Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 691
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e16635, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the cost-effectiveness of etanercept plus methotrexate (ETN+MTX) compared to triple disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in treating Chinese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. METHODS: The 134 Chinese RA patients who were about to initiate ETN+MTX or triple DMARDs therapy based on treat-to-target strategy were consecutively recruited and categorized into ETN+MTX group (N = 49) or triple DMARDs group (N = 85). Treatment efficacy was assessed at month 3 (M3)/M6/M9/M12 after initiation of treatment. Also, 1-year treatment cost was evaluated, and cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted. RESULTS: RA patients in ETN+MTX group exhibited similar disease activity and quality of life at each time point while elevated 28-joint disease activity score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) change (M0-M12) and low disease activity rate compared with triple DMARDs group. For 1-year treatment cost, ETN+MTX required increased drug cost, decreased other medical cost, and finally elevated total cost compared with triple DMARDs. Meanwhile, compared to triple DMARDs, ETN+MTX produced an additional quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.015, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ¥2,939,506.7 per QALY that was 53.1 folds of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita in China. More interestingly, sensitivity analysis revealed that the ETN price had to be reduced at least by 71.3% before ETN+MTX became cost-effectiveness compared to triple DMARDs. CONCLUSION: ETN+MTX is less cost-effective in treating Chinese RA patients compared with triple DMARDs.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Sedimentação Sanguínea , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Etanercepte/administração & dosagem , Etanercepte/economia , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e17750, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770193

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Anbainuo (ABN) plus methotrexate (MTX) (ABN + MTX) versus conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.Forty-eight moderate to severe RA patients underwent ABN + MTX or cDMARDs treatment were consecutively enrolled and assigned to ABN + MTX group (n = 26) and control group (n = 22). Patients were followed up and their disease activity and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated at 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month after initiation of treatment. Treatment costs of 2 groups were calculated, then pharmacoeconomic analysis was performed.ABN + MTX increased drug cost and total cost while decreased indirect cost compared with cDMARDs after 12-month treatment. ABN + MTX group gained additional 0.22 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ¥104,293.6 per QALY after treatment. Sensitivity analysis reveals that rising ABN price by 20% produced an ICER of ¥130,403.6 per QALY, which was still lower than 3 times of the mean gross domestic product (GDP) per capita during the same period in China (¥165,960). Besides, ABN + MTX was more cost-effective in severe RA patients compared to moderate RA patients.ABN + MTX is cost-effective in treating moderate to severe RA patients compared with cDMARDs, although the total cost of ABN + MTX is relatively higher.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/economia , Metotrexato/economia , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/economia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/economia , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/administração & dosagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426543

RESUMO

The economic burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on society is high. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the cornerstone of therapy. Biological DMARDs are reported to prevent disability and improve quality of life, thus reducing indirect RA costs. We systematically reviewed studies on the relationship between RA and indirect costs comparing biological treatment with standard care. Studies, economic analyses, and systematic reviews published until October 2018 through a MEDLINE search were included. A total of 153 non-duplicate citations were identified, 92 (60%) were excluded as they did not meet pre-defined inclusion criteria. Sixty-one articles were included, 17 of them (28%) were reviews. After full-text review, 28 articles were included, 11 of them were reviews. Costs associated with productivity loss are substantial; in several cases, they may represent over 50% of the total. The most common method of estimation is the Human Capital method. However, certain heterogeneity is observed in the method of estimating, as well as in the resultant figures. Data from included trials indicate that biological therapy is associated with improved labor force participation despite an illness, in which the natural course of disease is defined by progressive work impairment. Use of biological DMARDs may lead to significant indirect cost benefits to society.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Absenteísmo , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Presenteísmo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Scand J Rheumatol ; 48(5): 398-407, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322029

RESUMO

Objective: The effects of a dose-reduction intervention of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in patients in remission were analysed with epidemiology and health economics strategies. The aims were to analyse changes in bDMARD dosage, evaluate potential disease worsening, and estimate cost reduction. Method: This uncontrolled single-centre observational study analysed bDMARD-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and spondyloarthritis (SpA). bDMARD expenditure constituted a proxy for bDMARD doses, which enabled group-level analysis. Interrupted time-series regression was used to analyse changes in treatment cost due to the dose reduction. Disease activity and treatment durations were monitored to investigate disease worsening. Results: In total, 997 biological treatment cases were analysed. This involved 527 bDMARD patients, where an unknown fraction of patients was given reduced doses. Disease activity of RA and PsA patients decreased from 2001 to 2009 and remained stable after that, while disease activity for SpA patients was unchanged, indicating no disease worsening from the intervention. The dose tapering resulted in decreased bDMARD expenditure, indicating a decrease in bDMARD consumption, which led to an accumulated cost reduction of 4 178 000 EUR. Conclusions: The results suggest that dose reduction can be safely performed in patients in treatment remission on a group level without compromising treatment efficacy. Subcutaneous bDMARDs, including abatacept, adalimumab, and etanercept, were observed to be well suited to customizing dosage. This study highlights the potential for individualized and personalized rheumatic medicine by providing dose reduction to individual patients, while monitoring disease activity.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/economia , Fatores Biológicos/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Previsões , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(9): 1695-1705, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is prevalent among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatologists are specialists in medication prescribing and counselling for RA, but their insights regarding medication adherence have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To explore rheumatologists' insights into medication adherence in patients with RA. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 10 rheumatologists in Iran was undertaken. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify how rheumatologists assess medication adherence and their perceived determinants of adherence. The identified determinants of adherence were mapped according to the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. RESULTS: Six participants were male, and the mean age was 47 years. The mean years of experience as a rheumatologist was 8.6 (SD = 7.1) years. Rheumatologists did not use a validated tool for medication adherence assessment. They assessed medication adherence either by asking their patients simple questions or using laboratory test results. The identified determinants of adherence were divided into 3 groups: patient-, rheumatologist- and healthcare organization-related determinants. The proposed suggestions to improve adherence were: (a) to understand a patient's financial situation before prescribing more expensive medications; (b) to employ a dose-reducing strategy; (c) to give hope to patients regarding remission; and (d) to arrange a session with the nurse educator. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide insight into rheumatologists' perspectives on medication adherence of patients with RA. The identified determinants of adherence could be considered when developing initiatives to improve medication adherence in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Reumatologistas/psicologia , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Aconselhamento , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Indução de Remissão
6.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(5): 537-549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340686

RESUMO

Introduction: Early biological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may reverse the autoimmune response in some patients resulting in favorable long-term outcomes. Although the cost-effectiveness of this strategy has been questioned, biosimilar entries warrant the revision of clinical and pharmaco-economic evidence. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to 24 May 2018 in Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL, comparing infliximab with non-biological therapy in patients with RA naïve to methotrexate. We performed meta-analyses for efficacy outcomes at month 6 and years 1 and 2. Six RCTs were identified, involving 1832 patients. At month 6 ACR70 response and remission, and at year 1 ACR20/ACR70 responses and remission were improved significantly with first-line infliximab versus control. The differences were not significant at year 2. We reviewed cost-utility studies, up to 31 October 2018 in PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and the CRD HTA databases. Four studies indicated that first-line use of originator infliximab calculated at 2005-2008 prices was not cost-effective. Expert opinion: We demonstrated the efficacy benefits of first-line infliximab therapy up to 1 year in methotrexate-naïve RA. We highlighted the need for standardized reporting of outcomes and conducting cost-effectiveness analyses of first-line biosimilar therapy in RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Farmacoeconomia , Humanos , Infliximab/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(8): 879-887, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are recommended as the standard of care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to their ability to reduce pain and disability; however, DMARD use is low in some subgroups of the RA population. OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics associated with DMARD use in the overall cohort of patients with RA and newly diagnosed RA patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study used claims from a large national health plan. Use of DMARDs was measured according to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) as the proportion of patients with RA receiving DMARDs. Following HEDIS measure technical specifications, we identified patients aged 18-89 years with continuous enrollment during 2014 (measurement year) with ≥ 2 claims for RA outpatient visits and/or discharges on different dates between January and November 2014. Additionally, we identified a subset of patients newly diagnosed with RA in 2014 based on absence of any claims for RA or DMARDs in 2013. Descriptive analyses and bivariate associations were used to compare demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with RA with or without DMARD use in 2014. Health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs were compared in 2014 for patients enrolled in Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) plans during both 2014 and 2015. Regression models were used to evaluate patient and provider characteristics associated with DMARD use in 2014 and the effect on HCRU and costs. RESULTS: Among the 33,880 patients identified with RA in 2014, most patients received a DMARD (75.2%); 29.4% of patients newly diagnosed with RA had been treated with DMARDs in 2014. Patients with DMARD use, on average, were younger (aged 67 years ± 10.7 vs. 69 years ± 10.7) and healthier (Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index [DCCI] 2.4 ± 1.9 vs. 2.6 ± 2.1) and included a greater proportion of women (75.9% vs. 71.0%) than those with no DMARD use (P < 0.0001). Use of DMARDs (P < 0.0001) was associated with 14.5% fewer hospitalizations and 18.0% fewer emergency department visits. Although total costs increased by 15.0% with use of DMARDs, when the cost of DMARDs was excluded, the total cost decreased by 13.7% (P < 0.0001). Female gender (32.2%), higher claims-based index for RA severity score (47.0%), higher RxRisk-V score (26.7%), visit to a rheumatologist (34.3%), and use of glucocorticoids (17.7%) increased the odds of DMARD use (P < 0.0001). Use of certain classes of medication, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (12.3%), opioids (19.5%), antidepressants (20.0%), muscle relaxants (12.5%), and anticonvulsants (15.5%), were associated with lower use of DMARDs (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We found significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with and without DMARD use, which can potentially inform treatment decisions regarding DMARD use as deemed necessary by the provider. Future research should investigate the reasons for lack of treatment. DISCLOSURES: This study was supported by funding from Eli Lilly to Humana as a collaborative research project involving employees of both companies. Boytsov, Saverno, Zhang, and Gaich are employees of Eli Lilly. Nair, Bhattacharya, Abbott, and Dixon are employees of Humana, which received funding from Eli Lilly to complete this research.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(9): 1630-1637, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215166

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab vs adalimumab at 1 and 2 years of treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by analyzing the cost per responder reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the Korean perspective. METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed via PubMed for relevant RCTs for comparing the response rate in patients with AS. The response rates in anti-tumor necrosis factor-naive subjects were extracted from RCTs and cost per responder analyses were calculated in case of both with or without a loading dosage of secukinumab compared with adalimumab. RESULTS: The Assessment in AS International Working Group (ASAS) 20 and 40 response rates of secukinumab from the MEASURE 2 trial and those of adalimumab from the ATLAS trial were comparable. The cost per ASAS 20 responder was lower by 40% in secukinumab compared to adalimumab: USD9637 vs 16 129 at 52 weeks and USD20 051 vs 32 699 at 104 weeks for secukinumab (in maintenance dosing) vs adalimumab, respectively. The cost per ASAS 40 responder was also lower by 40% in secukinumab: USD12 179 vs 22 395 at 52 weeks and USD27 338 vs 41 655 at 104 weeks for secukinumab vs adalimumab, respectively. With a loading dosage of secukinumab at 52 and 104 weeks, secukinumab showed lower costs per responder by 25% compared to adalimumab. CONCLUSION: The costs per responder associated with ASAS 20 and 40 response rates were consistently lower for secukinumab compared with adalimumab. The treatment with secukinumab for patients with AS could be a cost-saving treatment option in South Korea.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/economia , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Medicamentos , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/economia , /uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , República da Coreia , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , /efeitos adversos
9.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(7): 770-779, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The U.S. health care system is currently evolving from a volume-based care to a value-based care approach, which is in part supported by the introduction of patient support programs (PSP). For patients treated with adalimumab (ADA), the addition of a dedicated, trained nurse to the PSP (HUMIRA Complete, rolled out nationally in 2015) provides further emphasis on value-based care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of the HUMIRA Complete PSP, including the Nurse Ambassador component, in a real-world setting for patients receiving ADA across a broad range of approved indications (rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, uveitis, and hidradenitis suppurativa). METHODS: A longitudinal retrospective study was conducted using patient-level data from the HUMIRA Complete PSP data linked to the real-world, patient-level Symphony Health Solutions administrative claims database. Commercially insured patients were included who were aged ≥ 18 years with ≥ 2 diagnoses of an indicated disease who were biologically naive before initiating ADA or who had no claims for synthetic-targeted immune modulator therapy before their earliest ADA claim in the database between January 2015 and February 2017. The first claim had to have occurred in 2015 or later, and continuous medical and drug data coverage were required for ≥ 6 months before and ≥ 12 months after the first ADA claim and index date. PSP patients (with at least an initial and follow-up dedicated nurse call) were matched 1:1 to non-PSP patients based on pharmacy type, indication, and propensity score, estimated with covariates for age, sex, year of first ADA use, and baseline comorbidities. Adherence to ADA was compared using proportion of days covered along with discontinuation of ADA, defined as a gap in treatment greater than the previous days supply with no additional ADA claim, total costs, medical costs, and drug costs (2017 U.S. dollars) over 12 months. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were summarized descriptively. Differences between cohorts were assessed using t-tests for adherence and costs and log-rank tests for discontinuation. RESULTS: 2,268 patients (1,134 per group) were included. Baseline characteristics were similar between cohorts after matching. Participation in the PSP was associated with 29.3% higher ADA adherence (64.8% vs. 50.1%; P < 0.0001) and 22.0% lower ADA discontinuation rate (51.4% vs. 65.9%; P < 0.0001). Disease-related medical costs and all-cause medical costs were significantly lower by 35% ($10,162 vs. $15,511; P = 0.005) and 29.2% ($25,074 vs. $35,419; P = 0.0004), respectively, for PSP versus non-PSP patients. Total costs were also lower by 9% ($62,421 vs. $68,706; P = 0.056), and drug costs were 12.2% higher ($37,347 vs. $33,287; P = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrates that participation in the PSP augments value-based care by improving outcomes for patients with chronic diseases by helping them not only manage a complex treatment regimen but also lower annual health care costs. DISCLOSURES: Design, study conduct, and financial support for this study were provided by AbbVie. AbbVie participated in the interpretation of data, review, and approval of the manuscript; all authors contributed to the development of the publication and maintained control over the final content. Brixner reports consulting fees from AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Becton Dickinson, Millcreek Outcomes Group, Sanofi, and UCB Pharma. Rubin reports consulting fees from AbbVie, Abgenomics, Allergan, Forward Pharma, Genentech/Roche, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck & Co., Napo Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Shire, Takeda, and Target Pharmaceuticals and research support from AbbVie, Genentech/Roche, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Prometheus Laboratories, Shire, and Takeda. Mease reports grant/research support from AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Genentech, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, SUN Pharma, and UCB; consulting fees from AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Genentech, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, SUN Pharma, and UCB; and served on the speakers bureaus for AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celgene, Genentech, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and UCB. Mittal and Ganguli are employees and stockholders of AbbVie. Liu has no financial conflict of interest. Davis is an employee of Medicus Economics, which reports payment from AbbVie to participate in this research. Fendrick reports personal fees from Merck, AstraZeneca, Trizetto, Amgen, Lilly, AbbVie, Johnson & Johnson, and Sanofi; grants from the National Pharmaceutical Council, PhRMA, the Gary and Mary West Health Foundation, the states of New York and Michigan, the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and has equity in Zansors, Sempre Health, Wellth, and V-BID Health. Data from this study were presented in part at the Academy of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting; April 25, 2018; Boston, MA.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adalimumab/economia , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
J Med Econ ; 22(8): 777-787, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982378

RESUMO

Aims: Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This analysis investigated the cost-effectiveness of the second-line treatment with tofacitinib, compared with adalimumab, both plus methotrexate (MTX), in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and an inadequate response to the first-line MTX, from a Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration perspective. Materials and methods: A patient-level simulation model was used to project lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Base-case analysis compared second-line treatment with tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily plus MTX vs adalimumab 40 mg every 2 weeks plus MTX. Patients switched or discontinued treatment due to a lack or loss of effectiveness or a serious adverse event. Efficacy was measured by change in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) score. HAQ-DI scores were used to predict mortality and resource utilization, and were mapped onto utility values to estimate QALYs. Efficacy and safety data were derived from clinical trials and other secondary sources. Uncertainty in model parameters was explored using one-way deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results: Patients gained 0.09 more QALYs with second-line tofacitinib plus MTX compared with adalimumab plus MTX (5.13 vs 5.04, respectively) at an additional cost of New Taiwan Dollars (NT$) 12,881. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was NT$143,122/QALY. One-way sensitivity analysis confirmed the base-case result was robust. Limitations: The lack of available clinical data, particularly for HAQ-DI scores, may introduce some bias in the analysis. No patients were in an early stage of RA, which may limit the generalizability of these results. Base-case results from our study are not necessarily generalizable to countries with healthcare systems that differ considerably from Taiwan. Conclusions: From a payer perspective, second-line treatment with tofacitinib plus MTX is a cost-effective treatment strategy, compared with adalimumab plus MTX, in patients with moderate-to-severe RA in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Adalimumab/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/economia , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/economia , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(6): 995-1001, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989813

RESUMO

AIM: We evaluated the effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents on health economics in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. METHODS: QUality of Life as Outcomes and its VAriation with DIsease States (QUO-VADIS) was a prospective observational study following bio-naïve AS patients (modified New York criteria) newly treated with golimumab (GLM) or infliximab (IFX; originator) in a clinical practice setting over 6 months. We evaluated use of concomitant medications, hospitalizations (in-patient care or acute care) and visits in day care and out-patient settings for the assessment of healthcare resource utilization (HCRU). Work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) was assessed by the number of work days missed and quantifying absenteeism, presenteeism, work impairment, and activity using the WPAI instrument adapted to spondyloarthritis (WPAI-SpA). RESULTS: Nine hundred and sixty-three patients received ≥1 dose of medication (78%, n = 751 GLM; 22%, n = 221 IFX). Mean age was 42.7 years; 61.4% were male. At baseline, the percentage of patients who reported hospitalizations (in-patient care) was 13.6%, which decreased to 3.1% at 6 months, while out-patient care at baseline was reported by 39.4% of patients, which decreased to 19.0% at 6 months. The percentage of patients receiving acute emergency at baseline reduced from 1.6% to 0.3% at 6 months. The mean (SD) number of days of work missed due to AS, was reduced from 6.3 (31.1) days at baseline to 2.7 (12.3) days at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In patients with AS newly treated with GLM or IFX for 6 months, HCRU was reduced and work productivity and activity increased.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Eficiência , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Desempenho Profissional , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab/economia , Masculino , Presenteísmo , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Licença Médica , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Espondilite Anquilosante/economia , Espondilite Anquilosante/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Desempenho Profissional/economia
13.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(4): 555-566, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924291

RESUMO

AIM: First, to assess the clinical characteristics and medication adherence to oral rheumatoid arthritis (RA) medications in patients with RA. Second, to examine adherence determinants with a focus on the effect of medication out-of-pocket (OOP) costs on medication adherence to oral RA medications. Lastly, to examine cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) in patients with RA. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients with RA was conducted at rheumatology outpatient clinics in Shiraz, Iran. The data collection survey consisted of 5 sections including demographic questions, disease-related questions, Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR), CRN questions and an open-ended question. SPSS version 24 was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 308 completed surveys were collected. Adherence to oral RA medications was 40.3%. Just under 20% of participants were biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) users and these bDMARDs users were 0.82 times less likely to be adherent to their oral RA medications compared to non-bDMARDs users (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between OOP costs and adherence to oral RA medications (P > 0.05). However, 28.7% of participants reported not refilling, delaying to refill, skipping doses or taking smaller doses due to cost. In findings of the open-ended question, medication costs and affordability were the most commonly mentioned barriers to medication adherence. CONCLUSION: Non-adherence to oral RA medications was prevalent among Iranian patients with RA and OOP costs were a barrier to medication adherence.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Administração Oral , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(3): 389-398, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate literature on rheumatoid arthritis disease in Pakistani patients, to have an understanding about its epidemiology, clinical aspects and socio-economic determinants. METHODS: The review study was conducted from December 2017, to May 2018. An online search was conducted in international and local health databases using appropriate search keywords as well as scanning reference lists of related articles. Literature published after year 2000 that reported epidemiological, demographic, clinical and socioeconomic data of Pakistani rheumatoid arthritis patients was included. Meta-analysis was performed where possible. This systematic review was registered on the international prospective register of systematic reviews PROSPERO (CRD42018090582). RESULTS: Of the 334 research articles found, 29 (8.7%) were selected. Patients were mostly females, but no study explored impact of disease on household and family role functioning of rheumatoid arthritis-affected women in Pakistan. Most patients were uneducated (55%) and unemployed; had low disease knowledge (N = 149, 74.5%) and poor adherence to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (N = 23, 23%). Point prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis reported from Karachi was high at 26.9%. Moderate disease activity, i.e., 4.5}0.7 and mild functional disability (N = 66, 51.6%) were seen in RA patients. Almost half (N = 799, 46.9%) had comorbidities. Almost a fifth proportion of RA patients had dyslipidaemia as a comorbidity (N = 134, 16.77%) and higher cardiovascular risk score as modifiable risk factor. Undiagnosed depression (N = 134, 58.3%) and low bone mineral density (N = 93, 40.6%) were reported in RA patients. Direct monthly treatment cost of disease was significantly high considering patients' socio-economic status, i.e., USD 16.47 - 100.68. Most commonly used drug was methotrexate. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of data on Pakistani rheumatoid arthritis patients' demographic and socio-economic parameters, especially the gender element.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Metotrexato/economia , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
15.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(4): 469-477, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) positivity may be a strong predictor of joint erosion and a potential biomarker for guiding treatment decisions for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, limited studies are currently available on the effect of anti-CCP positivity on health care utilization and/or medical costs of RA patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term and long-term direct health care expenditures associated with anti-CCP positivity in newly diagnosed RA patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in adult RA patients within a U.S. integrated health care delivery system (January 1, 2007-June 30, 2015). Patients were required to have 2 RA diagnoses and treatment with a conventional or biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) within 12 months. The first RA diagnosis date was labeled as the index date, and patients were followed until they left the health plan, died, or reached the end of the study period. Patient demographics, anti-CCP results, comorbid conditions, and health care resource utilization during baseline (12 months before the index date) and follow-up periods were collected. Nationally recognized direct medical costs were assigned to health care utilization to calculate health care costs in 2015 U.S. dollars. The baseline differences between anti-CCP positivity and negativity and differences in censoring during follow-up were addressed using propensity scores. The mean differences in costs were estimated using recycled prediction methods. RESULTS: 2,448 newly diagnosed RA patients were identified and followed for a median of 3.7 years (range = 1-8 years). At baseline, 65.8% of patients were anti-CCP positive. Anti-CCP-positive patients had fewer comorbid conditions at baseline. During the first 12 months of follow-up, median (interquartile range) total health care expenditures for anti-CCP-positive and anti-CCP-negative patients were $6,200 ($3,563-$13,260) and $7,022 ($3,885-$12,995), respectively. After adjusting for baseline differences, total incremental mean cost associated with anti-CCP positivity during the first 12 months was estimated to be $2,163 per patient (P = 0.001). The annual incremental costs in anti-CCP-positive patients became progressively larger over time, from $2,163 during the first year to $5,062 during the fourth year. Anti-CCP positivity was associated with higher prescription, laboratory testing, and rheumatologist utilization. A higher percentage of anti-CCP-positive patients received 1 or more biologic DMARDs (11.6% for anti-CCP-positive vs. 5.7% for anti-CCP negative; P < 0.001) compared with anti-CCP-negative patients during the 12-month follow-up, which resulted in $2,499 in incremental prescription costs (P < 0.001). Total additional burden associated with anti-CCP positivity during the first 4 years was estimated to be $14,089 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: In newly diagnosed RA patients, higher economic burden associated with anti-CCP positivity was mainly driven by prescription costs. DISCLOSURES: This research and manuscript were funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS). Alemao and Connolly are employees and shareholders of BMS and participated in the design of the study, interpretation of the data, review/revision of the manuscript, and approval of the final version of the manuscript. An and Cheetham received a grant from BMS for this research. At the time of this study, An was employed by Western University of Health Sciences, and Cheetham was employed by Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Bider-Canfield, Kang, and Lin have nothing to disclose. Some study results were presented as a poster at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting; November 5, 2017; San Diego, CA, and at the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Meeting; May 19, 2018; Baltimore, MD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(4): 461-467, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drugs for inflammatory conditions are one of the highest expenditure therapeutic classes for health plans. Published literature for adherence, persistence, nonadherence risk factors, and health care costs are incomplete for newer biologic agents. OBJECTIVES: To (a) examine differences in adherence, persistence, switch patterns, and health care costs among high-cost specialty anti-inflammatory medications and (b) suggest risk factors for nonadherence in rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In this exploratory retrospective cohort study, we used medical and pharmacy claims from 1.2 million enrollees in commercial health plans administrated by Premera Blue Cross, the largest not-for-profit health plan in the Pacific Northwest. We included members with rheumatoid arthritis who used the following high-cost disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: abatacept, adalimumab, anakinra, apremilast, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab, sekukinumab, tocilizumab, tofacitinib, and ustekinumab. Adherence was calculated via medication possession ratio. Persistence was calculated as the amount of days between the initial fill and final fill plus days supply. Switch rates for adalimumab and etanercept were calculated as the percentage of members who switched to another target drug during the observation period. Direct medical costs (total health care costs) and health care costs excluding specialty agents were calculated using the net allowable amount per claim for the duration of each therapy. Adherence, persistence, and costs of care were also examined for concurrent methotrexate use for the most used target drugs. RESULTS: The most commonly used drugs were abatacept (n = 47), adalimumab (n = 226), and etanercept (n = 252). Nonadherence in certain subgroups was associated with higher mean monthly health care costs, excluding specialty agents (etanercept cohort: +$1,063 for nonmethotrexate users; +$492 for nonadherent methotrexate users), but adherence was associated with higher total health care costs (+$883 for etanercept). Relative to specialty pharmacies, retail was associated with 9% higher nonadherence. Concurrent methotrexate use was associated with higher persistence (+307 and +192 days with adalimumab and etanercept). The most commonly switched-to drug after adalimumab/etanercept was abatacept (n = 39). CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study raises signals suggesting that retail pharmacies may be associated with higher nonadherence; nonadherence may be associated with increased health care costs, excluding specialty agents; adherence may increase total health care costs; and methotrexate use may be associated with increased persistence. Future research should confirm these findings. DISCLOSURES: This research was part of an internship awarded to Khilfeh by the AMCP Foundation/Pfizer Summer Internship Program and funded by Pfizer. Gross is an employee of Pfizer. The other authors have nothing to disclose. A portion of this research was presented at the AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting as a continuing education session entitled "The Evolving Role of Real-World Data in Health Care Decision Making" on March 29, 2017, in Denver, CO, and at AMCP Nexus 2016 as a poster on October 3-6, 2016, in National Harbor, MD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/economia , Estudos de Coortes , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/economia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Manag Care ; 28(1): 7-8, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883314

RESUMO

It's the best-selling drug by revenue worldwide and manufacturer AbbVie has worked hard to fend off competition. Very hard. Humira faces competition in Europe, but it will probably take years before its market share is challenged in the United States.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/economia , Antirreumáticos/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares , Custos de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Estados Unidos
18.
J Med Econ ; 22(4): 350-358, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653389

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate real world healthcare costs and resource utilization of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients associated with targeted disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARD) switching in general and switching to abatacept specifically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RA patients initiating a tDMARD were identified in IMS PharMetrics Plus health insurance claims data (2010-2016), and outcomes measured included monthly healthcare costs per patient (all-cause, RA-related) and resource utilization (inpatient stays, outpatient visits, emergency department [ED] visits). Generalized linear models were used to assess (i) average monthly costs per patient associated with tDMARD switching, and (ii) among switchers only, costs of switching to abatacept vs tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) or other non-TNFi. Negative binomial regressions were used to determine incident rate ratios of resource utilization associated with switching to abatacept. RESULTS: Among 11,856 RA patients who initiated a tDMARD, 2,708 switched tDMARDs once and 814 switched twice (to a third tDMARD). Adjusted average monthly costs were higher among patients who switched to a second tDMARD vs non-switchers (all-cause: $4,785 vs $3,491, p < .001; RA-related: $3,364 vs $2,297, p < .001). Monthly RA-related costs were higher for patients switching to a third tDMARD compared to non-switchers remaining on their second tDMARD ($3,835 vs $3,383, p < .001). Switchers to abatacept had significantly lower RA-related monthly costs vs switchers to TNFi ($3,129 vs $3,436, p = .021), and numerically lower all-cause costs ($4,444 vs $4,741, p = 0.188). Switchers to TNFi relative to abatacept had more frequent inpatient stays after switch (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.85, p = .031), and numerically higher ED visits (IRR = 1.32, p = .093). Outpatient visits were less frequent for TNFi switchers (IRR = 0.83, p < .001) compared to switchers to abatacept. LIMITATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS: Switching to another tDMARD was associated with higher healthcare costs. Switching to abatacept, however, was associated with lower RA-related costs, fewer inpatient stays, but more frequent outpatient visits compared to switching to a TNFi.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Abatacepte/economia , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/economia , Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/economia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico
19.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(3): 310-317, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The approval of new biosimilars of infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab by the European Medicines Agency is expected to produce further cost savings to the healthcare system budget. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the budget impact of the introduction of new biosimilars Flixabi®, Erelzi®, Solymbic®, Amgevita® and Imraldi® in rheumatology and gastroenterology specialities in the UK. METHODS: A published budget impact model was adapted to estimate the expected cost savings following the entry of new biosimilars Flixabi®, Erelzi®, Solymbic®, Amgevita® and Imraldi® in the UK over three-year time horizon. This model was based on retrospective market shares of biologics used in rheumatology and gastroenterology which were derived from DEFINE Software and healthcare professional perspectives. RESULTS: The model predicted that infliximab and etanercept biosimilars would replace their corresponding reference agents by 2020. Adalimumab biosimilars were predicted to achieve 19% of the rheumatology and gastroenterology market by 2020. Without the introduction of further biosimilars, the model predicted a reduction in expenditure of £44 million on biologics over the next three years. With the entry of Flixabi®, Erelzi®, Solymbic®, Amgevita® and Imraldi® the model estimates cumulative savings of £285 million by 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of new infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab biosimilars will be associated with considerable cost savings and have a substantial favourable impact on the UK NHS budget. The number of biosimilars and time of entry of is critical to create competition which will result in maximum cost savings.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/economia , Medicamentos Biossimilares/economia , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/economia , Redução de Custos , Gastroenterologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/economia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Reumatologia , Reino Unido
20.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 15(1): 100-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients sometimes discontinue the use of expensive oral anti-cancer drug (OACD) or biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) therapies early, leading to medication waste if the patient has not used all dispensed medication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who have unused OACDs or bDMARDs after therapy discontinuation, and the quantity and economic value of these unused medications. Furthermore, patients' reasons for therapy discontinuation and their disposal method for unused medications were determined. METHODS: In a retrospective follow-up study using a Dutch outpatient pharmacy database, patients (≥18 years) who did not refill an OACD or bDMARD prescription, dispensed between November 2015 and February 2016, within two weeks of the prescription end date were contacted by phone and asked about their unused medication and reasons thereof. The economic value was calculated using Dutch medication prices. Data were descriptively analyzed in STATA13. RESULTS: The database included 1173 patients, of whom 159 likely had discontinued therapy and were contacted. Of these, 88 patients were excluded (39 refilled, 47 missing, and 2 other). Of the 71 patients who had discontinued therapy, 39 (54.9%) had unused medications, comprising 22 OACD users (mean age 63.0 (SD ±â€¯15.9) years, 50.0% female) and 17 bDMARD users (mean age 50.7 (SD ±â€¯13.5) years, 47.1% female). A total of 59 packages were unused, with a total value of €60,341. Unused OACD packages and bDMARD packages had median values of €179 (IQR €24-2487) and €992 (IQR €681-1093), respectively. Patients primarily discontinued therapy due to adverse or insufficient effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that more than half of patients discontinuing OACD or bDMARD therapies have unused medication. This emphasizes the need for waste-reducing interventions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antirreumáticos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/economia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Farmácias
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA