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2.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 29, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-temporally associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main outcome of the study were to better characterize the clinical features and the treatment response of PIMS-TS and to explore its relationship with KD determining whether KD and PIMS are two distinct entities. METHODS: The Rheumatology Study Group of the Italian Pediatric Society launched a survey to enroll patients diagnosed with KD (Kawasaki Disease Group - KDG) or KD-like (Kawacovid Group - KCG) disease between February 1st 2020, and May 31st 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, treatment information, and patients' outcome were collected in an online anonymized database (RedCAP®). Relationship between clinical presentation and SARS-CoV-2 infection was also taken into account. Moreover, clinical characteristics of KDG during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (KDG-CoV2) were compared to Kawasaki Disease patients (KDG-Historical) seen in three different Italian tertiary pediatric hospitals (Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste; AOU Meyer, Florence; IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa) from January 1st 2000 to December 31st 2019. Chi square test or exact Fisher test and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test were used to study differences between two groups. RESULTS: One-hundred-forty-nine cases were enrolled, (96 KDG and 53 KCG). KCG children were significantly older and presented more frequently from gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement. Cardiac involvement was more common in KCG, with 60,4% of patients with myocarditis. 37,8% of patients among KCG presented hypotension/non-cardiogenic shock. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) were more common in the KDG. The risk of ICU admission were higher in KCG. Lymphopenia, higher CRP levels, elevated ferritin and troponin-T characterized KCG. KDG received more frequently immunoglobulins (IVIG) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (81,3% vs 66%; p = 0.04 and 71,9% vs 43,4%; p = 0.001 respectively) as KCG more often received glucocorticoids (56,6% vs 14,6%; p < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 assay more often resulted positive in KCG than in KDG (75,5% vs 20%; p < 0.0001). Short-term follow data showed minor complications. Comparing KDG with a KD-Historical Italian cohort (598 patients), no statistical difference was found in terms of clinical manifestations and laboratory data. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection might determine two distinct inflammatory diseases in children: KD and PIMS-TS. Older age at onset and clinical peculiarities like the occurrence of myocarditis characterize this multi-inflammatory syndrome. Our patients had an optimal response to treatments and a good outcome, with few complications and no deaths.


Assuntos
/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Linfopenia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Distribuição por Idade , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , /fisiopatologia , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Choque/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , Taquipneia/fisiopatologia , Troponina T/metabolismo , Vômito/fisiopatologia
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 122-126, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775077

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic causes vital concerns due to the lack of proved, effective, and safe therapy. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine seem to be useful, but recently serious concerns regarding their adverse events have risen. The aim of the study was to broaden the general perspective of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine use in COVID-19 treatment, based on an analysis of their current safety profile among patients with rheumatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a group of 152 patients with rheumatic diseases, aged 20-78 years, treated either with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Analyzed data included age, gender, comorbidities, type of drug, dosage, treatment duration, and reported adverse events. Cases of drug withdrawal related to adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: The dosage was consistent in both groups: 250 mg of chloroquine or 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily. 77.6% of patients did not experience any adverse reactions to the treatment. Hydroxychloroquine showed better safety profile, with 10.9% of patients reporting side-ffects, compared to 28.9% in patients treated with chloroquine. The overall incidence of ophthalmic complications was 6.6%. For both drugs, no statistically significant correlation between adverse events and age, chronic heart or liver disease, or hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine at lower doses, as used in rheumatic diseases, prove to be relatively safe. Data from the literature show that high dosage as recommended in COVID-19 treatment may pose a risk of toxicity and require precise management, but prophylactic, long-term use of lower, safe doses might be a promising solution.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(12): e95, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783147

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused more than 100 million infections and 2 million deaths worldwide. In up to 20% of cases, COVID-19 infection can take a severe, life-threatening course. Therefore, preventive measures such as mask-wearing, hand hygiene, and social distancing are important. COVID-19 vaccines that use novel vaccine technology can prevent up to 95% of infections. However, the uncertainty regarding the efficacy and safety of vaccination in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIIRD), who are immunocompromised due to underlying immune dysfunction and concomitant immunosuppressive treatment, warrants clear guidance. A task force of the Korean College of Rheumatology formulated a set of vaccination guidance based on the currently available data and expert consensus. The currently available COVID-19 vaccines are considered to be safe and effective. Every patient with AIIRD should receive one of the available COVID-19 vaccines unless contraindicated for medical reasons such as prior allergy/anaphylaxis to the COVID-19 vaccine or its components. Patients should continue immunosuppressive treatment for their underlying AIIRD, including biological and targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (b/tsDMARDs). Corticosteroids should be reduced to the lowest dose possible without aggravating the AIIRD. To improve the vaccine response, methotrexate can be withheld for 1-2 weeks after each vaccination, and the timing of rituximab and abatacept infusion should be adjusted if clinically acceptable. Rheumatologists should play a leading role in educating and vaccinating patients with AIIRD.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , /prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia
5.
Paediatr Drugs ; 23(2): 171-182, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine patterns of initial prescriptions, investigate time to initiation of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), and evaluate the impact of clinical and other baseline factors associated with the time to first bDMARD in treating children with newly diagnosed non-systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: Using longitudinal patient-level data extracted from electronic medical records (EMR) in a large Midwestern pediatric hospital from 2009 to 2018, the initial prescriptions and prescribing patterns of bDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticoids within 3 months of JIA diagnosis were examined. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to assess time to initiation of bDMARDs. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with time to first bDMARD. RESULTS: Of 821 children, the proportion of patients with initial csDMARDs increased from 45.3% in 2009 to 60.3% in 2018. Around 57.5% of polyarthritis rheumatoid factor-positive (Poly RF+) patients and 43.2% of polyarthritis rheumatoid factor-negative (Poly RF-) patients received a bDMARD therapy within 3 months of diagnosis, 14.4% as monotherapy and 28.3% in combination with a csDMARD. Among patients who received combination therapy, combination of methotrexate with adalimumab increased from 16.7% in 2009 to 40% in 2018. The proportion of patients treated with adalimumab gradually increased and passed etanercept in 2016. The predictors of earlier initiation of biologic therapy were JIA category enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) [hazard ratio (HR) vs persistent oligoarthritis 4.82; p < 0.0001], psoriatic arthritis (PsA) (HR 2.46; p = 0.0002), or Poly RF- (HR 2.43; p = 0.0002); the number of joints with limited range of motion (HR 1.02; p = 0.0222), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, HR 1.01; p = 0.0033). CONCLUSIONS: There was a substantial increase in the proportion of patients receiving the combination of methotrexate and adalimumab among patients receiving combination therapy. Adalimumab overtook etanercept as the most frequently prescribed bDMARD. Multiple factors affect the time to biologic initiation, including the number of joints with limited range of motion, ESR, and JIA category.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etanercepte/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(1): 214-224, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645073

RESUMO

To systemically evaluate the efficacy and safety of sinomenine combined with methotrexate(SIN+MTX) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Literature databases of Wanfang, CNKI, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were retrieved comprehensively for relevant clinical trials. The literature retrieval time was from database establishment to February 4, 2020. The quality of literatures was assessed by the Cochrane Evaluation Handbook 5.1.0, and qualified literature was reviewed and analyzed by using the RevMan 5.3 statistical software. Twenty randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria, and were enrolled in the Meta-analysis. The results showed that SIN+MTX remarkably reduced DAS28(MD=-0.85, 95%CI[-1.03,-0.67], P<0.000 01), and improved total efficiency(P<0.000 01). SIN+MTX could inhibit swollen joint count(MD=-1.19, 95%CI[-1.75,-0.63], P<0.000 1), tender joint count(MD=-1.58, 95%CI[-2.89,-0.28], P=0.02) and reduce morning stiffness time(MD=-8.44, 95%CI[-11.82,-5.07], P<0.000 01) compared with control group. The results showed that SIN+MTX was equal to control group in grip strength(SMD=0.20,95%CI[-1.11,1.51],P=0.77). SIN+MTX remarkably alleviated the erythrocyte sedimentation rate(MD=-9.87, 95%CI[-14.52,-5.22], P<0.000 1), C-reactive protein(SMD=-0.30, 95%CI[-0.51,-0.09], P=0.005), and rheumatoid factor(MD=-11.23,95%CI[-13.81,-8.65],P<0.000 01). The frequency of adverse reactions were reduced compared with that in the control group(P<0.000 01). Current clinical studies demonstrate that the efficacy and safety of SIN+MTX in the treatment of RA were superior to control group. However, due to the low quality and quantity of the included studies, high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to support the clinical evidences.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Morfinanos
7.
Stem Cell Res ; 51: 102200, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535156

RESUMO

Recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spread around the world and is receiving worldwide attention. Approximately 20% of infected patients are suffering from severe disease of multiple systems and in danger of death, while the ocular complications of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have not been reported generally. Herein, we focus on two major receptors of SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and CD147 (BSG), in human ocular cells, and interpret the potential roles of coronaviruses in human ocular tissues and diseases.


Assuntos
/patologia , Olho/virologia , /química , Animais , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Basigina/metabolismo , /transmissão , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Olho/citologia , Olho/metabolismo , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Oftalmopatias/virologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , /isolamento & purificação
8.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(4): 102786, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis is frequently associated with hypertension, which has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. The aim of this systematic review was to explore demographic, behavioural or clinical factors including medication use, associated with incident hypertension in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: MEDLINE and Scopus were searched for eligible studies that longitudinally investigated incident hypertension or changes in blood pressure (BP) in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Publications were screened by two reviewers according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed via the Newcastle Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were deemed eligible and included in this review. The proportion of female subjects ranged from 12 to 87% and the mean age ranged from 47 to 61 years. Regular exercise was associated with a decrease in systolic BP, p = 0.021. Methotrexate was associated with decreased risk of hypertension in two studies. LEF was associated with increased BP in two studies. COX-2 inhibitors were associated with systolic BP and diastolic BP variability (p = 0.009, 0.039, respectively) in one study. Prednisone was found to increase BP and risk of hypertension in three studies. The risk of hypertension in patients taking biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is unclear as some studies report increased BP while others report no difference for biologic compared to conventional DMARDs. CONCLUSION: Despite limited longitudinal studies exploring this topic, methotrexate and exercise were shown to protect against risk of hypertension in RA patients, while prednisone and COX-2 inhibitors may increase risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Hipertensão , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Autoimmun Rev ; 20(4): 102776, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609792

RESUMO

Although synovitis is the pathological hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many extra-articular manifestations (EMs) and comorbidities likely occur due to the complex, chronic, inflammatory, and autoimmune features of RA. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of death in patients with RA. Compared to the general population, patients with RA have twice the risk of myocardial infarction and up to 50% increased CV mortality risk. Severe and prolonged disease activity, genetics, and inflammation (e.g. CRP, ACPA, cytokines, matrix-degrading enzymes) play important roles in CV disease and atheroscleroticdamage. The second major cause of death in patients with RA is respiratory disease, which occurs in 30-40% of patients. RA may affect the lung interstitium, airways, and pleurae, while pulmonary vascular involvement is less frequent. Central and peripheral nervous system involvement is usually due to small vessel vasculitis, joint damage, or drug toxicity. There is also evidence that microvascular cerebral damage caused by systemic inflammation is associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Some observational studies have hinted how Disease Modified Anti-Rheumatic Drugs and biologics could reduce the incidence of dementia. Primary gastrointestinal and renal involvements are rare and often relate to drug therapy. To minimize morbidity and mortality, physicians must manage RA disease activity (treat-to-target) and monitor risk factors and concomitant conditions (e.g. smoking cessation; weight regulation; monitoring blood pressure, lipids, thyroid hormone, folic acid and homocysteine; screening for depression, anxiety, atlantoaxial instability, and atherosclerosis). This article aims to provide an overview of the most prevalent and important EMs and comorbidities associated with RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(3): 255-261, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625043

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) face unique challenges during the pandemic, including concerns regarding infection risk, drug shortages, limited access to care, social isolation, and mental health. This review will examine the multifaceted impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients living with RA. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with RA, risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes include older age and comorbidities, similar to those in the general population. Glucocorticoids, but not other classes of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), appear to be associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. RA patients have been affected by changes in access to care, telemedicine, drug shortages, anxiety, and social isolation, which may contribute to disease flares. SUMMARY: Glucocorticoids, but not other DMARDs, are associated with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in RA patients. Further studies are needed to explore the impact of specific DMARDs on COVID-19 outcomes, understand the broader implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on RA disease activity, and optimize the use of telemedicine in RA management.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557301

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects around 1.2% of the adult population. RA is one of the main reasons for work disability and premature retirement, thus substantially increasing social and economic burden. Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) were shown to be an effective therapy especially in those rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, who did not adequately respond to conventional synthetic DMARD therapy. However, despite the proven efficacy, the high cost of the therapy resulted in limitation of the widespread use and unequal access to the care. The introduction of biosimilars, which are much cheaper relative to original drugs, may facilitate the achievement of the therapy by a much broader spectrum of patients. In this review we present the properties of original biologic agents based on cytokine-targeted (blockers of TNF, IL-6, IL-1, GM-CSF) and cell-targeted therapies (aimed to inhibit T cells and B cells properties) as well as biosimilars used in rheumatology. We also analyze the latest update of bDMARDs' possible influence on DNA methylation, miRNA expression and histone modification in RA patients, what might be the important factors toward precise and personalized RA treatment. In addition, during the COVID-19 outbreak, we discuss the usage of biologicals in context of effective and safe COVID-19 treatment. Therefore, early diagnosing along with therapeutic intervention based on personalized drugs targeting disease-specific genes is still needed to relieve symptoms and to improve the quality of life of RA patients.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
13.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(2): 139-143, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to the cytokine storm syndrome which may cause acute respiratory failure syndrome and death. Our aim was to investigate the therapeutic effects of infliximab, intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg) or combination therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 disease admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In this observational research, we studied 104 intubated adult patients with severe COVID-19 infection (based on clinical symptoms, and radiographic or CT scan parameters) who were admitted to the ICU of a multispecialty hospital during March 2020 in Tehran, Iran. All cases received standard treatment regimens as local protocol (Oseltamivir + hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or sofosbuvir or atazanavir ± ribavirin). The cases were grouped as controls (n = 43), infliximab (n = 27), IVIg (n = 23) and combination (n = 11). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between controls and treatment groups in terms of underlying diseases or the number of underlying diseases. The mean age (SD) of cases was 72.42 (16.06) in the control group, 64.52 (12.965) in IVIg, 63.40 (17.57) in infliximab and 64.00 (11.679) in combination therapy; (P = 0.047, 0.031 and 0.11, respectively). Also, 37% in the infliximab group, 26.1% in IVIg, 45.5% in combination therapy, and 62.8% in the control group expired (all P < 0.05). Hazard ratios were 0.31 in IVIg (95% CI: 0.12-0.76, P = 0.01), 0.30 in infliximab (95% CI: 0.13-0.67, P = 0.004), 0.39 in combination therapy (95% CI: 0.12-1.09, P = 0.071). CONCLUSION: According to the findings of this study, it seems that infliximab and IVIg, alone or together, in patients with severe COVID-19 disease can be considered an effective treatment.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Pacientes Internados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(2): 107-112, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548956

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the disease spectrum among children who were using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and evaluate the drug's safety and compliance. Methods: From January 2008 to December 2019, children from Children's Hospital of Fudan University who used HCQ were selected as subjects, the disease spectrum of HCQ was analyzed, and the drug safety and compliance were evaluated for the patients who were followed up for more than 6 months. Demographic information, diagnosis, initial dose, time of continuous use, cumulative dosage and related adverse reactions report, project and the results of eye test were collected. Results: A total of 528 cases used HCQ during the 12 years, with 156 male cases and 372 female cases, and age at initial medication was (10.5±3.2) years. Among them, 514 cases (97.3%) had rheumatic disease, 5 had pulmonary interstitial lesions and 9 had other system diseases. The top three of the rheumatic diseases were systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 316 cases (316/514,61.5%), juvenile idiopathic arthritis in 69 cases (69/514,13.4%), and juvenile dermatomyositis in 56 cases (56/514,10.9%). During the same period, 397 cases were diagnosed with SLE, and the utilization rate was 79.6% (316/397), which was the highest compared with other diseases and increased year by year. Pulmonary interstitial lesions included 4 cases with SFTPC gene defect related interstitial lung disease. Of the 528 ceses who were treated with HCQ, 397 cases were included for evaluating HCQ's safety and compliance, the initial dose was (4.2±1.0) mg/kg, duration was 29.6 (14.9, 48.8) months, the longest usage time was 127 months, the largest cumulative dosage was 566.8 g. The continuous usage duration (Z=-3.191, P=0.001) of SLE was significantly higher than those of other diseases, as well as cumulative dosage (Z=-5.355, P=0.001). All cases received comprehensive eye exams before medication, 354 cases (354/397, 89.2%) were followed up in the ophthalmological department, and 65.5% (232/354) of them could be reviewed regularly at least 1 time per year. One case suffered from severe skin adverse reactions when the drug was used for 32.7 months, and no other serious adverse reactions were reported. HCQ related retinopathy was not seen during the follow-up period. There were 5 cases stopped HCQ on their own. Conclusions: HCQ was widely used in rheumatic disease in children, especially in those with SLE. It was safe for long-time usage in children, and the medication compliance and the ophthalmic follow-up was good.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Doenças Reumáticas , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547118

RESUMO

We describe the case of an 81-year-old man who presented with unspecific symptoms of desolation and general weakness, which led to a delayed diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The patient had not received any previous treatment as he had not been in contact with medical services for several years prior to hospital admission. This enabled advanced disease manifestations to develop, including peripheral neuropathy with distal paraparesis, lethargy and weight loss. These signs and symptoms were later recognised as extra-articular manifestations of RA and classical features of RA were less pronounced. Following extensive diagnostic testing ruling out other possible causes for the presenting symptoms, an anti-inflammatory therapy with oral glucocorticoids and methotrexate was started.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Tardio , Depressão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular
16.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(2): 213-225, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589098

RESUMO

Patients with rheumatic diseases are susceptible to infections due to their underlying disease states as well as from immunosuppressive medications, highlighting the importance of vaccination, these same factors also pose challenges to vaccine efficacy, safety, and uptake. This article reviews the impact of immunosuppressive therapies and rheumatic disease on vaccine efficacy in this vulnerable patient population as well as discusses best practices.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Doenças Reumáticas , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Vacinas/classificação , Vacinas/farmacologia
17.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 197: 113971, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639525

RESUMO

In this pilot study, we carried out metabolic profiling of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) starting therapy with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs). The main aim of the study was to assess the occurring metabolic changes associated with therapy success and metabolic pathways involved. In particular, the potential of the metabolomics profiles was evaluated as therapeutically valuable prognostic indicators of the effectiveness of bDMARD treatment to identify responders versus non-responders prior to implementing treatment. Plasma metabolomic profiles of twenty-five patients with RA prior bDMARD treatment and after three months of therapy were obtained by 1H NMR, liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and evaluated by statistical and multivariate analyses. In the group of responders, significant differences in their metabolic patterns were seen after three months of the bDMARD therapy compared with profiles prior to treatment. We identified 24 metabolites that differed significantly between these two-time points mainly belonging to amino acid metabolism, peptides, lipids, cofactors, and vitamins and xenobiotics. Eleven metabolites differentiated responders versus non-responders before treatment. Additionally, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine (GlycA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (GlycB) persisted significant in comparison responders to non-responders after three months of therapy. Moreover, those two metabolites indicated prediction of response potential by results of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The applied analysis provides novel insights into the metabolic pathways involved in RA patient's response to bDMARD and therapy effectiveness. GlycA and GlycB are promising biomarkers to identify responding patients prior onset of bDMARD therapy.


Assuntos
Acetilgalactosamina/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metabolômica , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/sangue , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; 35(1): 101659, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526326

RESUMO

Several immunosuppressive therapies have been investigated as potential treatments for patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Notable examples include corticosteroids, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 (IL-1), Janus kinase (JAK), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors. The aim of this narrative review is to analyze the mechanistic rationale and available evidence for these selected anti-rheumatic drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Currently, only corticosteroids have consistently proven to be effective in decreasing mortality and are recommended in clinical guidelines for the treatment of severe and critical COVID-19. Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are ongoing to determine the role of other immunosuppressants.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Doenças Reumáticas , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24579, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607787

RESUMO

AIMS: The incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is higher than that in people without RA. This may be because inflammation promotes the progression of atherosclerosis. Anti-inflammatory drugs might reduce the occurrence of CVEs in patients with RA. Methotrexate (MTX) is a conventional synthetic anti-rheumatic drug that is widely used in the treatment of RA. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether MTX can prevent CVEs in RA patients. Then, we discussed the possibility of using MTX to prevent recurred CVEs in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library using the key words "methotrexate," "cardiovascular," "acute coronary syndrome," "coronary heart disease," "myocardial infarction," "angina pectoris," and "rheumatoid arthritis." The efficacy outcome was defined as a composite of CVEs, including stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, and cardiac death. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies and 195,416 RA patients were included in our meta-analysis, and the effect size of relative risk (RR) was pooled using a fixed effect model. The results showed that MTX prevented CVEs in RA patients (RR: 0.798, 95% CI 0.726-0.876, P = .001, I2 = 27. 9%). CONCLUSION: MTX can prevent CVEs in RA patients, but there is not sufficient evidence for using MTX to treat patients with CHD.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Humanos
20.
Lancet ; 397(10271): 305-317, 2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although targeted biological treatments have transformed the outlook for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 40% of patients show poor clinical response, which is mechanistically still unexplained. Because more than 50% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have low or absent CD20 B cells-the target for rituximab-in the main disease tissue (joint synovium), we hypothesised that, in these patients, the IL-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab would be more effective. The aim of this trial was to compare the effect of tocilizumab with rituximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had an inadequate response to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) stratified for synovial B-cell status. METHODS: This study was a 48-week, biopsy-driven, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 randomised controlled trial (rituximab vs tocilizumab in anti-TNF inadequate responder patients with rheumatoid arthritis; R4RA) done in 19 centres across five European countries (the UK, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain). Patients aged 18 years or older who fulfilled the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and were eligible for treatment with rituximab therapy according to UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines were eligible for inclusion in the trial. To inform balanced stratification, following a baseline synovial biopsy, patients were classified histologically as B-cell poor or rich. Patients were then randomly assigned (1:1) centrally in block sizes of six and four to receive two 1000 mg rituximab infusions at an interval of 2 weeks (rituximab group) or 8 mg/kg tocilizumab infusions at 4-week intervals (tocilizumab group). To enhance the accuracy of the stratification of B-cell poor and B-cell rich patients, baseline synovial biopsies from all participants were subjected to RNA sequencing and reclassified by B-cell molecular signature. The study was powered to test the superiority of tocilizumab over rituximab in the B-cell poor population at 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as a 50% improvement in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI50%) from baseline. The trial is registered on the ISRCTN database, ISRCTN97443826, and EudraCT, 2012-002535-28. FINDINGS: Between Feb 28, 2013, and Jan 17, 2019, 164 patients were classified histologically and were randomly assigned to the rituximab group (83 [51%]) or the tocilizumab group (81 [49%]). In patients histologically classified as B-cell poor, there was no statistically significant difference in CDAI50% between the rituximab group (17 [45%] of 38 patients) and the tocilizumab group (23 [56%] of 41 patients; difference 11% [95% CI -11 to 33], p=0·31). However, in the synovial biopsies classified as B-cell poor with RNA sequencing the tocilizumab group had a significantly higher response rate compared with the rituximab group for CDAI50% (rituximab group 12 [36%] of 33 patients vs tocilizumab group 20 [63%] of 32 patients; difference 26% [2 to 50], p=0·035). Occurrence of adverse events (rituximab group 76 [70%] of 108 patients vs tocilizumab group 94 [80%] of 117 patients; difference 10% [-1 to 21) and serious adverse events (rituximab group 8 [7%] of 108 vs tocilizumab group 12 [10%] of 117; difference 3% [-5 to 10]) were not significantly different between treatment groups. INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that RNA sequencing-based stratification of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue showed stronger associations with clinical responses compared with histopathological classification. Additionally, for patients with low or absent B-cell lineage expression signature in synovial tissue tocilizumab is more effective than rituximab. Replication of the results and validation of the RNA sequencing-based classification in independent cohorts is required before making treatment recommendations for clinical practice. FUNDING: Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme from the UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Biópsia , Método Duplo-Cego , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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