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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213736, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253012

RESUMO

Although Spondias mombin L. extract has an excellent antimicrobial effect against oral microorganisms, it should be clarified how it affects enamel surface properties. Aim: To evaluate the color change, wettability/contact angle, surface roughness and morphology of bovine enamel submitted to the Spondias mombin L. extract. Methods: Thirty bovine teeth were distributed into the following groups: 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, 1:32 Spondias mombin L. extract and distilled water. Color change (CC) was evaluated after immerging specimens into the solutions for 14 days. Surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a roughness meter; wettability/contact angles (CA) were determined by the sessile drop method, and scanning electron microscopy images were obtained to characterize the morphology (SMA). The pH of the solutions was evaluated using a pHmeter. The Ra, CA, and CC data were parametric (Kolmogorov-Smirnov; p>0.05). Two-way ANOVA (for Ra and CA) and one-way ANOVA (for CC) with Tukey's posthoc tests at a significance level of 5% were used. SMA was analyzed descriptively. Results: The Spondias mombin L. extract revealed an acidic pH, and when in contact with the bovine teeth, it increased the wettability, but it did not cause statistically significant differences in the Ra. Spondias mombin L. extract caused the highest color change. The SEM images showed differences in the specimens' surface submitted to the extract compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Spondias mombin L. extract provided negative effects on bovine enamel's surface, including a high color change and a more wettable substrate


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Propriedades de Superfície , Anacardiaceae , Esmalte Dentário , Fitoterapia , Antissépticos Bucais
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219320, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253013

RESUMO

Aim: This study analyzed the effect of whitening mouth rinses on water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), color change, and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite. Whitening perceptibility and acceptability (WID) were also studied. Methods: Forty specimens of Filtek Z350XT, shade EA2 were produced and randomly distributed (n=8) to AS ­ artificial saliva (control); LWE ­ Listerine Whitening Extreme; CLW ­ Colgate Luminous White; LCM ­ Listerine Cool Mint; and CP ­ Colgate Plax. They were immersed in the mouth rinses 2x/day, for one minute, during 28 days. The color was assessed using an Easyshade spectrophotometer (CIE-L*a*b* system). Surface roughness (Ra-µm) was measured with three parallel measures, using an RP-200 roughness meter. The WS and SL (µg/mm-3) were analyzed based on the ISO 4049 recommendations. The data were analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: Surface roughness significantly increased after immersion in AS and LCM, with no significant differences between the groups either before or after immersion. The ΔE* was not significantly different between the groups. All substances produced a ΔWID higher than the 50%:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. The WS and SL were not significantly affected by the mouth rinses. Conclusion: Whitening mouth rinses did not affect WS, SL, surface roughness, and color stability of a nanofilled composite, regardless of the presence of ethanol in the composition


Assuntos
Cor , Resinas Compostas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Clareadores Dentários , Antissépticos Bucais
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213867, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254427

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to compare the microbiological potential and gustatory perception of essential oils (EO) mouthrinses containing and not containing alcohol. Methods: Twenty healthy adult volunteers rinsed with 10mL of the following test solutions: EO with alcohol, EO without alcohol, or a control solution (saline solution with mint essence). A washout period of at least seven days was adopted after a single-use protocol of the respective solution. All participants used all three tested substances. Antimicrobial potential was assessed by counting salivary total viable bacteria both before and after each rinse. Gustatory perception was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Multiple comparisons were performed with the Wilcoxon test, using Bonferroni correction. Results: Both EO solutions presented a higher antimicrobial potential in comparison to the control solution (p<0.017). However, no significant difference in antimicrobial potential was observed between EO containing or not containing alcohol (p=0.218). VAS of EO with alcohol (median: 2.7) was similar to control solution (median: 1.6) (p=0.287). A better gustatory perception was observed of the EO without alcohol (median 7.6) when compared to the control solution (p<0.0001). When EO groups were compared, EO without alcohol also demonstrated a significantly better gustatory perception (p=0.001). Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing EO without alcohol presented a better taste perception when compared to the EO with alcohol, but no difference was observed in the antimicrobial potential of both EO solutions after a single rinse protocol


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Bactérias , Óleos Voláteis , Álcoois , Percepção Gustatória , Antissépticos Bucais
5.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 26(4): e408-e413, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ginger and aloe vera are two medicinal herbs mostly used to produce mouthwash. This study aimed to compare the effects of ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes on the xerostomia in patients referred to Bandar Abbas diabetes clinic (Iran). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this triple-blind clinical trial, three groups (n=35 patients in each group) were studied. One group was given aloe vera mouthwash, the other group used ginger mouthwash, and the control group was only given normal saline. All the mouthwashes were used 20 ccs three times daily for 14 consecutive days. The symptoms and severity of xerostomia were measured before and after the intervention by the questionnaire proposed by Fox et al. as well as VAS scale, respectively. Statistical analysis, including the Shapiro-Wilk test used to measure the normality of variables, and Chi-square and McNemar used to compare the scores questionnaire proposed by Fox et al., were also applied. Scores of VAS were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA test. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant in all these tests. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants included in the normal saline group was 58.13±14.75 years old, 54.14±9.35 years old in the ginger group, and 53.37±11.57 years old in the aloe vera group. The difference between the scores of xerostomia before and after performing the intervention (The amount of reduction in xerostomia) in the ginger group was 6.12±2.004 cm, in the aloe vera group it was 4.08±2.09 cm, and in the normal saline group it was 2.45±2.09 cm. Finally, the ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes significantly reduced all symptoms and severity related to xerostomia, respectively(p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of mouthwash is an effective measure to reduce xerostomia under chronic conditions. Aloe vera, ginger, and normal saline are known as effective mouthwashes on controlling this complication. According to the results of this study, ginger and aloe vera mouthwashes could significantly decrease xerostomia and promote oral health in patients with diabetes.


Assuntos
Aloe , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Gengibre , Xerostomia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Xerostomia/etiologia
6.
Am J Dent ; 34(3): 166-170, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143588

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of SARS CoV-2 effective mouthwashes on the color change (ΔE), translucency parameter (TP) and average surface roughness (Ra) of a nanofill resin composite (Filtek Ultimate). METHODS: 91 composite specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm thickness) were prepared using a stainless-steel mold and randomly divided to seven groups as follows: Group 1 (CHX) : 0.12% CHX digluconate + 0.15% benzydamine hydrochloride (96% alcohol), Group 2 (HAc): hypochlorous acid (500 ppm), Group 3 (PVP-I) : 1% povidone iodine, Group 4 (H2O2) : 1.5% hydrogen peroxide, Group 5 (CHX + C) : 0.09% chlorhexidine digluconate + cyclodextrin + citrox, Group 6 (CPC) : 0.075% cetylpyridinium hydrochloride, Group 7 (Control) : artificial saliva. The initial color values were determined by a spectrophotometer on both white and black backgrounds. The specimens were immersed in 20 mL mouthwash for 1 minute with a 12-hour interval. The Ra, ΔE and TP were determined after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Bonferroni and Tukey tests (P< 0.05). RESULTS: The highest and the lowest ΔE3 (after 3 weeks) value were observed in H2O2 (1.57± 0.29) and CHX (0.92± 0.17) groups, respectively. The CHX and CPC groups demonstrated significantly lower ΔE3 values than the control group (P< 0.05). CHX, HAc and PVP-I significantly affected the TP (P< 0.05). None of the groups demonstrated any significant changes of Ra scores (P> 0.05). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Within the limitations of this study some of the mouthwashes affected the ΔE and TP of the Filtek Ultimate nanofill resin composite. The Ra was not affected by any of the mouthwashes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antissépticos Bucais , Cor , Resinas Compostas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Teste de Materiais , SARS-CoV-2 , Coloração e Rotulagem , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(2): 82-83, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281699

RESUMO

Data sources Six electronic databases were searched including PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Science (LILACS). Grey literature was also examined. There were no restrictions with regards to language, time of publication or participant demographics including gender, age and ethnicity.Study selection Both clinical and in vitro studies were included in the data search. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were clearly identified. Study selection was carried out in two phases by two independent reviewers. The studies included fitted the following criteria: studies that hypothesised the use of mouthwashes as a form of intervention to decrease the viral load in saliva contaminated with coronavirus. Two other studies were included in this review and both were conducted in Germany, performed in vitro, which tested povidone-iodine (PVP-I) mouthwash at two different concentrations: 1% and 7%. Both studies used the same culture mediums for clean and dirty conditions, and the evaluated outcome was the viral titre of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The studies were published in 2015 and 2018. Neither study evaluated the action of this mouthwash on SARS-CoV-2 infection.Data extraction and synthesis The extraction of data followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline process. Studies chosen for analysis included assessment of the following data parameters for risk of bias: cell origin and cell type used, duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, magnetic flux density of exposure, environmental background magnetic field, use of control treatment, temperature control, blinding of exposure, randomisation of exposure, measurement of cell vitality, identical methods for control and exposure groups, randomisation of data measurements and potential industry sponsorship.Results One study assessed the effect of the mouthwash on MERS-CoV and the other on both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In both studies, following 15 seconds of exposure to the mouthwash, a reduction in viral load of >99.99% was seen. There was a measurable reduction in viral titre in the samples, with one study reporting a reduction to 4.30 log10 TCID50/ml from 6.00-6.50 log10 TCID50/ml. Other mouthwashes such as hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine were not assessed in these studies.Conclusions The study concludes that PVP-I mouthwash at concentrations of 1% and 7% for 15 seconds may be effective at reducing the viral load of COVID-19 in human saliva. The level of scientific evidence, however, is low.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antissépticos Bucais , Região do Caribe , Alemanha , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA-RNA compounds have shown promising protection against cell oxidative stress. This study aimed to assess the cytotoxicity, protective, or preventive effect of different experimental formulations on oral epithelia's oxidative stress in vitro. METHODS: Reconstituted human oral epithelia (RHOE) were grown air-lifted in a continuous-flow bioreactor. Mouthwashes and gels containing DNA-RNA compounds and other bioactive molecules were tested on a model of oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. Epithelia viability was evaluated using a biochemical MTT-based assay and confocal microscopy; structural and ultrastructural morphology was evaluated by light microscopy and TEM. RESULTS: DNA-RNA showed non-cytotoxic activity and effectively protected against oxidative stress, but did not help in its prevention. Gel formulations did not express adequate activity compared to the mouthwashes. Excipients played a fundamental role in enhancing or even decreasing the bioactive molecules' effect. CONCLUSION: A mouthwash formulation with hydrolyzed DNA-RNA effectively protected against oxidative stress without additional enhancement by other bioactive molecules. Active compounds, such as hyaluronic acid, ß-Glucan, allantoin, bisabolol, ruscogenin, and essential oils, showed a protective effect against oxidative stress, which was not synergistic with the one of DNA-RNA. Incorporation of surfactant agents showed a reduced, yet significant, cytotoxic effect.


Assuntos
Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , DNA/farmacologia , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Géis/farmacologia , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Humanos , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/metabolismo , RNA/farmacologia
11.
12.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(2): 82-83, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172918

RESUMO

Data sources Six electronic databases were searched including PubMed/Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, and Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Science (LILACS). Grey literature was also examined. There were no restrictions with regards to language, time of publication or participant demographics including gender, age and ethnicity.Study selection Both clinical and in vitro studies were included in the data search. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were clearly identified. Study selection was carried out in two phases by two independent reviewers. The studies included fitted the following criteria: studies that hypothesised the use of mouthwashes as a form of intervention to decrease the viral load in saliva contaminated with coronavirus. Two other studies were included in this review and both were conducted in Germany, performed in vitro, which tested povidone-iodine (PVP-I) mouthwash at two different concentrations: 1% and 7%. Both studies used the same culture mediums for clean and dirty conditions, and the evaluated outcome was the viral titre of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The studies were published in 2015 and 2018. Neither study evaluated the action of this mouthwash on SARS-CoV-2 infection.Data extraction and synthesis The extraction of data followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline process. Studies chosen for analysis included assessment of the following data parameters for risk of bias: cell origin and cell type used, duration of exposure, frequency of exposure, magnetic flux density of exposure, environmental background magnetic field, use of control treatment, temperature control, blinding of exposure, randomisation of exposure, measurement of cell vitality, identical methods for control and exposure groups, randomisation of data measurements and potential industry sponsorship.Results One study assessed the effect of the mouthwash on MERS-CoV and the other on both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In both studies, following 15 seconds of exposure to the mouthwash, a reduction in viral load of >99.99% was seen. There was a measurable reduction in viral titre in the samples, with one study reporting a reduction to 4.30 log10 TCID50/ml from 6.00-6.50 log10 TCID50/ml. Other mouthwashes such as hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine were not assessed in these studies.Conclusions The study concludes that PVP-I mouthwash at concentrations of 1% and 7% for 15 seconds may be effective at reducing the viral load of COVID-19 in human saliva. The level of scientific evidence, however, is low.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Antissépticos Bucais , Região do Caribe , Alemanha , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 21(1): 101527, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Essential oil (EO) mouthwash has been considered as one of the effective chemical agents as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control, without adverse effects compared with chlorhexidine (pigmentation, changes of taste, and formation of supragingival calculus), which limits its continuous use. New EO alcohol-based has emerged with questions regarding contraindications for its daily use. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of EO mouthwashes with and without alcohol on the early supragingival and subgingival plaque formation using a plaque-free zone score system. METHODS: This study was a crossover, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Eleven participants, totaling 396 sites of evaluation, remained 4 days with no mechanical oral hygiene control and only used EO mouthwash with (control) and without alcohol (test) during this period. The presence of the plaque-free zone was recorded every 24 hours. Friedman and Wilcoxon tests were used with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The control group showed a more significant number of buccal surfaces free of plaque at 48, 72, and 96 hours compared with the test group. Both groups presented satisfactory efficacy up to 72 hours with a significant difference in favor of the control group. The presence of subgingival plaque on both the proximal and free surfaces was significantly higher in the test group. CONCLUSION: EO with alcohol presented better results in retarding the early supragingival and subgingival plaque formation compared with EO without alcohol.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Placa Dentária , Óleos Voláteis , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021032, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the form of mouthwash and nasal spray as an auxiliary treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Forty hospitalized patients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test were evaluated. They were randomly divided into an experimental group (n= 20; gargling with 1.0% H2O2 and nasal wash with 0.5% H2O2) or a control group (n= 20). The solutions were used for 7 days and the patients were monitored every 2 days, for a total of 8 days. At check-ups, patients were asked about their symptoms and possible adverse effects of the solutions. The presence and severity (mild, moderate, or severe) of symptoms were recorded. Data were compared using the Student test and the Fisher exact test (α= 0.05). RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the length of hospital stay (p= 0.65). The most frequent symptom on day 0 was coughing (72.0% in the experimental group and 76.5% in the control group), which abated over time. There was no significant difference between the groups in the evaluated symptoms. Most (75.0%) of the patients in the experimental group presented a reduction in dyspnea between days 0 and 2. Few patients reported adverse effects from the use of the solutions. CONCLUSIONS: H2O2 as a mouthwash and nasal spray is safe to use. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that H2O2 is effective as an auxiliary treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Brasil , COVID-19/virologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(2): e211955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the color of different orthodontic resin bonding agents exposed to three antiseptic mouthrinses for a prolonged time interval (10-year aging simulation). METHODS: 160 specimens were distributed into four groups, according to the orthodontic resin bond agent (Concise, Transbond XT, Transbond Plus Color Change, and Natural Ortho). Each group was exposed to different antiseptic mouthrinses: alcohol-based (Listerine®), alcohol-free (Oral-B®), chlorhexidine (Periogard®) and distilled water as the control. Specimens were submitted to two cycles of staining and artificial aging. Color was evaluated by means of a digital spectrophotometer at the beginning of the experiment and after every cycle. The system used to assess color changes was the CIE L*a*b*. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. RESULTS: After simulation of 10 years of aging, Transbond XT and Natural Ortho composites presented no statistically significant differences in ∆E when exposed to different mouthrinses. The Concise composite specimens exposed to alcohol-free mouthrinse presented a significant difference when compared with specimens from the same group exposed to other antiseptic mouthrinses. Transbond Plus Color Change specimens exposed to chlorhexidine mouthrinse and to alcohol-containing mouthrinse presented a significant difference when compared with the specimens from the group exposed to water and alcohol-free antiseptic. CONCLUSION: All orthodontic resin bonding agents tested presented clinically perceptible color changes when exposed to at least one of the mouthrinses, except for the Natural Ortho composite. The Concise composite exposed to the alcohol-free solution was the resin that presented the highest color change values.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Clorexidina , Resinas Compostas , Teste de Materiais , Antissépticos Bucais , Cimentos de Resina
17.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913803

RESUMO

Infectious SARS-CoV-2 can be recovered from the oral cavities and saliva of COVID-19 patients with potential implications for disease transmission. Reducing viral load in patient saliva using antiviral mouthwashes may therefore have a role as a control measure in limiting virus spread, particularly in dental settings. Here, the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation by seven commercially available mouthwashes with a range of active ingredients were evaluated in vitro. We demonstrate ≥4.1 to ≥5.5 log10 reduction in SARS-CoV-2 titre following a 1 min treatment with commercially available mouthwashes containing 0.01-0.02 % stabilised hypochlorous acid or 0.58 % povidone iodine, and non-specialist mouthwashes with both alcohol-based and alcohol-free formulations designed for home use. In contrast, products containing 1.5 % hydrogen peroxide or 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate were ineffective against SARS-CoV-2 in these tests. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence surrounding virucidal efficacy of mouthwashes/oral rinses against SARS-CoV-2, and has important applications in reducing risk associated with aerosol generating procedures in dentistry and potentially for infection control more widely.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207368

RESUMO

Infectious SARS-CoV-2 can be recovered from the oral cavities and saliva of COVID-19 patients with potential implications for disease transmission. Reducing viral load in patient saliva using antiviral mouthwashes may therefore have a role as a control measure in limiting virus spread, particularly in dental settings. Here, the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 inactivation by seven commercially available mouthwashes with a range of active ingredients were evaluated in vitro. We demonstrate ≥4.1 to ≥5.5 log10 reduction in SARS-CoV-2 titre following a 1 min treatment with commercially available mouthwashes containing 0.01-0.02 % stabilised hypochlorous acid or 0.58 % povidone iodine, and non-specialist mouthwashes with both alcohol-based and alcohol-free formulations designed for home use. In contrast, products containing 1.5 % hydrogen peroxide or 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate were ineffective against SARS-CoV-2 in these tests. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence surrounding virucidal efficacy of mouthwashes/oral rinses against SARS-CoV-2, and has important applications in reducing risk associated with aerosol generating procedures in dentistry and potentially for infection control more widely.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 30-43, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185067

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, so ACE2-expressing cells can act as target cells and are susceptible to infection. ACE2 receptors are highly expressed in the oral cavity, so this may be a potential high-risk route for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the virus can be detected in saliva, even before COVID-19 symptoms appear, with the consequent high risk of virus transmission in asymptomatic/presymptomatic patients. Reducing oral viral load could lead to a lower risk of transmission via salivary droplets or aerosols and therefore contribute to the control of the pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the available evidence testing the in-vitro and in-vivo effects of oral antiseptics to inactivate or eradicate coronaviruses. The criteria used were those described in the PRISMA declaration for performing systematic reviews. An electronic search was conducted in Medline (via PubMed) and in Web of Sciences, using the MeSH terms: 'mouthwash' OR 'oral rinse' OR 'mouth rinse' OR 'povidone iodine' OR 'hydrogen peroxide' OR 'cetylpyridinium chloride' AND 'COVID-19' OR 'SARS-CoV-2' OR 'coronavirus' OR 'SARS' OR 'MERS'. The initial search strategy identified 619 articles on two electronic databases. Seventeen articles were included assessing the virucidal efficacy of oral antiseptics against coronaviruses. In conclusion, there is sufficient in-vitro evidence to support the use of antiseptics to potentially reduce the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. However, in-vivo evidence for most oral antiseptics is limited. Randomized clinical trials with a control group are needed to demonstrate its clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Boca , Pandemias , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/virologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802588

RESUMO

In contrast to enamel, dentin surfaces have been rarely used as substrates for studies evaluating the effects of experimental rinsing solutions on oral biofilm formation. The aim of the present in situ study was to investigate the effects of tannic acid and chitosan on 48-h biofilm formation on dentin surfaces. Biofilm was formed intraorally on dentin specimens, while six subjects rinsed with experimental solutions containing tannic acid, chitosan and water as negative or chlorhexidine as positive control. After 48 h of biofilm formation, specimens were evaluated for biofilm coverage and for viability of bacteria by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, saliva samples were collected after rinsing and analyzed by fluorescence (five subjects) and transmission electron microscopy (two subjects) in order to investigate the antibacterial effect on bacteria in a planktonic state and to visualize effects of the rinsing agents on salivary proteins. After rinsing with water, dentin specimens were covered by a multiple-layered biofilm with predominantly vital bacteria. In contrast, chlorhexidine led to dentin surfaces covered only by few and avital bacteria. By rinsing with tannic acid both strong anti-adherent and antibacterial effects were observed, but the effects declined in a time-dependent manner. Transmission electron micrographs of salivary samples indicated that aggregation of proteins and bacteria might explain the antiadhesion effects of tannic acid. Chitosan showed antibacterial effects on bacteria in saliva, while biofilm viability was only slightly reduced and no effects on bacterial adherence on dentin were observed, despite proteins being aggregated in saliva after rinsing with chitosan. Tannic acid is a promising anti-biofilm agent even on dentin surfaces, while rinsing with chitosan could not sufficiently prevent biofilm formation on dentin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/farmacologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/farmacologia , Adulto , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Quelantes/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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