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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502335

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been identified as the pathogen responsible for the outbreak of a severe, rapidly developing pneumonia (Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19). The virus enzyme, called 3CLpro or main protease (Mpro), is essential for viral replication, making it a most promising target for antiviral drug development. Recently, we adopted the drug repurposing as appropriate strategy to give fast response to global COVID-19 epidemic, by demonstrating that the zonulin octapeptide inhibitor AT1001 (Larazotide acetate) binds Mpro catalytic domain. Thus, in the present study we tried to investigate the antiviral activity of AT1001, along with five derivatives, by cell-based assays. Our results provide with the identification of AT1001 peptide molecular framework for lead optimization step to develop new generations of antiviral agents of SARS-CoV-2 with an improved biological activity, expanding the chance for success in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/química , Peptídeos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Citomegalovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Herpesvirus Humano 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/química , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
2.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 105, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination programs have been launched worldwide to halt the spread of COVID-19. However, the identification of existing, safe compounds with combined treatment and prophylactic properties would be beneficial to individuals who are waiting to be vaccinated, particularly in less economically developed countries, where vaccine availability may be initially limited. METHODS: We used a data-driven approach, combining results from the screening of a large transcriptomic database (L1000) and molecular docking analyses, with in vitro tests using a lung organoid model of SARS-CoV-2 entry, to identify drugs with putative multimodal properties against COVID-19. RESULTS: Out of thousands of FDA-approved drugs considered, we observed that atorvastatin was the most promising candidate, as its effects negatively correlated with the transcriptional changes associated with infection. Atorvastatin was further predicted to bind to SARS-CoV-2's main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and was shown to inhibit viral entry in our lung organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: Small clinical studies reported that general statin use, and specifically, atorvastatin use, are associated with protective effects against COVID-19. Our study corroborrates these findings and supports the investigation of atorvastatin in larger clinical studies. Ultimately, our framework demonstrates one promising way to fast-track the identification of compounds for COVID-19, which could similarly be applied when tackling future pandemics.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Atorvastatina/química , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Linhagem Celular , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , RNA-Polimerase RNA-Dependente de Coronavírus/química , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Aprovação de Drogas , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Organoides/virologia , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Trifluoperazina/química , Trifluoperazina/farmacologia , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vesiculovirus/genética , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17810, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497279

RESUMO

Transporters in the human liver play a major role in the clearance of endo- and xenobiotics. Apical (canalicular) transporters extrude compounds to the bile, while basolateral hepatocyte transporters promote the uptake of, or expel, various compounds from/into the venous blood stream. In the present work we have examined the in vitro interactions of some key repurposed drugs advocated to treat COVID-19 (lopinavir, ritonavir, ivermectin, remdesivir and favipiravir), with the key drug transporters of hepatocytes. These transporters included ABCB11/BSEP, ABCC2/MRP2, and SLC47A1/MATE1 in the canalicular membrane, as well as ABCC3/MRP3, ABCC4/MRP4, SLC22A1/OCT1, SLCO1B1/OATP1B1, SLCO1B3/OATP1B3, and SLC10A1/NTCP, residing in the basolateral membrane. Lopinavir and ritonavir in low micromolar concentrations inhibited BSEP and MATE1 exporters, as well as OATP1B1/1B3 uptake transporters. Ritonavir had a similar inhibitory pattern, also inhibiting OCT1. Remdesivir strongly inhibited MRP4, OATP1B1/1B3, MATE1 and OCT1. Favipiravir had no significant effect on any of these transporters. Since both general drug metabolism and drug-induced liver toxicity are strongly dependent on the functioning of these transporters, the various interactions reported here may have important clinical relevance in the drug treatment of this viral disease and the existing co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Membro 11 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Comorbidade , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/antagonistas & inibidores , Lopinavir/química , Lopinavir/metabolismo , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ritonavir/química , Ritonavir/metabolismo , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade por Substrato
4.
Virol J ; 18(1): 182, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Teas and drinks containing extracts of Artemisia annua and Artemisia afra have been widely used in Africa in efforts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and fight COVID-19. METHODS: The plant extracts and Covid-Organics drink produced in Madagascar were tested for plaque reduction using both feline coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Their cytotoxicities were also investigated. RESULTS: Several extracts as well as Covid-Organics inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and FCoV infection at concentrations that did not affect cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Some plant extracts show inhibitory activity against FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. However, it remains unclear whether peak plasma concentrations in humans can reach levels needed to inhibit viral infection following consumption of teas or Covid-Organics. Clinical studies are required to evaluate the utility of these drinks for COVID-19 prevention or treatment of patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Felino/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Felino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaio de Placa Viral
5.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443674

RESUMO

This article presents the results of a study of electrochemical transformations in aqueous and aprotic media of 5-methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidinide l-arginine monohydrate (1a, Triazid) obtained by electrochemical methods and ESR spectroscopy. The effect of pH on the current and the reduction potential of 1a in an aqueous Britton-Robinson buffer solution was studied. It was found that 1a is irreversibly reduced in aqueous acidic media on a glassy carbon electrode in one stage with the participation of six electrons and the formation of 5-methyl-6-amino-7-oxo-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin. The electroreduction of 1a in DMF on a background of tetrabutylammonium salts proceeds in two stages, controlled by the kinetics of second-order reactions. In the first stage, the reduction of 1a is accompanied by protonation by the initial compound of the basic intermediate products formed in the electrode reaction (self-protonation mechanism). The second quasi-reversible stage of the electroreduction 1a corresponds to the formation of a dianion radical upon the reduction of the heterocyclic anion 5-methyl-6-nitro-7-oxo-4,7-dihydro-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin, which is formed upon the potentials of the first peak. The ESR spectrum of the radical dianion was recorded upon electroreduction of Triazid in the presence of Bu4NOH. The effect of the formation of ion pairs on the reversibility of the second peak of the 1a transformation is shown. A change in the rate and regioselectivity of the protonation of the dianion radical in the presence of Na+ and Li+ ions is assumed. The results of studying the electroreduction of 1a by ESR spectroscopy with a TEMPO trap make it possible to assume the simultaneous formation of both a nitroxyl radical and a radical with the spin density localized on the nitrogen at the 4 position of the six-membered ring.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Eletricidade , Eletroquímica , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Triazóis/química
7.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(17): 3349-3361, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403258

RESUMO

Treatment of HIV-1 has largely involved targeting viral enzymes using a cocktail of inhibitors. However, resistance to these inhibitors and toxicity in the long term have pushed the field to identify new therapeutic targets. To that end, -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting (-1 PRF) has gained attention as a potential node for therapeutic intervention. In this process, a ribosome moves one nucleotide backward in the course of translating a mRNA, revealing a new reading frame for protein synthesis. In HIV-1, -1 PRF allows the virus to regulate the ratios of enzymatic and structural proteins as needed for correct viral particle assembly. Two RNA structural elements are central to -1 PRF in HIV: a slippery sequence and a highly conserved stable hairpin called the HIV-1 frameshifting stimulatory signal (FSS). Dysregulation of -1 PRF is deleterious for the virus. Thus, -1 PRF is an attractive target for new antiviral development. It is important to note that HIV-1 is not the only virus exploiting -1 PRF for regulating production of its proteins. Coronaviruses, including the COVID-19 pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2, also rely on -1 PRF. In SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, -1 PRF is required for synthesis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and several other nonstructural proteins. Coronaviruses employ a more complex RNA structural element for regulating -1 PRF called a pseudoknot. The purpose of this Account is primarily to review the development of molecules targeting HIV-1 -1 PRF. These approaches are case studies illustrating how the entire pipeline from screening to the generation of high-affinity leads might be implemented. We consider both target-based and function-based screening, with a particular focus on our group's approach beginning with a resin-bound dynamic combinatorial library (RBDCL) screen. We then used rational design approaches to optimize binding affinity, selectivity, and cellular bioavailability. Our tactic is, to the best of our knowledge, the only study resulting in compounds that bind specifically to the HIV-1 FSS RNA and reduce infectivity of laboratory and drug-resistant strains of HIV-1 in human cells. Lessons learned from strategies targeting -1 PRF HIV-1 might provide solutions in the development of antivirals in areas of unmet medical need. This includes the development of new frameshift-altering therapies for SARS-CoV-2, approaches to which are very recently beginning to appear.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/química , Técnicas de Química Combinatória , Mudança da Fase de Leitura do Gene Ribossômico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439920

RESUMO

In 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a severe respiratory disease that is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease has been associated with high mortality rate, especially in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This could be attributed to dysregulated immune responses and severe systemic inflammation in COVID-19 patients. The use of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and modulation of the immune responses could be a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Studies have shown that natural phenolic compounds have several pharmacological properties, including anticoronavirus and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, this review discusses the dual action of these natural products from the perspective of applicability at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3313-3330, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366663

RESUMO

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the world, resulting in a pandemic COVID-19 which is a human zoonotic disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) strain thought to have originated in wild or captive bats in the initial COVID outbreak region. The global COVID-19 outbreak started in Guangdong Province, China's southernmost province. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been hampered by the sheer number of infected people, many of whom need intensive care before succumbing to the disease. The epidemic is being handled by a combination of disease control by public health interventions and compassionate treatment for those who have been impacted. There is no clear anti-COVID-19 medication available at this time. However, the need to find medications that can turn the tide has led to the development of a number of investigational drugs as potential candidates for improving outcomes, especially in the severely and critically ill. Although many of these adjunctive medications are still being studied in clinical trials, professional organizations have attempted to define the circumstances in which their use is deemed off-label or compassionate. It is important to remind readers that new information about COVID-19's clinical features, treatment options, and outcomes is released on a regular basis. The mainstay of treatment remains optimized supportive care, and the therapeutic effectiveness of the subsequent agents is still being studied.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Modelos Moleculares , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Nanopartículas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacinação
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443484

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly spread on a global scale, affecting the economy and public health systems throughout the world. In recent years, peptide-based therapeutics have been widely studied and developed to treat infectious diseases, including viral infections. Herein, the antiviral effects of the lysine linked dimer des-Cys11, Lys12,Lys13-(pBthTX-I)2K ((pBthTX-I)2K)) and derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 are reported. The lead peptide (pBthTX-I)2K and derivatives showed attractive inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 (EC50 = 28-65 µM) and mostly low cytotoxic effect (CC50 > 100 µM). To shed light on the mechanism of action underlying the peptides' antiviral activity, the Main Protease (Mpro) and Papain-Like protease (PLpro) inhibitory activities of the peptides were assessed. The synthetic peptides showed PLpro inhibition potencies (IC50s = 1.0-3.5 µM) and binding affinities (Kd = 0.9-7 µM) at the low micromolar range but poor inhibitory activity against Mpro (IC50 > 10 µM). The modeled binding mode of a representative peptide of the series indicated that the compound blocked the entry of the PLpro substrate toward the protease catalytic cleft. Our findings indicated that non-toxic dimeric peptides derived from the Bothropstoxin-I have attractive cellular and enzymatic inhibitory activities, thereby suggesting that they are promising prototypes for the discovery and development of new drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Dimerização , Papaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Papaína/química , Papaína/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4996, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404793

RESUMO

Between 10 and 20 million people worldwide are infected with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Despite causing life-threatening pathologies there is no therapeutic regimen for this deltaretrovirus. Here, we screened a library of integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) candidates built around several chemical scaffolds to determine their effectiveness in limiting HTLV-1 infection. Naphthyridines with substituents in position 6 emerged as the most potent compounds against HTLV-1, with XZ450 having highest efficacy in vitro. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy we visualised XZ450 as well as the clinical HIV-1 INSTIs raltegravir and bictegravir bound to the active site of the deltaretroviral intasome. The structures reveal subtle differences in the coordination environment of the Mg2+ ion pair involved in the interaction with the INSTIs. Our results elucidate the binding of INSTIs to the HTLV-1 intasome and support their use for pre-exposure prophylaxis and possibly future treatment of HTLV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Infecções por HTLV-I/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/efeitos dos fármacos , Amidas , Domínio Catalítico , Deltaretrovirus , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrase de HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética , Humanos , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Piperazinas , Piridonas , Proteínas Recombinantes
12.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(9): 1188-1198, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400835

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest and concern will continue to emerge for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic. To map mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein that affect binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, we applied in vitro evolution to affinity-mature the RBD. Multiple rounds of random mutagenic libraries of the RBD were sorted against decreasing concentrations of ACE2, resulting in the selection of higher affinity RBD binders. We found that mutations present in more transmissible viruses (S477N, E484K and N501Y) were preferentially selected in our high-throughput screen. Evolved RBD mutants include prominently the amino acid substitutions found in the RBDs of B.1.620, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B1.351 (Beta) and P.1 (Gamma) variants. Moreover, the incidence of RBD mutations in the population as presented in the GISAID database (April 2021) is positively correlated with increased binding affinity to ACE2. Further in vitro evolution increased binding by 1,000-fold and identified mutations that may be more infectious if they evolve in the circulating viral population, for example, Q498R is epistatic to N501Y. We show that our high-affinity variant RBD-62 can be used as a drug to inhibit infection with SARS-CoV-2 and variants Alpha, Beta and Gamma in vitro. In a model of SARS-CoV-2 challenge in hamster, RBD-62 significantly reduced clinical disease when administered before or after infection. A 2.9 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the high-affinity complex of RBD-62 and ACE2, including all rapidly spreading mutations, provides a structural basis for future drug and vaccine development and for in silico evaluation of known antibodies.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Desenho de Fármacos , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Elife ; 102021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340747

RESUMO

The discovery of a drug requires over a decade of intensive research and financial investments - and still has a high risk of failure. To reduce this burden, we developed the NICEdrug.ch resource, which incorporates 250,000 bioactive molecules, and studied their enzymatic metabolic targets, fate, and toxicity. NICEdrug.ch includes a unique fingerprint that identifies reactive similarities between drug-drug and drug-metabolite pairs. We validated the application, scope, and performance of NICEdrug.ch over similar methods in the field on golden standard datasets describing drugs and metabolites sharing reactivity, drug toxicities, and drug targets. We use NICEdrug.ch to evaluate inhibition and toxicity by the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil, and suggest avenues to alleviate its side effects. We propose shikimate 3-phosphate for targeting liver-stage malaria with minimal impact on the human host cell. Finally, NICEdrug.ch suggests over 1300 candidate drugs and food molecules to target COVID-19 and explains their inhibitory mechanism for further experimental screening. The NICEdrug.ch database is accessible online to systematically identify the reactivity of small molecules and druggable enzymes with practical applications in lead discovery and drug repurposing.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/química , Fluoruracila/metabolismo , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Fluxo de Trabalho
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361576

RESUMO

Prunus mahaleb L. fruit has long been used in the production of traditional liqueurs. The fruit also displayed scavenging and reducing activity, in vitro. The present study focused on unravelling peripheral and central protective effects, antimicrobial but also anti-COVID-19 properties exerted by the water extract of P. mahaleb. Anti-inflammatory effects were studied in isolated mouse colons exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neuroprotection, measured as a blunting effect on hydrogen-peroxide-induced dopamine turnover, was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Antimicrobial effects were tested against different Gram+ and Gram- bacterial strains. Whereas anti-COVID-19 activity was studied in lung adenocarcinoma H1299 cells, where the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was measured after extract treatment. The bacteriostatic effects induced on Gram+ and Gram- strains, together with the inhibition of COX-2, TNFα, HIF1α, and VEGFA in the colon, suggest the potential of P. mahaleb water extract in contrasting the clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis. The inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced DOPAC/DA ratio indicates promising neuroprotective effects. Finally, the downregulation of the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in H1299 cells, suggests the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus entry in the human host. Overall, the results support the valorization of the local cultivation of P. mahaleb.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prunus/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360797

RESUMO

A novel series of N-substituted cis- and trans-3-aryl-4-(diethoxyphosphoryl)azetidin-2-ones were synthesized by the Kinugasa reaction of N-methyl- or N-benzyl-(diethyoxyphosphoryl)nitrone and selected aryl alkynes. Stereochemistry of diastereoisomeric adducts was established based on vicinal H3-H4 coupling constants in azetidin-2-one ring. All the obtained azetidin-2-ones were evaluated for the antiviral activity against a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses. Azetidin-2-one trans-11f showed moderate inhibitory activity against human coronavirus (229E) with EC50 = 45 µM. The other isomer cis-11f was active against influenza A virus H1N1 subtype (EC50 = 12 µM by visual CPE score; EC50 = 8.3 µM by TMS score; MCC > 100 µM, CC50 = 39.9 µM). Several azetidin-2-ones 10 and 11 were tested for their cytostatic activity toward nine cancerous cell lines and several of them appeared slightly active for Capan-1, Hap1 and HCT-116 cells values of IC50 in the range 14.5-97.9 µM. Compound trans-11f was identified as adjuvant of oxacillin with significant ability to enhance the efficacy of this antibiotic toward the highly resistant S. aureus strain HEMSA 5. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that enantiomer (3R,4S)-11f can be responsible for the promising activity due to the potency in displacing oxacillin at ß-lactamase, thus protecting the antibiotic from undesirable biotransformation.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/química , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Azetidinas/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Citostáticos/química , Citostáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oxacilina/química , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estereoisomerismo , beta-Lactamases/química
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16307, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381116

RESUMO

Structure-based drug design targeting the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been greatly facilitated by available virus-related protein structures. However, there is an urgent need for effective, safe small-molecule drugs to control the spread of the virus and variants. While many efforts are devoted to searching for compounds that selectively target individual proteins, we investigated the potential interactions between eight proteins related to SARS-CoV-2 and more than 600 compounds from a traditional Chinese medicine which has proven effective at treating the viral infection. Our original ensemble docking and cooperative docking approaches, followed by a total of over 16-micorsecond molecular simulations, have identified at least 9 compounds that may generally bind to key SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Further, we found evidence that some of these compounds can simultaneously bind to the same target, potentially leading to cooperative inhibition to SARS-CoV-2 proteins like the Spike protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. These results not only present a useful computational methodology to systematically assess the anti-viral potential of small molecules, but also point out a new avenue to seek cooperative compounds toward cocktail therapeutics to target more SARS-CoV-2-related proteins.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Gatos , Biologia Computacional , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6614000, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337036

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have shown the ability to inhibit in vitro viral replications of coronaviridae viruses such as SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. However, clinical trial outcomes have been disparate, suggesting that CQ and HCQ antiviral mechanisms are not fully understood. Based on three-dimensional structural similarities between HCQ and the known ACE2 specific inhibitor MLN-4760, we compared their modulation on ACE2 activity. Here we describe, for the first time, in a cell-free in vitro system that HCQ directly and dose-dependently inhibits the activity of recombinant human ACE2, with a potency similar to the MLN-4760. Further analysis suggests that HCQ binds to a noncompetitive site other than the one occupied by MLN-4760. We also determined that the viral spike glycoprotein segment that comprises the RBD segment has no effect on ACE2 activity but unexpectedly was able to partially reverse the inhibition induced by HCQ but not that by MLN-4760. In summary, here we demonstrate the direct inhibitory action of HCQ over the activity of the enzyme ACE2. Then, by determining the activity of ACE2, we reveal that the interaction with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 leads to structural changes that at least partially displace the interaction of the said enzyme with HCQ. These results may help to explain why the effectiveness of HCQ in clinical trials has been so variable. Additionally, this knowledge could be used for to develop techniques for the detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Antivirais , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/química , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/química , Hidroxicloroquina/metabolismo , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Leucina/análogos & derivados , Leucina/química , Leucina/metabolismo , Leucina/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
19.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2385-2389, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351742

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inspires the development of effective inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction. A chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Phellinus pini led to the isolation of five aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids including four new ones, named piniterpenoids A-D (1-4), as well as three known lignans. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR. All of the aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction, with IC50 values ranging from 64.5 to 99.1 µM. A molecular docking study showed the disruption of the interaction of compound 1 via hydrogen interactions with Arg403, Asp405, and Arg408 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Arg393 and His34 residues of ACE2. These results suggested that aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids might be useful in developing agents for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carpóforos/química , Phellinus/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436248

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic has led to an urgent need for novel drug discovery and potential therapeutics for Sars-CoV-2 infected patients. Although Remdesivir and the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone are currently on the market for treatment, Remdesivir lacks full efficacy and thus, more drugs are needed. This review was conducted through literature search of PubMed, MDPI, Google Scholar and Scopus. Upon review of existing literature, it is evident that marine organisms harbor numerous active metabolites with anti-viral properties that serve as potential leads for COVID-19 therapy. Inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) naturally found in marine bacteria and sponges have been shown to prevent viral entry, induce the innate immune response, and downregulate human ACE-2. Furthermore, several marine metabolites isolated from diverse sponges and algae have been shown to inhibit main protease (Mpro), a crucial protein required for the viral life cycle. Sulfated polysaccharides have also been shown to have potent anti-viral effects due to their anionic properties and high molecular weight. Likewise, select marine sponges produce bromotyrosines which have been shown to prevent viral entry, replication and protein synthesis. The numerous compounds isolated from marine resources demonstrate significant potential against COVID-19. The present review for the first time highlights marine bioactive compounds, their sources, and their anti-viral mechanisms of action, with a focus on potential COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Organismos Aquáticos/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Humanos , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Polifosfatos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
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