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1.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 981-990, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze in vitro new formulations with Citrox and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) regarding their antibacterial activity against planktonic bacteria and their potential to inhibit biofilm formation or to act on existing biofilms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five oral health care products with 0.05%-0.5% CHX formulations (four rinses and one gel) were compared with Citrox preparations and additive-free CHX solutions. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined against 13 oral bacteria associated with caries or periodontitis. Further, the activity on retarding biofilm formation and on existing biofilms was analyzed; both a 'cariogenic' (5 species) and a 'periodontal' (12 species) biofilm were included. RESULTS: The MIC values did not differ between the CHX mouthrinse/gel formulations and the respective additive-free CHX solutions. Citrox was active against selected periodontopathogens (e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis). The CHX formulations more effectively retarded biofilm formation than did solutions with the same concentration of CHX but without additives. The anti-biofilm activities depended on the CHX concentration in the formulations. Both CHX solutions and formulations (rinse and gel) were only slightly active on an already formed biofilm. Citrox did not exert any anti-biofilm effect. CONCLUSION: The present in vitro data support the anti-biofilm activity of the novel CHX, Citrox, poly-L-lysine and xylitol oral health-care formulations. Further studies are warranted to confirm the present findings in various clinical settings.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Saúde Bucal , Biofilmes , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1507-1513, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221773

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different antiseptic mouthwash on microbiota around the mini-screw applied to patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: From patients who have been undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment and who have mini-screws in their mouth, a total of 38 patients were selected for the study consisting of 4 groups, each of which has 15 mini-screws. The patients were selected from the following groups: no use of mouthwash (Group 1), use of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate-containing mouthwash (Group 2), use of essential oils-containing mouthwash (Group 3), and use of 7.5% povidone-iodine-containing mouthwash (Group 4). Plaque indices and gingival indices of the patients were measured at the beginning (T0) and at their appointments 3 weeks later (T1). In addition, biological samples were collected from the sulcus around the mini-screw with the help of sterile paper point. Results: The total number of microorganisms around the mini-screw in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 decreased significantly compared to Group 1. A significant decrease in Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Candida parapsilosis, total bacteria, plaque index, and gingival index count was observed in T1compared to T0. Conclusion: Antiseptic mouthwash in Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 can be used to reduce the number of microbial microbiota around the mini-screw and to improve oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Parafusos Ósseos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Boca , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Índice Periodontal
3.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 235-238, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effect of low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 4-isopropyl-3-methylphenol (IPMP) on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. METHODS: Low- and high-viscosity experimental mouthrinses containing 0.05% CPC and 0.1% IPMP were fabricated. Non-viscous mouthrinses containing either CPC- or IPMP were used as controls. The antimicrobial activity (sterilization or exposure time) of mouthrinses was evaluated based on the bactericidal criterion of <10¹ viable cells in 0.1 mL of culture medium. RESULTS: The sterilization time of the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse was shorter than that of the high-viscosity mouthrinse. However, whereas a 10-minute exposure to the low-viscosity mouthrinse resulted in no viable cells of C. albicans, neither the CPC- or IPMP mouthrinses had an antimicrobial effect for the same exposure time. These findings show that the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing anodal CPC and neutral IPMP exhibited superior antimicrobial effects against pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria compared with the control mouthrinses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: In Japan, the oral care with the low-viscosity experimental mouthrinse containing CPC and IPMP as alternatives to those based on chlorhexidine are available for preventing the development of pneumonia- and oral infection-related bacteria.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cresóis , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Viscosidade
4.
Am J Dent ; 33(5): 277-284, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether the addition of sodium-DNA (Na-DNA) to chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouthwash influenced morphology and viability of a reconstituted human oral epithelium (ROE), and protects ROE against oxidative stress. METHODS: Multi-layered 0.5 cm² ROE specimens were positioned inside a continuous flow bioreactor and grown air-lifted for 24 hours. They were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n= 16) or 1 vol% H2O2 for 1 minute (n= 16). Then, they were treated for 5 (n= 8) or 30 minutes (n= 8) with the experimental mouthwash solutions containing: 0.2 wt% CHX, 0.2 wt% CHX + 0.2 wt% Na-DNA, 0.2 wt% Na-DNA, PBS. After 60 minutes washout specimens were subjected to tetrazolium-based viability assay (MTT) confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM), and histological evaluation using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: ROE treated with Na-DNA for 30 minutes revealed significantly higher viability than PBS, and CHX + Na-DNA showed higher viability after 30-minute treatment than after 5 minutes, suggesting a significant protective activity of Na-DNA. Moreover, the protective effect of Na-DNA on cell viability was higher after the induction of oxidative stress. After treatment with CHX, CLSM revealed cell stress, leading to cell death in the outer layer. On the contrary, specimens treated with Na-DNA showed a much lower number of dead cells compared to PBS, both in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Histological examination showed that the protective action of Na-DNA formulations reached more in-depth into the epithelium exposed to oxidative stress, due to intercellular spaces opening in the outer epithelium layers, giving way to Na-DNA to the inner parts of the epithelium. It can be concluded that Na-DNA had a topical protective activity when applied for 30 minutes unless the epithelium barrier is damaged, allowing it to act more in-depth. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Na-DNA showed a clear and protective action against cellular degeneration due to oxidative stress and, partly, to the exposure to CHX. Its addition to chlorhexidine mouthwash or gels could be clinically helpful in contrasting the detrimental activity of CHX on oral tissues, and in the preservation of cell viability, control of inflammation and wound healing.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/toxicidade , Reatores Biológicos , DNA , Humanos , Sódio
5.
J Infect Dis ; 222(8): 1289-1292, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726430

RESUMO

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic creates a significant threat to global health. Recent studies suggested the significance of throat and salivary glands as major sites of virus replication and transmission during early coronavirus disease 2019, thus advocating application of oral antiseptics. However, the antiviral efficacy of oral rinsing solutions against SARS-CoV-2 has not been examined. Here, we evaluated the virucidal activity of different available oral rinses against SARS-CoV-2 under conditions mimicking nasopharyngeal secretions. Several formulations with significant SARS-CoV-2 inactivating properties in vitro support the idea that oral rinsing might reduce the viral load of saliva and could thus lower the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saliva/virologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 900-905, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620717

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of various mouthwashes on bacteremia development following a debonding process, which is performed after orthodontic treatment. Subjects and Methods: The study included patients who received fixed orthodontic treatment and were indicated for debonding. A total of 40 patients in four groups were selected for the study; no mouthwash (Group 1), mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate (Group 2), mouthwash containing essential-oils (Group 3), and mouthwash containing 7.5% povidone-iodine (Group 4). Before (T0) and following (T1) the debonding procedure, blood samples were obtained from the patients. Then, the blood samples were placed in blood culture bottles to investigate bacterial growth. Results: Based on the results of the study, it was determined that the blood samples obtained at T0did not indicate any bacterial growth. Furthermore, it was observed that the blood samples obtained at T1included Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aereus growth, respectively, in 4 patients from Group 1 while Streptococcus salivarius growth was observed in 1 patient from Group 3 in addition to Streptococcus mitis growth in 1 patient from Group 4. No bacterial growth was observed in Group 2. While the results obtained between Group 1 and Group 2 were statistically significant, no statistically significant difference was observed between other groups. Conclusions: Finally, it was determined that the mouthwash 0.12% chlorhexidine-gluconate was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. It can be concluded that this mouthwash can be used to decrease bacterial density in oral flora before debonding procedures.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Descolagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110081, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653736

RESUMO

Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. Soaps and detergents are explained to act by damaging viral spike glycoproteins (peplomers) or by washing out the virus through entrapment in the micelles. Technically, soaps come under a functional category of molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. We wonder why surfactants are still not tried for prophylaxis or therapy against COVID-19? That too when many of them have proven antiviral properties. Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections. Therefore, we postulate that surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy would be promising. We believe that our hypothesis would stimulate debate or new research exploring the possibility of surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy against COVID-19. The success of a surfactant-based technique would save the world from any such pandemic in the future too.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Micelas , Modelos Biológicos , Antissépticos Bucais/administração & dosagem , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Tensoativos/administração & dosagem
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 161, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the possible enhancement of the biofilm peeling effect of a sonic toothbrush following the use of an antimicrobial mouth rinse. METHODS: The biofilm at a noncontact site in the interdental area was treated by sound wave convection with the test solution or by immersion in the solution. The biofilm peeling effect was evaluated by determining the bacterial counts and performing morphological observations. A Streptococcus mutans biofilm was allowed to develop on composite resin discs by cultivation with stirring at 50 rpm for 72 h. The specimens were then placed in recesses located between plastic teeth and divided into an immersion group and a combination group. The immersion group was treated with phosphate buffer, chlorhexidine digluconate Peridex™ (CHX) mouth rinse or Listerine® Fresh Mint (EO) mouth rinse. The combination group was treated with CHX or EO and a sonic toothbrush. RESULTS: The biofilm thickness was reduced by approximately one-half compared with the control group. The combination treatment produced a 1 log reduction in the number of bacteria compared to the EO immersion treatment. No significant difference was observed in the biofilm peeling effect of the immersion group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of a sonic toothbrush and a mouth rinse enhanced the peeling of the biofilm that proliferates in places that are difficult to reach using mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Ultrassom/instrumentação , Aderência Bacteriana , Carga Bacteriana , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina , Humanos , Escovação Dentária/métodos
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 130, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a mouthwash containing Teucriumpolium herb on Streptococcus mutans in mouth. METHODS: This study was a randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trial, where we selected 22 volunteers (dental students) randomly and we divided them into two groups. The study had two phases. In each phase, one group acted as the intervention group, while the other one was the control group. Both the intervention and control groups were given the mouthwash with and without Teucriumpolium, respectively. S. mutans of saliva were measured before and after each phase to compare the effects of the mouthwashes. A three-week washout period was considered between the two phases. An independent two-sample t-test was utilized to compare the mean of S. mutans colonies. Additionally, we used a standard AB/BA crossover model to find the results of the treatment and the impact of carryover on the residual's biological effects. The significance level was considered 0.05 in this experiment. RESULTS: There is no significant difference observed between the two groups in the number of S. mutans before using the mouthwashes. When the mouthwash containing Teucriumpolium was used, there was a significant decrease in the number of S. mutans colonies in both phases' extract (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate the mouthwash containing aqueous extract of Teucrium polium can majorly reduce the colonization of S. mutans in human saliva. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ethical issues approved by the Ethics Committee of the Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences with the approval number of 937/9/31, IRCT code Number of IRCT2013121815842N1 and it was approved on 06/16/2014. The study was conducted in the period of September to November 2014.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Teucrium/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal , Plantas Medicinais , Streptococcus mutans/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e46-e52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850484

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It has been customary to explain the dentally beneficial effects of xylitol and certain other natural compound as lysozyme and seas salt in terms of microbiological effects only. Several studies have tested the use of natural ingredients, alcohol and fluoride free, in mouthwashes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combined mouthwash formulation containing natural antibiofilm agents in oral care wound healing after routinely oral surgery (extraction) procedures. METHODS: Patients were assigned following a blinded randomized controlled trial and divided into two groups, an experimental group (I = 15) and a control (placebo) group (II = 15). Any infectious complications, wound healing, plaque accumulation in the stitches, and presence of trismus and inflammation were evaluated at ten and thirty days after extraction procedure. Pain and swelling were evaluated using the well-known visual analogue scale (VAS) scale throughout study period following extraction. The mean difference in Pre and Post values were compared among the groups. The change in pre-post score was analyzed using the paired t test. RESULTS: An appreciable wound healing was seen in the experimental group when compared to the control sites, with no reported adverse effects. Four weeks postoperative patient's satisfaction level, to subjective and objective outcome measurements in documenting the result of a mouthwash treatment showed an interesting difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Since combined mouthwash formulations, containing natural/bioactive substances, could provide a cheap, safe and acceptable alternative in oral care, further studies will also be required to study these effects and their mechanism of action in detail.


Assuntos
Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Muramidase/uso terapêutico , Água do Mar , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilitol/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Método Simples-Cego , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104577, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606567

RESUMO

Although the effectiveness of some mouthwashes has been proven, phytotherapy is still a field to be explored as an alternative to commercial products. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the cytotoxicity and efficacy of two solutions based on citronella oil (CN), on S. aureus and C. albicans biofilms (in formation-adhesion phase and 24 h-biofilm formation) on acrylic resin and nickel-chromium alloy samples (one trademark of each material), compared to two alcohol-free commercial mouthwashes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two solutions containing CN at concentrations of 5x and 10x the minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) were prepared by microdilution. After contamination of the samples surfaces with these microorganisms, the mouthwashes (CN - 5x and 10x; CHX - 0,12% alcohol-free chlorhexidine and LT - alcohol-free essential oils) were evaluated. Mouthwash simulation was performed for 1 min at two moments, the first simulation after 4 h of microbial adhesion and 24 h-biofilm formation, and the second simulation, 6 h after the first simulation. For biofilm quantification, the number of cultured cells was evaluated by CFUs. The cytotoxicity assay was performed on HaCat epithelial cells and quantified by the MTT method. RESULTS: Tested solutions completely inhibited the growth of both microorganisms in the adhesion phase. All solutions showed inhibitory activity against 24 h-biofilm formation. However, CN led to greater microbial reduction, regardless of the surface of the sample. All solutions demonstrated a toxic effect. However, after serial dilution, CN presented the lowest cytotoxic effect. CONCLUSION: Citronella had a lower cytotoxic effect and a higher action compared to commercial solutions.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Prótese Dentária/microbiologia , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 313-324, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of gustatory stimulants of salivary secretion (GSSS) on Sjögren's syndrome patients' self-perception of xerostomia, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and salivary secretion. METHODS: A total of 110 Sjögren's syndrome patients were randomly allocated to be treated with either a malic acid lozenge or a citric acid mouthwash and then crossed over. Before and after the interventions, the Xerostomia Inventory 5 (SXI-5-PL) and the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14-PT) questionnaires (both in the Portuguese language) were administered to patients. Unstimulated, mechanical and gustatory-stimulated salivary flows were determined. Repeated measures and between-subject analyses were performed. Statistical significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: After the intervention and within each group, both GSSS elicited a reduction in the SXI-5-PL and OHIP-14-PT scores and an increase in salivary output, significant in the malic acid lozenge group. The malic acid treatment resulted in a greater effect size and percentage improvement than citric acid mouthwash. The malic acid lozenge also produced a significant greater salivary output than the citric acid rising solution. CONCLUSIONS: In Sjögren's syndrome patients, lozenges containing malic acid increased saliva production and xerostomia relief, resulting in improved quality of life.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/uso terapêutico , Malatos/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Saliva/fisiologia , Salivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malatos/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Sjogren/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 18(1): 1069-1076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499560

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The use of a mouthwash as an adjunct to mechanical plaque removal may be useful to improve oral hygiene. In this study, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)-based mouthwashes containing sodium fluoride and xylitol (X-PUR Opti-Rinse 0.05% NaF and X-PUR Opti-Rinse 0.2% NaF) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against important oral pathogens associated with dental caries, periodontal disease, and candidiasis. Moreover, their biocompatibility and anti-inflammatory properties were assessed.
Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity was determined using a disk-diffusion assay, a microplate dilution assay, and the European standard protocols for antiseptics. Microbicidal properties were assessed against both planktonic and biofilm cultures. An oral epithelial cell model was used to evaluate the biocompatibility of mouthwashes and their ability to attenuate cytokine secretion.
Results: Using three different antimicrobial assays, the CPC-based mouthwashes were found to be highly active against the tested microorganisms. More specifically, the mouthwashes met the European Standard NF EN 1040 and NF EN 1275 defined as a log10 reduction ≥ 5 (≥ 99.999% killing) for bacteria and log10 reduction ≥ 4 (≥ 99.99% killing) for fungi, respectively. The CPC-based mouthwashes were also bactericidal against biofilms of S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and P. gingivalis. Using an oral epithelial cell model, the CPC-based mouthwashes were found to be less cytotoxic than a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash used as control. Lastly, the CPC-based mouthwashes decreased the secretion of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells.
Conclusion: The CPC-based mouthwashes supplemented with sodium fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) and xylitol (10%) were highly active against important oral pathogens. Moreover, using an oral epithelial cell model, these mouthwashes were found to be biocompatible and to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Cárie Dentária , Placa Dentária , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Cetilpiridínio/farmacologia , Cloretos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Xilitol/farmacologia
14.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2019-2023, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813866

RESUMO

Inflammation and its mediators have an important role in gingivitis and periodontitis. Prostaglandin is one of the eicosanoid involved in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including periodontal diseases. Aspirin irreversibly acetylates cyclooxygenase and inactivate this enzyme responsible for the production of PGE2 that mediates pain and inflammation. The aim of the study was to prepare aspirin gel and mouthwash in 1% concentration and use it in patients with periodontal diseases during the non-surgical periodontal treatment and to assess its anti-inflammatory effects on salivary biomarkers PGE2, TNF-α, and nitric oxide. Thirty patients were divided into three treatment groups, standard treatment group, second received scaling and root planning with gel application of 1% aspirin, third received scaling and root planning followed by rinsing with 1% aspirin mouthwash. Results indicated that the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and nitric oxide in the groups of patients received gel treatment and mouthwash treatment was decreased to significant levels (p<0.001) as compared to the group of standard treatment. Aspirin gel was found to be more effective in reducing inflammatory biomarkers in contrast to aspirin mouthwash (p<0.001). We concluded from our study, that low concentration of aspirin oral preparations are highly active in reducing the inflammatory biomarkers associated with periodontal diseases.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Feminino , Géis/farmacologia , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/metabolismo , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e062, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859706

RESUMO

Laboratory evidence has demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Melaleuca alternifolia (MEL) against oral microorganisms. This randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial, compared the anti-biofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of MEL nanoparticles with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) on biofilm-free (BF) and biofilm-covered (BC) surfaces. Before each experimental period, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene practices for 72 hours. The 60 participants were randomly assigned to professional prophylaxis in two quadrants (Q1-Q3 or Q2-Q4), and rinsed with MEL or CHX for four days. The Quigley & Hein plaque index (QHPI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume, and participants' perceptions were assessed. CHX showed significantly lower mean QHPI on BF (2.65 ± 0.34 vs. 3.34 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) and BC surfaces (2.84 ± 0.37 vs. 3.37 ± 0.33, p < 0.05). Intragroup comparisons indicated reductions in GCF in all the groups, with significant differences only for CHX on BF surfaces (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). Based on individual perceptions, CHX had better taste and biofilm control, but resulted in a greater change in taste. Nevertheless, MEL demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects similar to those of CHX. Further clinical trials testing different protocols, concentrations and follow-up periods are required to establish its clinical application.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Placa Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Melaleuca/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 327, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The control of biofilm adherence on tooth surface has always been the keystone of periodontal therapeutic systems. However, prevalence of gingivitis suggest inadequacy of self-performed oral hygiene measures and need for adjunctive aid for mechanical plaque control. Oral rinses containing chlorhexidine, has been widely used however, with certain limitations. Herbal products have been used widely reflecting its action as alternative and complementary remedy. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacy of a Guava leaf extract based mouthrinse in patients with chronic generalized gingivitis as an adjunct to oral prophylaxis. METHODS: Sixty subjects (n = 20) in compliance with the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the 3 study groups i.e. Group A- 0.15%Guava mouth rinse, Group B- 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX) mouth rinse, Group C- Distilled water (placebo). All the participants received professional oral prophylaxis and were dispensed with experimental mouth rinses and instructed to use for period of 30 days. Clinical parameters such as gingival index, plaque index along with microbial colony forming units using plaque samples and antioxidant levels in saliva were estimated at baseline, 30 and 90 days' time intervals. RESULTS: All 3 groups showed gradual reduction in GI, PI and microbial counts. Considering the mean scores of recorded parameters at the scheduled time intervals, notable changes were observed between chlorhexidine and guava mouth rinse compared to placebo group. Although there was improvement in the antioxidant status in all study participants, yet there was no statistically significant difference observed. CONCLUSION: Guava mouth rinse can be used as an empirical adjunct to professional oral prophylaxis owing to its multifactorial properties and favourable acceptance. However, long term studies need to be conducted to validate its use for an extended period of time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The clinical trial has been prospectively registered on 17th February 2017 by the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2017/02/007898).


Assuntos
Antissépticos Bucais , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Extratos Vegetais , Psidium , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/análise , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengivite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Saliva/química , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Saliva/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 257-265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599542

RESUMO

Protozoa, such as Trichomonas tenax, Entamoeba gingivalis and Leishmania braziliensis, may be present in the mouth but their role in the pathophysiology of oral diseases is not clear yet. The use of various types of mouthrinses plays an important role in maintaining proper oral hygiene and in removing some of the microbial components from the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of selected mouthrinses on the reference strains of Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba gingivalis which can be a part of the oral cavity microbiota. Two standard strains Trichomonas tenax (ATCC 30207) and Entamoeba gingivalis (ATCC 30927) were used and metronidazole as a drug used in the treatment of infections caused by protozoa as well as fourteen agents used as mouthwashes were tested, with two pure compounds acting as mouthrinse ingredients, i.e. 20% benzocaine and 0.2% chlorhexidine, as well as 12 commercially-available formulas: Azulan, Colgate Plax Complete Care Sensitive, Corsodyl 0.2%, Curasept ADS 205, Dentosept, Dentosept A, Eludril Classic, Listerine Total Care, Octenidol, Oral-B Pro-Expert Clinic Line, Sylveco and Tinctura salviae. The protozoonicidal activity of the preparations was evaluated on the basis of the ratio of dead to living ratios after incubation in an incubator (37°C) for 1, 10 and 30 min. Protozoa were counted in the Bürker chamber in each case up to 100 cells in an optical microscope (over 400×). The criterion for the death of protozoa was the lack of movement and changes in the shape and characteristics of cell disintegration. The curves of activity were obtained after experiments conducted for 5­7 different solutions of each preparation. On the basis of the curves, the solution killing 50% of the population (CL50) was calculated. All mouthrinses tested in this work in their undiluted form acted lethally on both protozoa. Benzocaine, used as a local anesthetic, has etiotropic properties which can be useful for supporting antiprotozoal treatment. Chlorhexidine confirmed its high efficiency in the eradication of potentially pathogenic protozoa. The use of mouthrinses is an important complement for other procedures intended to maintain correct oral hygiene.


Assuntos
Entamoeba , Antissépticos Bucais , Trichomonas , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Entamoeba/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Dose Letal Mediana , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Trichomonas/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Biofouling ; 35(7): 796-804, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514534

RESUMO

This work evaluated the effects of commercial toothpastes and mouth rinses containing natural/herbal agents on biofilm viability, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and on enamel demineralization in vitro. Microcosm biofilm was produced on bovine enamel for 5 days and treated daily with: Orgânico natural® (toothpaste/mouth rinse), Boni Natural Menta & Malaleuca® (toothpaste/mouth rinse), Propolis & Myrrh® (toothpaste), Colgate Total 12 Clean Mint® (toothpaste, positive control), Malvatricin® Plus (mouth rinse), PerioGard® (mouth rinse, positive control) or PBS (negative control). Tom's Propolis & Myrrh® and Colgate Total 12® toothpastes and Malvatricin® Plus and PerioGard® mouth rinses significantly reduced biofilm viability (p < 0.05). Only PerioGard® had significant effects on biofilm thickness and EPS. Despite the indication that Tom's Propolis & Myrrh® significantly reduced lesion depth, only Colgate Total 12® significantly reduced mineral loss. Malvatricin® Plus significantly reduced mineral loss and lesion depth, as did PerioGard®. Some herbal products, Malvatricin® Plus and Tom's Propolis & Myrrh®, showed anticaries effects.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Desmineralização do Dente/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais , Animais , Bovinos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluoreto de Sódio
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 197, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed to evaluate the molecular level anticaries effect of different medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) glucosyltransferases (gtf). METHODS: A total of six natural sources named as Terminalia chebula (T.chebula), Psidium guajava (P.guajava), Azadirachta indica (A.indica) and Pongamia pinnata (P.pinnata); two essential oils, clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita) were selected as test samples. Hydroalcoholic plant extracts and essential oils were examined for their inhibitory potential on gtf isolated from S.mutans. Polyherbal mouth wash was prepared and its effect on gtf activity was compared with commercial chlorhexidine mouth wash (5%w/v). Enzyme kinetic study was carried out in order to explore the molecular mechanism of enzyme action. RESULTS: Out of six natural sources tested, A.indica has shown maximum inhibitory effect of 91.647% on gtf and T.chebula has shown IC50 of 1.091 mg/ml which is significant when compared to standard chlorhexidine. From the final result of kinetic analysis it was found that T.chebula, P.guajava and P.pinnata have show uncompetitive inhibition where as A.indica has shown non-competitive inhibition. Surprisingly, both essential oils have shown allosteric inhibition (sigmoidal response). The polyherbal moutwash has shown significant inhibitory potential on gtf (95.936%) when compared to commercial chlorhexidine mouthwash (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: All the tested samples have shown considerable gtf inhibitory action. Moreover polyherbal mouth wash has shown promising noncompetitive inhibitory activity against gtf and it could be the future formulation to combat dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosiltransferases/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Streptococcus mutans/enzimologia , Antibacterianos/química , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Cinética , Antissépticos Bucais/química , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Arch Oral Biol ; 107: 104512, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluatein vitro the antibacterial activity, the antibiofilm effect and the cytotoxic potential of mouthwashes containing Brazilian red propolis with or without fluoride. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) against S. mutans, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius and L. casei were determined for RPE mouthwashes. A cariogenic biofilm with the aforementioned bacteria was formed over cellulose membrane disks (N = 30, 13 mm), which were submitted for 1 min to the following mouthwashes: plain mouthwash base; 0.05% NaF; 0.8% RPE; 0.8% RPE + 0.05% NaF and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX). The bacterial viability and the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) were measured. Cytotoxic potential of the mouthwashes was also evaluated. For bacterial viability and EPS production, Mann-Withney and one-way ANOVA tests were performed followed by Tukey, with results considered significant when p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: MIC and MBC values of RPE mouthwashes ranged from 7.44 to 29.76 mg/mL and from 7.44 to ≥59.52 mg/mL, respectively, presenting better action against S. salivarius. RPE mouthwashes showed 44% of viable cells after 1 min of contact with fibroblasts. RPE (7.74) had the greatest reduction of viable total microorganisms and did not differ from the RPE + NaF (7.95) (p = 0.292). CHX (7.54) was the most effective in reducing Streptococcus spp, but did not differ from RPE (p = 0.521) and RPE + NaF (p = 0.238). There was no difference between the treatments regarding EPS production. CONCLUSION: RPE and RPE + NaF mouthwash showed similar antibacterial activity, toxicity level and antibiofilm effect compared to CHX.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antissépticos Bucais/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Brasil , Clorexidina , Fluoretos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
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