limited contexts (3); however, nationally representative analyses are lacking. The Medical Monitoring Project reports nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical experiences of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV infection. This analysis used Medical Monitoring Project data collected during 2015-2019 to examine ART adherence and reasons for missing ART doses among HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino MSM (1,673). On a three-item ART adherence scale with 100 being perfect adherence, 77.3% had a score of ≥85. Younger age, poverty, recent drug use, depression, and unmet needs for ancillary services were predictors of lower ART adherence. The most common reason for missing an ART dose was forgetting; 63.9% of persons who missed ≥1 dose reported more than one reason. Interventions that support ART adherence and access to ancillary services among Hispanic/Latino MSM might help improve clinical outcomes and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1726-1729, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018330

RESUMO

In 2019, approximately 38 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has determined a change in the course of HIV infection, transforming it into a chronic condition which results in cumulative exposure to antiretroviral drugs, inflammatory effects and aging. Relatedly, at least one quarter of HIV-infected patients suffer from cognitive, motor and behavioral disorder, globally known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this context, objective, neuroimaging-based biomarkers are therefore highly desirable in order to detect, quantify and monitor HAND in all disease stages. In this study, we employed functional MRI in conjunction with graph-theoretical analysis as well as a newly developed functional brain network disruption index to assess a putative functional reorganization in HIV positive patients. We found that brain function of HIV patients is deeply reorganized as compared to normal controls. Interestingly, the regions in which we found reorganized hubs are integrated into neuronal networks involved in working memory, motor and executive functions often altered in patients with HAND. Overall, our study demonstrates that rs-fMRI combined with advanced graph theoretical analysis and disruption indices is able to detect early, subtle functional changes of brain networks in HIV patients before structural changes become evident.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 727, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) testing is the gold-standard approach for monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment success and virologic failure, but uptake is suboptimal in resource-limited and rural settings. We conducted a cross-sectional study of risk factors for non-uptake of VL testing in rural Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of uptake of VL testing among randomly selected people with HIV (PWH) receiving anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for at least 6 months at all eight primary health centers in Gomba district, rural Uganda. Socio-demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records for the period January to December 2017. VL testing was routinely performed 6 months after ART initiation and 12 months thereafter for PWH stable on ART. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with non-uptake of VL testing (the primary outcome). RESULTS: Of 414 PWH, 60% were female, and the median age was 40 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-48). Most (62.3%) had been on ART > 2 years, and the median duration of treatment was 34 months (IQR 14-55). Thirty three percent did not receive VL testing: 36% of women and 30% of men. Shorter duration of ART (≤2 years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.38; 95% CI:1.37-4.12; p = 0.002), younger age 16-30 years (AOR 2.74; 95% CI:1.44-5.24; p = 0.002) and 31-45 years (AOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.12-3.27; p = 0.017), and receipt of ART at Health Center IV (AOR 2.85; 95% CI: 1.78-4.56; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with non-uptake of VL testing. CONCLUSIONS: One-in-three PWH on ART missed VL testing in rural Uganda. Strategies to improve coverage of VL testing, such as VL focal persons to flag missed tests, patient education and demand creation for VL testing are needed, particularly for recent ART initiates and younger persons on treatment, in order to attain the third Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 95-95-95 target - virologic suppression for 95% of PWH on ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , População Rural , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 738, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In accordance with international guidance for tuberculosis (TB) prevention, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health recommends isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for children aged 12 months and older who are living with HIV. Concerns about tolerability, adherence, and potential mistreatment of undiagnosed TB with monotherapy have limited uptake of IPT globally, especially among children, in whom diagnostic confirmation is challenging. We assessed IPT implementation and adherence at a pediatric HIV clinic in Tanzania. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, eligible children living with HIV aged 1-15 years receiving care at the DarDar Pediatric Program in Dar es Salaam who screened negative for TB disease were offered a 6-month regimen of daily isoniazid. Patients could choose to receive IPT via facility- or community-based care. Parents/caregivers and children provided informed consent and verbal assent respectively. Isoniazid was dispensed with the child's antiretroviral therapy every 1-3 months. IPT adherence and treatment completion was determined by pill counts, appointment attendance, and self-report. Patients underwent TB symptom screening at every visit. RESULTS: We enrolled 66 children between July and December 2017. No patients/caregivers declined IPT. Most participants were female (n = 43, 65.1%) and the median age was 11 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8, 13). 63 (95.5%) participants chose the facility-based model; due to the small number of participants who chose the community-based model, valid comparisons between the two groups could not be made. Forty-nine participants (74.2%) completed IPT within 10 months. Among the remaining 17, 11 had IPT discontinued by their provider due to adverse drug reactions, 5 lacked documentation of completion, and 1 had unknown outcomes due to missing paperwork. Of those who completed IPT, the average monthly adherence was 98.0%. None of the participants were diagnosed with TB while taking IPT or during a median of 4 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: High adherence and treatment completion rates can be achieved when IPT is integrated into routine, self-selected facility-based pediatric HIV care. Improved record-keeping may yield even higher completion rates. IPT was well tolerated and no cases of TB were detected. IPT for children living with HIV is feasible and should be implemented throughout Tanzania.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Tanzânia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 734, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV continues to be the main determinant morbidity with high mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a high number of patients being late presenters with advanced HIV. Clinical management of advanced HIV patients is thus complex and requires strict adherence to updated, empirical and simplified guidelines. The current study investigated the impact of the implementation of a new clinical guideline on the management of advanced HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine clinical data of advanced HIV patients was conducted for the periods; February 2016 to March 2017, before implementation of new guidelines, and November 2017 to July 2018, after the implementation of new guidelines. Eligible patients were patients with CD4 < 200 cell/µl and presenting with at least 1 of 4 opportunistic infections. Patient files were reviewed by a medical doctor and a committee of 3 other doctors for congruence. Statistical significance was set at 0.05%. RESULTS: Two hundred four and Two hundred thirty-one patients were eligible for inclusion before and after the implementation of new guidelines respectively. Sex and age distributions were similar for both periods, and median CD4 were 36 & 52 cell/µl, before and after the new guidelines implementation, respectively. 40.7% of patients had at least 1 missed/incorrect diagnosis before the new guidelines compared to 30% after new guidelines, p < 0.05. Clinical diagnosis for TB and toxoplasmosis were also much improved after the implementation of new guidelines. In addition, only 63% of patients had CD4 count test results before the new guidelines compared to 99% of patients after new guidelines. Death odds after the implementation of new guidelines were significantly lower than before new guidelines in a multivariate regression model that included patients CD4 count and 10 other covariates, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Simplification and implementation of a new and improved HIV clinical guideline coupled with the installation of laboratory equipment and point of care tests potentially helped reduce incorrect diagnosis and improve clinical outcomes of patients with advanced HIV. Regulating authorities should consider developing simplified versions of guidelines followed by the provision of basic diagnostic equipment to health centers.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) are reported to have metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance which potentially increase the risk of diabetes, kidney, liver and cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate HIV-mediated metabolic complications that sustain even during ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. METHOD: We have carried out metabolic profiling of the plasma of treatment-naïve and ART-suppressed perinatally HIV-infected children and uninfected controls using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy followed by statistical analysis and annotation. RESULT: Validated multivariate analysis showed clear distinction among our study groups. Our results showed elevated levels of lactate, glucose, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, propionic acid, 2-ketobutyric acid and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites in untreated HIV-infected children compared to uninfected controls. ART normalized the levels of several metabolites, however the level of lactate, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, oxoglutaric acid, oxaloacetic acid, myoinositol and glutamine remained upregulated despite ART in HIV-infected children. Pathway analysis revealed perturbed propanoate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle in untreated and ART-suppressed HIV-infected children. CONCLUSION: Developing therapeutic strategies targeting metabolic abnormalities may be beneficial for preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease or other associated complications in perinatally HIV-infected children.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Plasma/metabolismo , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003325, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current World Health Organization (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines define virologic failure as two consecutive viral load (VL) measurements ≥1,000 copies/mL, triggering empiric switch to next-line ART. This trial assessed if patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia on first-line ART benefit from a switch to second-line treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This multicenter, parallel-group, open-label, superiority, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients on first-line ART containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) with two consecutive VLs ≥100 copies/mL, with the second VL between 100-999 copies/mL, from eight clinics in Lesotho. Consenting participants were randomly assigned (1:1), stratified by facility, demographic group, and baseline VL, to either switch to second-line ART (switch group) or continued first-line ART (control group; WHO guidelines). The primary endpoint was viral suppression (<50 copies/mL) at 36 weeks. Analyses were by intention to treat, using logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic group and baseline VL. Between August 1, 2017, and August 7, 2019, 137 individuals were screened, of whom 80 were eligible and randomly assigned to switch (n = 40) or control group (n = 40). The majority of participants were female (54 [68%]) with a median age of 42 y (interquartile range [IQR] 35-51), taking tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine/efavirenz (49 [61%]) and on ART for a median of 5.9 y (IQR 3.3-8.6). At 36 weeks, 22/40 (55%) participants in the switch versus 10/40 (25%) in the control group achieved viral suppression (adjusted difference 29%, 95% CI 8%-50%, p = 0.009). The switch group had significantly higher probability of viral suppression across different VL thresholds (<20, <100, <200, <400, and <600 copies/mL) but not for <1,000 copies/mL. Thirty-four (85%) participants in switch group and 21 (53%) in control group experienced at least one adverse event (AE) (p = 0.002). No hospitalization or death or other serious adverse events were observed. Study limitations include a follow-up period too short to observe differences in clinical outcomes, missing values in CD4 cell counts due to national stockout of reagents during the study, and limited generalizability of findings to other than NNRTI-based first-line ART regimens. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, switching to second-line ART among patients with sustained low-level HIV-1 viremia resulted in a higher proportion of participants with viral suppression. These results endorse lowering the threshold for virologic failure in future WHO guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03088241.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Viral
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21606, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871876

RESUMO

The increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) worldwide is yet to result in decreasing HIV-related mortality among adolescents (10-19 years old) living with HIV (ALHIV) in part because of poor adherence. the poor adherence might itself be due to high level of depression. We assess the prevalence of depressive symptomatology and it's associated with adherence among ALHIV receiving ART care in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire, Republic of Congo (RoC).Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, on antiretroviral therapy (ART), followed in the two Ambulatory Treatment Centers (ATC) in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire, RoC were included in this cross-sectional study. From April 19 to July 9, 2018, participants were administered face to face interviews using a standardized questionnaire that included the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Participants who reported failing to take their ART more than twice in the 7 days preceding the interview were classified as non-adherent. Bivariate and multivariable log-binomial models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) assessing the strength of association between predictors and presence of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥9).Overall, 135 adolescents represented 50% of ALHIV in active care at the 2 clinics were interviewed. Of those, 67 (50%) were male, 81 (60%) were 15 to 19 years old, 124 (95%) had been perinatally infected, and 71 (53%) knew their HIV status. Depressive symptoms were present in 52 (39%) participants and 78 (58%) were adherent. In univariate analyses, the prevalence of depressive symptoms was relative higher among participants who were not adherent compared to those who were (73% vs 33%; PR: 2.20 [95%CI: 1.42-3.41]). In multivariate analysis, after adjustment for report of been sexually active, alcohol drinking, age category (10-14 and 15-19), not in school, loss of both parents, the association between depression and adherence was strengthened (PR: 2.06 [95%CI: 1.23-3.45]).The prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents living with HIV is high and was strongly associated with poor adherence even after adjustment of potential confounders. Efforts to scale-up access to screening and management of depression among ALHIV in sub-Saharan is needed for them to realize the full of ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adolescente , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perinatal/tendências , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886666

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to compare sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, HIV knowledge and risk behaviors of people living with HIV (PLH) and their social network members (NMs) to inform HIV prevention programs that engage PLH as prevention educators in their communities. We compared baseline characteristics of PLH enrolled in an intervention to become HIV prevention Change Agents (CAs) (n = 458) and 602 NMs they recruited. CAs and NMs responded to questionnaires through a computer-driven interface with Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) software. Although NMs scored higher on socio-economic status, self-esteem and general self-efficacy, they had lower HIV knowledge (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), greater inconsistent condom use (AOR 3.2; 95% CI: 2.4-4.9), and recent experience as perpetrators of physical (AOR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2-5.1) or sexual (AOR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.7) intimate partner violence; and as victims of physical (AOR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) or sexual (AOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8) forms of violence than CAs. Higher HIV knowledge and lower sexual risk behaviors among CAs suggest PLH's potential as communicators of HIV prevention information to NMs. CAs' training should also focus on improving self-esteem, general self-efficacy and social support to increase their potential effectiveness as HIV prevention educators and enhance their own overall health and well-being.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21803, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899009

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Complex immune dysregulation in interferon (IFN) and T cell response has been observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients as well as in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)/HIV-1 coinfection has been described in only few cases worldwide and no data are available on immunological outcomes in HIV-1-patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, this study aims to compare type I IFN response and T cell activation levels between a SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient and age-matched HIV-1-positive or uninfected women. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1 coinfection, ten HIV-1-positive women and five age-matched-healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. DIAGNOSES: SARS-CoV-2 infection caused severe pneumonia in the second week of illness in HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors. Chest high-resolution computed tomography images of the SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected patient showed bilateral ground-glass opacities. INTERVENTIONS: SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-coinfected female patient under darunavir/cobicistat regimen received a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. Analysis of IFNα/ß mRNA levels and CD4 and CD8 T cell (CD38, human leukocyte antigen-DR [HLA-DR], CD38 HLA-DR) frequencies were performed by RT/real-time PCR assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Median relative difference (MRD) was calculated for each immunological variable. For values greater than reference, MRD should be a positive number and for values that are smaller, MRD should be negative. OUTCOMES: The severe pneumonia observed in SARS-CoV-2/HIV-1-positive patient under protease inhibitors was reversed by a 7-days hydroxychloroquine therapy. At the end of treatment, on day 7, patient reported resolution of fever, normalization of respiratory rate (14 breaths/min), and improved oxygen arterial pressure with a FiO2 of 30%. MRD values for IFNα/ß and CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and/or HLA-DR found in SARS-CoV-2-/HIV-1-coinfected woman were approximatively equal to 0 when refereed respectively to HIV-1-positive female patients [MRDs IFNα/ß: median -0.2545 (range: -0.5/0.1); T cells: median -0.11 (range: -0.8/1.3)] and ≥ 6 when referred to healthy individuals [MRDs IFNα/ß: median 28.45 (range: 15/41.9); T cells: median 10 (range 6/22)]. LESSONS: These results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-1-positive female patient was associated with increased levels of IFNα/ß-mRNAs and T cell activation compared to healthy individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferons/sangue , Ativação Linfocitária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941433

RESUMO

HIV-infected older individuals may have a diminished immune response because of exhaustion/immune aging of T-cells. Therefore, we have investigated HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in 100 HIV-infected patients (HIV+) who have aged on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and achieved controlled viremia (mostly undetectable viral load; 92 patients with <20 to <40 HIV RNA copies/mL and 8 <60 to <100) and improved CD4 T-cell counts. We show that the median frequencies of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ T-cells were higher in HIV+ than uninfected individuals (HIV-), including increasing levels of IFN-γproduced by CD4+ T-cells and decreasing levels by CD8+ T-cells with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. No correlation was found between T-cell responses and varying levels of undetectable viremia. HIV-specific TNF-α made by CD8+ T-cells was higher in HIV+ than HIV-, including decreasing levels with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. Furthermore, the CD8+ T-cell mediators, CD107a and Granzyme-B, were higher in HIV+ than HIV-, and decreased with increasing CD4 T-cell counts in HIV+. Remarkably, HIV-specific CD8 T-cells produced decreasing levels of IFN-γwith increasing age of HIV+, including decreased levels of CD107a and Granzyme-B in older HIV+. However, HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells produced increasing levels of TNF-α with increasing age of the HIV+, suggesting continued inflammation. In conclusion, HIV+ with controlled viremia on long-term ART and with higher CD4 T-cell counts showed reduced HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses as compared to those with lower CD4 T-cell counts, and older HIV+ exhibited decreasing levels of CD8 T-cell responses with increasing age.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Viremia/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Granzimas/genética , Granzimas/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/genética , Proteína 1 de Membrana Associada ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 9(2): 104-106, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978341

RESUMO

Sex workers have been one of the marginalized groups that have been particularly affected by India's stringent lockdown in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The sudden loss of livelihood and lack of access to health care and social protection intensified the vulnerabilities of sex workers, especially those living with HIV. In response, Ashodaya Samithi, an organization of more than 6000 sex workers, launched an innovative programme of assistance in four districts in Karnataka. Since access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) was immediately disrupted, Ashodaya adapted its HIV outreach programme to form an alternative, community-led system of distributing ART at discreet, private sites. WhatsApp messaging was used to distribute information on accessing government social benefits made available in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Other assistance included advisory messages posted in WhatsApp groups to raise awareness, dispel myths and mitigate violence, and regular, discreet phone check-ins to follow up on the well-being of members. The lessons learnt from these activities represent an important opportunity to consider more sustainable approaches to the health of marginalized populations that can enable community organizations to be better prepared to respond to other public health crises as they emerge.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionais do Sexo , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1375, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring progress towards the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 treatment targets is key to assessing progress towards turning the HIV epidemic tide. In 2017, the UNAIDS model estimated that 75% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally knew their HIV positive status, 79% of those who knew their status were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 81% of those who knew their HIV status and were on ART had a suppressed viral load. The fifth South African national HIV sero-behavioural survey collected nationally representative data that enabled the empirical estimation of these 90-90-90 targets for the country stratified by a variety of key factors. METHODS: To evaluate progress towards achievement of the 90-90-90 targets for South Africa, data obtained from a national, representative, cross-sectional population-based multi-stage stratified cluster random survey conducted in 2017 were analysed. The Fifth South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey (SABSSM V), collected behavioural and biomarker data from individuals residing in households from 1000 randomly selected Small Area Layers (SALs), across all nine provinces of the country. Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic data, knowledge and perceptions about HIV, and related risk behaviours. Blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection, antiretroviral use, and viral suppression (defined as < 1000 copies/ml). Weighted proportions of study participants aged 15 years and older who tested HIV positive were computed for those who reported awareness of their status (1st 90), and among these, those who were currently on ART (2nd 90) and of these, those who were virally suppressed (3rd 90). RESULTS: Among persons 15 years and older who were HIV positive, 84.8% were aware of their HIV positive status, of whom 70.7% were currently on ART, with 87.4% of these estimated to have suppressed viral load at the time of the survey. These estimates varied by sex, age, and geo-location type. Relatively higher percentages across all three indicators for women compared to men were observed: 88.7% versus 78.2% for those aware of their status, 72.3% versus 67.7% for on ART, and 89.8% versus 82.3% for viral suppression. Knowing one's positive HIV status increased with age: 74.0, 85.8, and 88.1% for age groups 15-24 years old, 25-49 years old and 50-64 years old, although for those 65 years and older, 78.7% knew their HIV positive status. A similar pattern was observed for the 2nd 90, among those who knew their HIV positive status, 51.7% of 15 to 24 year olds, 70.5% of those aged 25-49 years old, 82.9% of those aged 50-64 years old and 82.4% of those aged 65 years or older were currently on ART. Viral suppression for the above mentioned aged groups, among those who were on ART was 85.2, 87.2, 89.5, and 84.6% respectively. The 90-90-90 indicators for urban areas were 87.7, 66.5, and 87.2%, for rural settings was 85.8, 79.8, and 88.4%, while in commercial farming communities it was 56.2, 67.6 and 81.4%. CONCLUSIONS: South Africa appears to be on track to achieve the first 90 indicator by 2020. However, it is behind on the second 90 indicator with ART coverage that was ~ 20-percentage points below the target among people who knew their HIV status, this indicates deficiencies around linkage to and retention on ART. Overall viral suppression among those on ART is approaching the target at 87.4%, but this must be interpreted in the context of low reported ART coverage as well as with variation by age and sex. Targeted diagnosis, awareness, and treatment programs for men, young people aged 15-24 years old, people who reside in farming communities, and in specific provinces are needed. More nuanced 90-90-90 estimates within provinces, specifically looking at more granular sub-national level (e.g. districts), are needed to identify gaps in specific regions and to inform provincial interventions.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , Epidemias , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Carga Viral , Logro , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nações Unidas , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1443, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client-Centered Representative Payee (CCRP) is an intervention modifying implementation of a current policy of the US Social Security Administration, which appoints organizations to serve as financial payees on behalf of vulnerable individuals receiving Social Security benefits. By ensuring beneficiaries' bills are paid while supporting their self-determination, this structural intervention may mitigate the effects of economic disadvantage to improve housing and financial stability, enabling self-efficacy for health outcomes and improved antiretroviral therapy adherence. This randomized controlled trial will test the impact of CCRP on marginalized people living with HIV (PLWH). We hypothesize that helping participants to pay their rent and other bills on time will improve housing stability and decrease financial stress. METHODS: PLWH (n = 160) receiving services at community-based organizations will be randomly assigned to the CCRP intervention or the standard of care for 12 months. Fifty additional participants will be enrolled into a non-randomized ("choice") study allowing participant selection of the CCRP intervention or control. The primary outcome is HIV medication adherence, assessed via the CASE adherence index, viral load, and CD4 counts. Self-assessment data for ART adherence, housing instability, self-efficacy for health behaviors, financial stress, and retention in care will be collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Viral load, CD4, and appointment adherence data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from medical records. Outcomes will be compared by treatment group in the randomized trial, in the non-randomized cohort, and in the combined cohort. Qualitative data will be collected from study participants, eligible non-participants, and providers to explore underlying mechanisms of adherence, subjective responses to the intervention, and implementation barriers and facilitators. DISCUSSION: The aim of this study is to determine if CCRP improves health outcomes for vulnerable PLWH. Study outcomes may provide information about supports needed to help economically fragile PLWH improve health outcomes and ultimately improve HIV health disparities. In addition, findings may help to refine service delivery including the provision of representative payee to this often-marginalized population. This protocol was prospectively registered on May 22, 2018 with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03561103) .


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Marginalização Social , Previdência Social/economia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos , United States Social Security Administration
17.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1795-1800, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine comorbidity indices in people with HIV (PWH) and lifestyle-similar HIV-negative controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the Pharmacokinetic and clinical Observations in PeoPle over fiftY cohort study in the United Kingdom and Ireland. METHODS: The Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI), Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Comorbidity Burden Index were compared between older PWH and HIV-negative controls using the Mann-Whitney U test; the magnitude of the difference between groups was quantified using the r effect size. RESULTS: The 699 PWH and 304 HIV-negative controls were predominantly male (87.5% vs. 64.0%), white (86.3% vs. 90.0%) and had median ages of 57 and 58 years, respectively. Among PWH, the median (interquartile range) CD4 T-cell count was 624 (475, 811) cells/µl; 98.7% were on antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range) ECI was 0 (0, 8) and 0 (-3, 1), Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2 (1, 5) and 1 (0, 1) and Comorbidity Burden Index 8.6 (2.2, 16.8) and 5.9 (0.6, 10.8), respectively. While all three indices were significantly higher in PWH than in controls (P < 0.001 for each), the magnitude of the differences between the two groups were small to medium, with effect sizes (95% confidence interval) of 0.21 (0.16, 0.27), 0.38 (0.32, 0.42) and 0.18 (0.11, 0.23), respectively. CONCLUSION: These three comorbidity indices are higher in PWH compared with HIV-negative controls, although the magnitude of differences between groups were small. Differences in the ECI, reportedly associated with poorer coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes, were driven by more individuals with HIV being within the higher end of the range.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(9): e679-e689, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791044

RESUMO

Although the incidence of HIV-associated lymphomas decreased after the introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, they became the most common AIDS-related cancer in high-income countries. Moreover, as people living with HIV live longer, a wide range of non-AIDS-related cancer has emerged, including other haematological malignancies. Nonetheless, combination antiretroviral therapy has offered people with HIV the opportunity to receive the same therapies as those provided to the general population, and intensive curative therapies have become the standard. However, several population-based studies highlight a major health-care disparity between people with HIV and those without, with people who are HIV positive often excluded from using innovative therapies and participating in prospective trials. In addition, patients from low-income countries frequently receive inappropriate treatment. The hope is that with increased awareness of effective curative options these disparities will decrease, and people with HIV will be given the same therapeutic opportunities and enrolled in clinical trials alongside patients who are HIV negative.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4089, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796830

RESUMO

Clonal expansions occur in the persistent HIV reservoir as shown by the duplication of proviral integration sites. However, the source of the proliferation of HIV-infected cells remains unclear. Here, we analyze the TCR repertoire of single HIV-infected cells harboring translation-competent proviruses in longitudinal samples from eight individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). When compared to uninfected cells, the TCR repertoire of reservoir cells is heavily biased: expanded clonotypes are present in all individuals, account for the majority of reservoir cells and are often maintained over time on ART. Infected T cell clones are detected at low frequencies in the long-lived central memory compartment and overrepresented in the most differentiated memory subsets. Our results indicate that clonal expansions highly contribute to the persistence of the HIV reservoir and suggest that reservoir cells displaying a differentiated phenotype are the progeny of infected central memory cells undergoing antigen-driven clonal expansion during ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética
20.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 8-12, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733653

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), anti-retroviral therapy (ART) side effects, HIV chronic inflammation and co-morbidities may limit functional abilities and reduced participation in exercises and physical activity (PA). PA improves wellbeing and overall quality of life of PLWHIV. In Malawi, there is paucity of information regarding PA levels among Malawians living with HIV and receiving ART. Therefore, this study aimed at determining PA levels among PLWHIV and receiving ART in Malawi. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed. Eligible participants were male and female adults aged 18-45 years living with HIV receiving ART for at least 1 year. The participants were recruited from Limbe Health Center, Gateway Health Center and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess the PA levels. A Stadiometer (HS-DBS00361, Model: 1127154) was used to measure weight (kg) and height (cm) of the participants. Results: A total of 213 participants were recruited. There were more females than male participants (n=132 females). Overall, the mean age of all participants was 37±6.5 years and they were within normal body weight (BMI=23±4.0). Many participants (n=85, 40%) had low PA levels followed by those who were moderately physically active (n=75, 36%). A larger proportion of the female participants (51%) had low PA levels compared to males (22%). Forty-two percent of participants with 1-3 years of ART had low PA whereas 39% with >3 years ART had low PA. Conclusion: Most PLWHIV and receiving ART in the sample have low PA levels. The study has also revealed that proportionally more females than males had low PA levels.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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