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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 906, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: - To describe the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load of patients infected with Covid-19, performing 7 days of tri-daily mouthwashes with and without antivirals. - To compare the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 nasal and salivary viral load according to the presence or absence of antivirals in the mouthwash. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a multi-center, randomised controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria - Age: 18-85 years old - Clinical diagnosis of Covid-19 infection - Clinical signs have been present for less than 8 days - Virological confirmation - Understanding and acceptance of the trial - Written agreement to participate in the trial Exclusion criteria - Pregnancy, breastfeeding, inability to comply with protocol, lack of written agreement - Patients using mouthwash on a regular basis (more than once a week) - Patient at risk of infectious endocarditis - Patients unable to answer questions - Uncooperative patient The clinical trial is being conducted with the collaboration of three French hospital centers: Hospital Center Emile Roux (Le Puy en Velay, France), Clinic of the Protestant Infirmary (Lyon, France) and Intercommunal Hospital Center (Mont de Marsan, France). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Eligible participants will be allocated to one of the two study groups. Intervention group: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with mouthwash containing antivirals (ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) for a period of 7 days. CONTROL GROUP: patients perform a tri-daily mouthwash with a placebo mouthwash for a period of 7 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Outcome Measures: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 in salivary samples at 4 and 9 hours, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess salivary SARS-CoV 2 viral load. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Change from Baseline amount of SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasal samples at 6 days. Real-time PCR assays are performed to assess nasal SARS-CoV-2 viral load. RANDOMISATION: Participants meeting all eligibility requirements are allocated to one of the two study arms (mouthwash with ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox® or mouthwash without ß-cyclodextrin and Citrox®) in a 1:1 ratio using simple randomisation with computer generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants, doctors and nurses caring for participants, laboratory technicians and investigators assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): Both the intervention and control groups will be composed of 103 participants, so the study will include a total of 206 participants. TRIAL STATUS: The current protocol version is 6, August 4th, 2020. Recruitment began on April 6, 2020 and is anticipated to be complete by April 5, 2021. As of October 2, 2020, forty-two participants have been included. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on 20 April 2020 at www.clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT04352959 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol." The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2)."


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Antissépticos Bucais , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saliva/virologia , Adulto , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , beta-Ciclodextrinas/administração & dosagem , beta-Ciclodextrinas/efeitos adversos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21622, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898997

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to characterize self-reported oral hygiene practices among Mexican older adults aged ≥60 years, and to measure the association between frequency of tooth brushing and a set of sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables.We conducted a cross-sectional study of 139 older adults aged ≥60 years in Pachuca, Mexico. A questionnaire and a clinical dental examination were administered to identify specific variables. We determined frequency of tooth brushing (or cleaning of dentures or prostheses) and use of toothpaste, mouthwash, and dental floss among respondents. Non-parametric testing was performed for statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression model was generated with Stata 11 software to determine frequency of tooth brushing.In our study sample, 53.2% of participants reported brushing their teeth at least once a day, 50.4% always using toothpaste, 16.5% using mouthwash and 3.6% using floss for their oral hygiene. In general, younger and female respondents used oral hygiene aids more than the others. Our multivariate model yielded an association (P < .05) between tooth brushing at least once daily and the following variables: having functional dentition (OR = 12.60), lacking health insurance (OR = 3.72), being retired/pensioned (OR = 4.50), and suffering from a chronic disease (OR = 0.43).The older adults in our sample exhibited deficient oral hygiene behaviors. The results suggest certain socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. The findings of this study should be considered when designing dental care instructions for older adults.


Assuntos
Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cremes Dentais/administração & dosagem
3.
Trials ; 21(1): 785, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1- To compare the effectiveness of 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline and a novel solution Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) in reducing intra-oral viral load in COVID-19 positive patients. 2- To determine the salivary cytokine profiles of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL- 17 among COVID-19 patients subjected to 1% Hydrogen peroxide, 0.2% Povidone-Iodine, 2% hypertonic saline or Neem extract (Azardirachta indica) based gargles. TRIAL DESIGN: This will be a parallel group, quadruple blind-randomised controlled pilot trial with an add on laboratory based study. PARTICIPANTS: A non-probability, purposive sampling technique will be followed to identify participants for this study. The clinical trial will be carried out at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, Pakistan. The viral PCR tests will be done at main AKUH clinical laboratories whereas the immunological tests (cytokine analysis) will be done at the Juma research laboratory of AKUH. The inclusion criteria are laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 positive patients, male or female, in the age range of 18-65 years, with mild to moderate disease, already admitted to the AKUH. Subjects with low Glasgow coma score, with a history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy, who are more than 7 days past the onset of COVID- 19 symptoms, or intubated or edentulous patients will be excluded. Patients who are being treated with any form of oral or parenteral antiviral therapy will be excluded, as well as patients with known pre-existing chronic mucosal lesions such as lichen planus. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Group A (n=10) patients on 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 0.2% Povidone-Iodine (Betadiene® by Aviro Health Inc./ Pyodine® by Brooks Pharma Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group B (n=10) patients will be subjected to 10 ml gargle and nasal lavage using 1% Hydrogen peroxide (HP® by Karachi Chemicals Products Inc./ ActiveOxy® by Boumatic Inc.) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group C will comprised of (n=10) subjects on 10ml gargle and nasal lavage using Neem extract solution (Azardirachta indica) formulated by Karachi University (chemistry department laboratories) for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for 6 days. Group D (n=10) patients will use 2% hypertonic saline (Plabottle® by Otsuka Inc.) gargle and nasal lavage for a similar time period. Group E (n=10) will serve as positive controls. These will be given simple distilled water gargles and nasal lavage for 20-30 seconds, thrice daily for six days. For nasal lavage, a special douche syringe will be provided to each participant. Its use will be thoroughly explained by the data collection officer. After each use, the patient is asked not to eat, drink, or rinse their mouth for the next 30 minutes. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the reduction in the intra-oral viral load confirmed with real time quantitative PCR. RANDOMISATION: The assignment to the study group/ allocation will be done using the sealed envelope method under the supervision of Clinical Trial Unit (CTU) of Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. The patients will be randomised to their respective study group (1:1:1:1:1 allocation ratio) immediately after the eligibility assessment and consent administration is done. BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be quadruple-blinded. Patients, intervention provider, outcome assessor and the data collection officer will be blinded. The groups will be labelled as A, B, C, D or E. The codes of the intervention will be kept in lock & key at the CTU and will only be revealed at the end of study or if the study is terminated prematurely. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no prior work on this research question, so no assumptions for the sample size calculation could be made. The present study will serve as a pilot trial. We intend to study 50 patients in five study groups with 10 patients in each study group. For details, please refer to Fig. 1 for details. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version is 7.0, approved by the department and institutional ethics committees and clinical trial unit of the university hospital. Recruitment is planned to start as soon as the funding is sanctioned. The total duration of the study is expected to be 6 months i.e. August 2020-January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov on 10 April 2020 NCT04341688 . FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). Fig. 1 Flow diagram of study-participants' timeline.


Assuntos
Azadirachta , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Lavagem Nasal/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/métodos
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013628, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. The risks of transmission of infection are greater when a patient is undergoing an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP). Not all those with COVID-19 infection are symptomatic, or suspected of harbouring the infection. If a patient who is not known to have or suspected of having COVID-19 infection is to undergo an AGP, it would nonetheless be sensible to minimise the risk to those HCWs treating them. If the mouth and nose of an individual undergoing an AGP are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may be a simple and safe method of reducing the risk of any covert infection being passed to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. Alternatively, the use of antimicrobial solutions by the HCW may decrease the chance of them acquiring COVID-19 infection. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays administered to HCWs and/or patients when undertaking AGPs on patients without suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed RCTs. We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing any antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered to the patient or HCW before and/or after an AGP. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs or patients; 2) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 3) COVID-19 viral content of aerosol (when present); 4) change in COVID-19 viral load at site(s) of irrigation; 5) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 6) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review.   AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review, nor any ongoing studies. The absence of completed studies is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. However, we are disappointed that this important clinical question is not being addressed by ongoing studies.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Administração Intranasal , Microbiologia do Ar , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Infecções Assintomáticas/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Nariz/virologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013627, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. If the mouth and nose of patients with infection are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may help the patients by killing any coronavirus present at those sites. It may also reduce the risk of the active infection being passed to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays administered to patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection to both the patients and the HCWs caring for them. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed RCTs. We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered with any frequency or dosage to suspected/confirmed COVID-19 patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) RECOVERY* (www.recoverytrial.net) outcomes in patients (mortality; hospitalisation status; use of ventilation; use of renal dialysis or haemofiltration); 2) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs; 3) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 4) change in COVID-19 viral load in patients; 5) COVID-19 viral content of aerosol (when present); 6) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 7) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review. We identified 16 ongoing studies (including 14 RCTs), which aim to enrol nearly 1250 participants. The interventions included in these trials are ArtemiC (artemisinin, curcumin, frankincense and vitamin C), Citrox (a bioflavonoid), cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, essential oils, hydrogen peroxide, hypertonic saline, Kerecis spray (omega 3 viruxide - containing neem oil and St John's wort), neem extract, nitric oxide releasing solution, povidone iodine and saline with baby shampoo.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review. This is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. It is promising that the question posed in this review is being addressed by a number of RCTs and other studies. We are concerned that few of the ongoing studies specifically state that they will evaluate adverse events such as changes in the sense of smell or to the oral and nasal microbiota, and any consequences thereof. Very few interventions have large and dramatic effect sizes. If a positive treatment effect is demonstrated when studies are available for inclusion in this review, it may not be large. In these circumstances in particular it may be a challenge to weigh up the benefits against the harms if the latter are of uncertain frequency and severity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Nariz/virologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Irrigação Terapêutica
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013626, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection poses a serious risk to patients and - due to its contagious nature - to those healthcare workers (HCWs) treating them. If the mouth and nose of HCWs are irrigated with antimicrobial solutions, this may help reduce the risk of active infection being passed from infected patients to HCWs through droplet transmission or direct contact. However, the use of such antimicrobial solutions may be associated with harms related to the toxicity of the solutions themselves, or alterations in the natural microbial flora of the mouth or nose. Understanding these possible side effects is particularly important when the HCWs are otherwise fit and well. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of antimicrobial mouthwashes and nasal sprays used by healthcare workers (HCWs) to protect themselves when treating patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. SEARCH METHODS: Information Specialists from Cochrane ENT and Cochrane Oral Health searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 1 June 2020.  SELECTION CRITERIA: This is a question that urgently requires evidence, however at the present time we did not anticipate finding many completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore planned to include the following types of studies: RCTs; quasi-RCTs; non-randomised controlled trials; prospective cohort studies; retrospective cohort studies; cross-sectional studies; controlled before-and-after studies. We set no minimum duration for the studies.   We sought studies comparing any antimicrobial mouthwash and/or nasal spray (alone or in combination) at any concentration, delivered to HCWs, with or without the same intervention being given to the patients with COVID-19. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. Our primary outcomes were: 1) incidence of symptomatic or test-positive COVID-19 infection in HCWs; 2) significant adverse event: anosmia (or disturbance in sense of smell). Our secondary outcomes were: 3) viral content of aerosol, when present (if intervention administered to patients); 4) other adverse events: changes in microbiome in oral cavity, nasal cavity, oro- or nasopharynx; 5) other adverse events: allergy, irritation/burning of nasal, oral or oropharyngeal mucosa (e.g. erosions, ulcers, bleeding), long-term staining of mucous membranes or teeth, accidental ingestion. We planned to use GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: We found no completed studies to include in this review. We identified three ongoing studies (including two RCTs), which aim to enrol nearly 700 participants. The interventions included in these trials are povidone iodine, nitric oxide and GLS-1200 oral spray (the constituent of this spray is unclear and may not be antimicrobial in nature).   AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We identified no studies for inclusion in this review. This is not surprising given the relatively recent emergence of COVID-19 infection. It is promising that the question posed in this review is being addressed by two RCTs and a non-randomised study. We are concerned that only one of the ongoing studies specifically states that it will evaluate adverse events and it is not clear if this will include changes in the sense of smell or to the oral and nasal microbiota, and any consequences thereof. Very few interventions have large and dramatic effect sizes. If a positive treatment effect is demonstrated when studies are available for inclusion in this review, it may not be large. In these circumstances in particular, where those receiving the intervention are otherwise fit and well, it may be a challenge to weigh up the benefits against the harms if the latter are of uncertain frequency and severity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Nariz/virologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Irrigação Terapêutica
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110081, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653736

RESUMO

Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. Soaps and detergents are explained to act by damaging viral spike glycoproteins (peplomers) or by washing out the virus through entrapment in the micelles. Technically, soaps come under a functional category of molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. We wonder why surfactants are still not tried for prophylaxis or therapy against COVID-19? That too when many of them have proven antiviral properties. Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections. Therefore, we postulate that surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy would be promising. We believe that our hypothesis would stimulate debate or new research exploring the possibility of surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy against COVID-19. The success of a surfactant-based technique would save the world from any such pandemic in the future too.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Micelas , Modelos Biológicos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 69-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose was to investigate the effect of caffeine (CAF) mouth rinse on peak power (PP), mean power (MP), peak power relative to body mass (rel PP), mean power relative to body mass (rel MP), fatigue index (FI) and anaerobic contribution in the Wingate Test. METHODS: Ten healthy men (age: 24.8±3.7 years; body mass: 71.0±7.8 kg; height: 170±3 cm; body fat: 17.02±4.9%; VO2max: 44.15±5.5 ml·kg-1·min=) were recruited. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over design was employed. Participants were instructed to complete Wingate Test in the fastest time possible under 2 conditions: CAF (25 ml of mint syrup with 1.2% of CAF, equivalent to 300 mg of CAF) and placebo (PLA) (25 ml of mint syrup without CAF). RESULTS: There was no difference at PP (P=0.66), MP (P=0.16), rel PP (P=0.82), rel MP (P=0.18), FI (P=0.19), anaerobic alactic (P=0.71), anaerobic lactic (P=0.25), total energy expenditure (P=0.41) and peak plasma lactate concentration (P=0.57). CONCLUSIONS: CAF mouth rinse did not increase peak power (PP), mean power (MP), peak power relative to body mass (rel PP), mean power relative to body mass (rel MP), Fatigue Index (FI) nor anaerobic contribution in the Wingate Test.


Assuntos
Limiar Anaeróbio/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino
10.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(7): 3113-3123, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited data about oral mucositis (OM) in stem cell transplant patients with underlying hematological disease is available in Germany. The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the incidence, treatment patterns, patients' adherence, and costs of OM. METHODS: Prospective, noninterventional single-center observational study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: allogenic/autologous stem cell transplant patients ≥ 18 years, high-dose chemotherapy. OM assessment: WHO Oral Toxicity Scale. Adherence was measured in patient interviews. Preventive and therapeutic measures were extracted from patients' charts. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (25 allogenic, 20 autologous) were enrolled. Twenty-six (58%) patients developed OM (54% grade I/II, 46% grade III/IV). Age ≥ 65 (31% vs 69%, p = 0.021) was associated with a lower OM incidence. A positive history of smoking (1.77 vs 2.69, p = 0.036) was associated with a lower OM grade, patients with unrelated donors (2.63 vs 1.29, p = 0.014) were associated with higher OM grades and females (80% vs 47%, RR = 1.71, p = 0.035) with a higher incidence. OM patients were less adherent to recommended daily mouth rinses (35% vs 68%, p = 0.027). More analgesic treatment (80% vs 32%, p = 0.001) and intravenous opioids (24% vs 0%, p = 0.023) were prescribed in OM patients. Total drug treatment and nutrition costs were 824€ (p = 0.037) higher in autologous transplanted patients. CONCLUSION: Initial risk and consecutive OM assessment, determination of patients' adherence, resource consumption, and costs are prerequisites to evaluate OM care. In the best case, several centers will follow the same methodological approach and the collected data will serve as a basis for benchmarking analyses to optimize OM care where required.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estomatite/epidemiologia , Adulto , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/economia , Estomatite/etiologia , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4(Supplementary)): 1855-1860, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680083

RESUMO

Amitriptyline, an agent universally used to treat depression, has an anti-inflammatory activity and a potential for lowering inflammatory mediators. Periodontal diseases like gingivitis and periodontitis if untreated contributes to gingival tissue destruction and bone resorption. These diseases are commonly treated with conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and antibiotics along with standard periodontal treatment. The aim of this experimental, observational and randomized clinical control trial was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of amitriptyline on clinical parameters and on inflammatory biomarkers in patients of periodontal diseases by developing 1% oral gel and mouthwash formulations. 30 patients participated in the study were grouped in three categories, patients received standard conventional treatment, patients received gel treatment for four weeks after standard treatment, patients received mouthwash for four weeks after standard periodontal treatment. Results showed that amitriptyline gel and mouthwash in 1% formulation showed promising results by significantly reducing periodontal parameters and inflammatory biomarkers (p<0.001) as compared to standard treatment. Thus, we suggest that gel and mouthwash formulation of amitriptyline is highly efficacious in treating the periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Amitriptilina/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/metabolismo , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Periodontite/metabolismo
13.
Trials ; 20(1): 603, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine application of chlorhexidine oral rinse is recommended to reduce risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. Recent reappraisal of the evidence from two meta-analyses suggests chlorhexidine may cause excess mortality in non-cardiac surgery patients and does not reduce VAP. Mechanisms for possible excess mortality are unclear. The CHORAL study will evaluate the impact of de-adopting chlorhexidine and implementing an oral care bundle (excluding chlorhexidine) on mortality, infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and oral health status. METHODS: The CHORAL study is a stepped wedge, cluster randomized controlled trial in six academic intensive care units (ICUs) in Toronto, Canada. Clusters (ICU) will be randomly allocated to six sequential steps over a 14-month period to de-adopt oral chlorhexidine and implement a standardized oral care bundle (oral assessment, tooth brushing, moisturization, and secretion removal). On study commencement, all clusters begin with a control period in which the standard of care is oral chlorhexidine. Clusters then begin crossover from control to intervention every 2 months according to the randomization schedule. Participants include all mechanically ventilated adults eligible to receive the standardized oral care bundle. The primary outcome is ICU mortality; secondary outcomes are IVACs and oral health status. We will determine demographics, antibiotic usage, mortality, and IVAC rates from a validated local ICU clinical registry. With six clusters and 50 ventilated patients on average each month per cluster, we estimate that 4200 patients provide 80% power after accounting for intracluster correlation to detect an absolute reduction in mortality of 5.5%. We will analyze our primary outcome of mortality using a generalized linear mixed model adjusting for time to account for secular trends. We will conduct a process evaluation to determine intervention fidelity and to inform interpretation of the trial results. DISCUSSION: The CHORAL study will inform understanding of the effectiveness of de-adoption of oral chlorhexidine and implementation of a standardized oral care bundle for decreasing ICU mortality and IVAC rates while improving oral health status. Our process evaluation will inform clinicians and decision makers about intervention delivery to support future de-adoption if justified by trial results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03382730 . Registered on December 26, 2017.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Higiene Bucal , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Clorexidina/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal , Estudos Cross-Over , Drenagem , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ontário , Higiene Bucal/efeitos adversos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/etiologia , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Escovação Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(7): 413-416, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408593

RESUMO

The selective properties of a solution of oligonucleotide specific to IL-6 on the concentration of IL-6 in mixed saliva of patients with oral inflammatory processes were studied using SDS-PAGE by electrophoresis and enzyme immunoassay. The application of these methods showed that in the mixed saliva of patients after rinsing with a solution of an oligonucleotide specific for IL-6, the amount of IL-6 decreases. The ELISA Kit and 20% SDS-PAGE showed the highest sensitivity to determine the concentration of IL-6 in saliva, which should be considered in clinical laboratory practice.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6/análise , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Saliva/química , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Boca , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(1): 1321-1328, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148957

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis by culture in most resource-limited settings is hampered by high contamination rate varying up to 31%. Reduction of oral microorganism loads by mouth rinse with antiseptic before sputum collection showed a reduction of contamination. Moreover, knowing the characteristic of residual contaminant microorganisms would be an asset to understand contamination issues. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine on mycobacteria culture contaminations and to characterize morphologically the residual contaminants. Methods: We consecutively included 158 patients in a TB center. Each of them supplied two sputa: The first before mouth rinse, and the second after 60sec of mouth rinsing with chlorhexidine (0.1%). Petroff method and Lowenstein-Jensen media were used for sputum decontamination and inoculation respectively. The contamination rates were compared, and the type of residual contaminants were characterized and compared. Results: The contamination rate did not differ before and after the mouth rinse (respectively 58/150 (39 %) vs 61/150 (41 %), p=0.7). The major residual contaminants were Gram positive spore forming bacteria (94%). Conclusion: Chlorhexidine mouth rinsing before sputum collection did not reduce mycobacterial culture contamination rate. This is probably due to spore forming bacteria, highlighted as major residual contaminants.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Burkina Faso , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Escarro/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 116: 17-21, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153513

RESUMO

SETTING: Mycobacterial sputum culture is a key diagnostic and research tool. OBJECTIVE: To compare mycobacterial culture outcomes of three sputum collection methods. DESIGN: We compared culture results within sets of three sputum samples collected from 18 HIV-infected adult tuberculosis patients at regular intervals up to 84 days after treatment initiation. The first sputum was collected at home and brought to the clinic, where a second and third sputum were consecutively collected under supervision following mouthwash with bottled water and chlorhexidine solution respectively. All sputa were processed for liquid culture in duplicate. RESULTS: Out of 556 cultures 430 (77.3%), 91 (16.4%) and 35 (6.3%) were positive, negative or contaminated, respectively. The odds of contamination were higher with home collection and with water rinse than with chlorhexidine rinse (OR: 12.5, p < 0.001 and OR: 6.7, p = 0.015). Chlorhexidine rinse increased the odds of a negative culture compared to water rinse (OR: 3.5, p = 0.002). The odds of a positive culture were greater with water rinse than with home collection (OR: 2.5, p = 0.005). Water rinse significantly reduced time to culture positivity. CONCLUSION: Compared to sputum collected at home, chlorhexidine rinse reduces culture contamination and water rinse increases the rate and viable mycobacterial load of positive cultures.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Coinfecção , Água Potável , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7681, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118458

RESUMO

This 4-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at investigating whether routine home use of both a SnCl2/AmF/NaF-containing mouth rinse and toothpaste has a preventive effect on oral health. Fifty-four test subjects were examined in biannual intervals. The primary endpoint "dental erosion" was determined by the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE). The secondary endpoints were "saliva pH", "dentin hypersensitivity" generated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and "discoloration" measured by the Lobene Stain Index (LSI). A mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM) was used to analyze the primary endpoint "dental erosion". Primary analysis showed a significant intervention effect of the SnCl2/AmF/NaF-containing test product (p1 = 0.0242). This result was confirmed by two additional MMRM-based sensitivity analyses. Comparison of all models showed "dental erosion" values of the intervention group  below values of the control group. Discoloration of the teeth was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group at all time points. Saliva pH and dentin hypersensitivity were not significantly different between groups over four years. In summary, this RCT is the first to indicate a possible preventive effect of SnCl2/AmF/NaF-containing oral hygiene products on dental erosion over a follow-up period of four years.


Assuntos
Aminas/uso terapêutico , Dentifrícios/administração & dosagem , Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Fluoretos de Estanho/uso terapêutico , Erosão Dentária/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aminas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluoretação , Seguimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/química , Fluoretos de Estanho/administração & dosagem , Clareamento Dental , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(8): 1711-1723, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinsing on endurance running responses and performance in dehydrated individuals. METHODS: In a double blind, randomised crossover design, 12 well-trained male runners completed 4 running time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at a speed equivalent to 70% of VO2peak in a thermoneutral condition. Throughout each run, participants mouth rinsed and expectorated every 15 min either 25 mL of 6% CHO or a placebo (PLA) solution for 10 s. The four TTEs consisted of two trials in the euhydrated (EU-CHO and EU-PLA) and two trials in the dehydrated (DY-CHO and DY-PLA) state. Prior to each TTE run, participants were dehydrated via exercise and allowed a passive rest period during which they were fed and either rehydrated equivalent to their body mass deficit (i.e., EU trials) or ingested only 50 mL of water (DY trials). RESULTS: CHO mouth rinsing significantly improved TTE performance in the DY compared to the EU trials (78.2 ± 4.3 vs. 76.9 ± 3.8 min, P = 0.02). The arousal level of the runners was significantly higher in the DY compared to the EU trials (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference among trials in heart rate, plasma glucose and lactate, and psychological measures. CONCLUSIONS: CHO mouth rinsing enhanced running performance significantly more when participants were dehydrated vs. euhydrated due to the greater sensitivity of oral receptors related to thirst and central mediated activation. These results show that level of dehydration alters the effect of brain perception with presence of CHO.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/uso terapêutico , Desidratação/tratamento farmacológico , Tolerância ao Exercício , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Corrida , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(4): 1935-1942, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal mucositis occurs in virtually all patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy. The manipulation of the oral cavity microbiota represents an intriguing and challenging target. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 75 patients were enrolled to receive Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges or oral care regimen with sodium bicarbonate mouthwashes. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 3 or 4 oropharyngeal mucositis during radiotherapy treatment. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the incidence of grade 3-4 oropharyngeal mucositis between the intervention and control groups (40.6% vs. 41.6% respectively, p=0.974). The incidence of pain, dysphagia, body weight loss and quality of life were not different between the experimental and standard arm. CONCLUSION: Our study was not able to demonstrate the efficacy of L. brevis CD2 lozenges in preventing radiation-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Although modulating homeostasis of the salivary microbiota in the oral cavity seems attractive, it clearly needs further study.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Lactobacillus brevis/fisiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Estomatite/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/microbiologia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Estomatite/diagnóstico , Estomatite/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(1): 7-15, ene.-abr. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183376

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de este estudio consiste en evaluar la eficacia clínica y microbiológica de un colutorio a base de digluconato de clorhexidina (CHX) 0,05% y cloruro de cetilpiridinio (CPC) 0,05%, y otro colutorio sin propiedades antisépticas, empleados como coadyuvantes de los métodos de higiene oral. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio microbiológico que evaluó la capacidad de los colutorios para inhibir la formación y adherencia de un biofilm bacteriano de Streptococcus oralis mediante espectrofotometría, y un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado y doble ciego sobre una muestra de 48 pacientes, los cuales fueron asignados aleatoriamente a cada colutorio. A: CHX 0,05%, CPC 0,05% y lactato de cinc 0,14% y B: permethol 0.10% y provitamina B5 0.50%. El índice de placa (IP), el índice gingival modificado (IGM) y el índice de sangrado (IS) fueron evaluados con periodicidad mensual y trimestral. Resultados: El colutorio a base de CHX 0,05% y CPC 0,05% evidenció una elevada capacidad para inhibir la formación (P=0,013) y adherencia (P=0,001) del biofilm bacteriano Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el IP inter-grupos a los tres meses de observación (P<0,001). También se observaron diferencias en el IGM al mes (P=0,034) y a los tres meses de observación (P<0,001); y en el IS al mes (P=0,004) y a los tres meses de observación (P=0,002). Conclusiones: El colutorio a base de CHX 0,05% y CPC 0,05% posee una capacidad superior para reducir la placa bacteriana y la gingivitis


Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacy of a mouthrinse containing 0.05% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and another mouthrinse without antiseptic properties, used as adjuvants to oral hygiene methods. Material and methods: First a microbiological study using spectrophotometry was done to assess the ability of both mouthrinses to inhibit the formation and adhesion of an Streptococcus oralis biofilm. Then, a randomised, double-blind clinical trial was performed on a sample of 48 patients, who were randomly assigned to each mouthrinse. A: 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC, and B: 0.10% permethol and 0.50% provitamin B5. Plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (MGI) and bleeding index (BI) were assessed at one and three months. Results: The 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouthrinse showed a high capacity to inhibit the formation (P=0.013) and adhesion (P=0.001) of the bacterial biofilm. Statistically significant differences were observed in the inter-group PI after three months of monitoring (P<0.001). Differences were also observed in MGI after one month (P=0,034) and after three months of monitoring (P<0,001); and in BI after one month (P=0,004) and after three months of monitoring (P=0,002). Conclusions: The 0.05% CHX and 0.05% CPC mouthrinse has a good capacity to reduce bacterial plaque and gingivitis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/administração & dosagem , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrofotometria , Método Duplo-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
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