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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 44, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testa color is an important trait of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) which is closely related with the nutritional and commercial value. Pink and red are main color of peanut testa. However, the genetic mechanism of testa color regulation in peanut is not fully understood. To elucidate a clear picture of peanut testa regulatory model, samples of pink cultivar (Y9102), red cultivar (ZH12), and two RNA pools (bulk red and bulk pink) constructed from F4 lines of Y9102 x ZH12 were compared through a bulk RNA-seq approach. RESULTS: A total of 2992 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among which 317 and 1334 were up-regulated and 225 and 1116 were down-regulated in the bulk red-vs-bulk pink RNA pools and Y9102-vs-ZH12, respectively. KEGG analysis indicates that these genes were divided into significantly enriched metabolic pathways including phenylpropanoid, flavonoid/anthocyanin, isoflavonoid and lignin biosynthetic pathways. Notably, the expression of the anthocyanin upstream regulatory genes PAL, CHS, and CHI was upregulated in pink and red testa peanuts, indicating that their regulation may occur before to the advent of testa pigmentation. However, the differential expression of down-stream regulatory genes including F3H, DFR, and ANS revealed that deepening of testa color not only depends on their gene expression bias, but also linked with FLS inhibition. In addition, the down-regulation of HCT, IFS, HID, 7-IOMT, and I2'H genes provided an alternative mechanism for promoting anthocyanin accumulation via perturbation of lignin and isoflavone pathways. Furthermore, the co-expression module of MYB, bHLH, and WRKY transcription factors also suggested a fascinating transcriptional activation complex, where MYB-bHLH could utilize WRKY as a co-option during the testa color regulation by augmenting anthocyanin biosynthesis in peanut. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal candidate functional genes and potential strategies for the manipulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis to improve peanut varieties with desirable testa color.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Arachis , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Arachis/genética , Arachis/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lignina/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cor , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677772

RESUMO

Recently, functional foods have been a subject of great interest in dietetics owing not only to their nutritional value but rather their myriad of health benefits. Moreover, an increase in consumers' demands for such valuable foods warrants the development in not only production but rather tools of quality and nutrient assessment. Bee products, viz., pollen (BP) and bread, are normally harvested from the flowering plants with the aid of bees. BP is further subjected to a fermentation process in bee hives to produce the more valuable and bioavailable BB. Owing to their nutritional and medicinal properties, bee products are considered as an important food supplements rich in macro-, micro-, and phytonutrients. Bee products are rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, fatty acids, and minerals in addition to a myriad of phytonutrients such as phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, volatiles, and carotenoids. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) of improved lipid profile such as linoleic, linolenic, and oleic were identified in BP and BB. This work aims to present a holistic overview of BP and BB in the context of their composition and analysis, and to highlight optimized extraction techniques to maximize their value and future applications in nutraceuticals.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Pão , Abelhas , Animais , Pão/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Pólen/química , Vitaminas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
3.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677907

RESUMO

Major progress has been made in cancer research; however, cancer remains one of the most important health-related burdens. Sericulture importance is no longer limited to the textile industry, but its by-products, such as silk fibroin or mulberry, exhibit great impact in the cancer research area. Fibroin, the pivotal compound that is found in silk, owns superior biocompatibility and biodegradability, representing one of the most important biomaterials. Numerous studies have reported its successful use as a drug delivery system, and it is currently used to develop three-dimensional tumor models that lead to a better understanding of cancer biology and play a great role in the development of novel antitumoral strategies. Moreover, sericin's cytotoxic effect on various tumoral cell lines has been reported, but also, it has been used as a nanocarrier for target therapeutic agents. On the other hand, mulberry compounds include various bioactive elements that are well known for their antitumoral activities, such as polyphenols or anthocyanins. In this review, the latest progress of using sericultural by-products in cancer therapy is discussed by highlighting their notable impact in developing novel effective drug strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Bombyx , Fibroínas , Neoplasias , Animais , Humanos , Bombyx/metabolismo , Antocianinas , Seda , Fibroínas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677927

RESUMO

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic pigments that give food varied colors. Because of their high antioxidant activities, the consumption of anthocyanins has been associated with the benefit of preventing various chronic diseases. However, due to natural evolution or human selection, anthocyanins are found only in certain species. Additionally, the insufficient levels of anthocyanins in the most common foods also limit the optimal benefits. To solve this problem, considerable work has been done on germplasm improvement of common species using novel gene editing or transgenic techniques. This review summarized the recent advances in the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis and focused on the progress in using the CRISPR/Cas gene editing or multigene overexpression methods to improve plant food anthocyanins content. In response to the concerns of genome modified food, the future trends in developing anthocyanin-enriched plant food by using novel transgene or marker-free genome modified technologies are discussed. We hope to provide new insights and ideas for better using natural products like anthocyanins to promote human health.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Alimentos , Pesquisa , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677933

RESUMO

Microgreens, a hypothesized term used for the emerging food product that is developed from various commercial food crops, such as vegetables, grains, and herbs, consist of developed cotyledons along with partially expanded true leaves. These immature plants are harvested between 7-21 days (depending on variety). They are treasured for their densely packed nutrients, concentrated flavors, immaculate and tender texture as well as for their vibrant colors. In recent years, microgreens are on demand from high-end restaurant chefs and nutritional researchers due to their potent flavors, appealing sensory qualities, functionality, abundance in vitamins, minerals, and other bioactive compounds, such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, carotenoids, folate, tocotrienols, phylloquinones, anthocyanins, glucosinolates, etc. These qualities attracted research attention for use in the field of human health and nutrition. Increasing public concern regarding health has prompted humans to turn to microgreens which show potential in the prevention of malnutrition, inflammation, and other chronic ailments. This article focuses on the applications of microgreens in the prevention of the non-communicable diseases that prevails in the current generation, which emerged due to sedentary lifestyles, thus laying a theoretical foundation for the people creating awareness to switch to the recently introduced category of vegetable and providing great value for the development of health-promoting diets with microgreens.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Verduras , Humanos , Vitaminas , Plantas , Carotenoides/análise
6.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678243

RESUMO

A frequent chronic liver condition across the world is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oxidative stress caused by lipid accumulation is generally considered to be the main cause of NAFLD. Anthocyanins can effectively inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species and improve oxidative stress. In this work, six major anthocyanins were separated from purple corncob by semi-preparative liquid chromatography. The effects of the 6 kinds of anthocyanins against NAFLD were investigated using a free fatty acid (FFA)-induced cell model. The results showed that peonidin 3-O-glucoside (P3G) can significantly reduce lipid accumulation in the NAFLD cell model. The treatment with P3G also inhibited oxidative stress via inhibiting the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion, increasing glutathione levels, and enhancing the activities of SOD, GPX, and CAT. Further studies unveiled that treatment with P3G not only alleviated inflammation but also improved the depletion of mitochondrial content and damage of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain developed concomitantly in the cell model. P3G upregulated transcription factor EB (TFEB)-mediated lysosomal function and activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα)-mediated peroxisomal lipid oxidation by interacting with PPARα possibly. Overall, this study added to our understanding of the protective effects of purple corn anthocyanins against NAFLD and offered suggestions for developing functional foods containing these anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo
7.
Food Funct ; 14(2): 639-652, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594512

RESUMO

Anthocyanins have multiple health benefits. However, they are prone to degradation during gastrointestinal digestion, impeding their utilization. Various encapsulation systems have been proposed to improve their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review aims to provide a systematic evaluation and meta-analysis of published studies examining the effect of microencapsulation on the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins. A comprehensive and systematic literature search of three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) was conducted. Studies were selected according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria and were reviewed independently by two investigators. Overall, 34 articles were included in the systematic review and 24 were included in the meta-analysis. The fold changes in bioaccessibility between encapsulated and non-encapsulated anthocyanins from eligible studies were calculated. The median and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the fold changes for spray-drying (median 1.23, 95% CI 0.91-1.92), freeze-drying (median 1.19, 95% CI 0.61-1.28), simple coacervation (median 1.80, 95% CI 1.41-3.20), and complex coacervation (median 1.61, 95% CI 0.21-25.00) were calculated. Simple coacervation showed a promising protection against degradation during in vitro digestion. However, when a large number of anthocyanins cannot be released from the microparticles during digestion, encapsulation impedes the bioaccessibility of anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Liofilização
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675098

RESUMO

During the development of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis), the flesh appeared light pink at the initial stage, the pink faded at the fastest growth stage, and gradually changed into green. At the maturity stage, it showed bright yellow. In order to analyze the mechanism of flesh color change at the metabolic and gene transcription level, the relationship between color and changes of metabolites and key enzyme genes was studied. In this study, five time points (20 d, 58 d, 97 d, 136 d, and 175 d) of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit were used for flavonoid metabolites detection and transcriptome, and four time points (20 d, 97 d, 136 d, and 175 d) were used for targeted detection of carotenoids. Through the analysis of the content changes of flavonoid metabolites, it was found that the accumulation of pelargonidin and cyanidin and their respective anthocyanin derivatives was related to the pink flesh of young fruit, but not to delphinidin and its derivative anthocyanins. A total of 140 flavonoid compounds were detected in the flesh, among which anthocyanin and 76% of the flavonoid compounds had the highest content at 20 d, and began to decrease significantly at 58 d until 175 d, resulting in the pale-pink fading of the flesh. At the mature stage of fruit development (175 d), the degradation of chlorophyll and the increase of carotenoids jointly led to the change of flesh color from green to yellow, in addition to chlorophyll degradation. In kiwifruit flesh, 10 carotenoids were detected, with none of them being linear carotenoids. During the whole development process of kiwifruit, the content of ß-carotene was always higher than that of α-carotene. In addition, ß-cryptoxanthin was the most-accumulated pigment in the kiwifruit at 175 d. Through transcriptome analysis of kiwifruit flesh, seven key transcription factors for flavonoid biosynthesis and ten key transcription factors for carotenoid synthesis were screened. This study was the first to analyze the effect of flavonoid accumulation on the pink color of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit. The high proportion of ß-cryptoxanthin in yellow-fleshed kiwifruit was preliminarily found. This provides information on metabolite accumulation for further revealing the pink color of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit, and also provides a new direction for the study of carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in yellow-fleshed kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Antocianinas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Frutas/metabolismo , Actinidia/metabolismo , beta-Criptoxantina/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 446: 130674, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603422

RESUMO

The reuse of waste water (WW) in agriculture is challenging as a potential strategy for sustainable agriculture development. However, its high content of heavy metals may cause damage to ecosystems. The property of biochar (BC) to minimize heavy metals accumulation into the soil was studied taking as a case study peppermint (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) irrigated with WW. Application of BC and WW, separately, promoted height, shoot number, crown diameter, internode length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, fresh (FW) and dry aerial parts weights (DW), root FW and root DW of peppermint. Also an increment in canopy diameter was observed. BC application considerably increased N, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, while WW increased N, P, K and Fe levels. Irrigation of peppermint with WW led to an increase of chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, Chl a+b, carotenoids, anthocyanins, photosynthetic rate, transpiration, stomatal conductance, relative water content (RWC), and crop yield. On the other hand, BC application led to a decrease of Cd and Pb accumulation in plants. BC and WW application, separately, increased the essential oil content, the total phenol content, and the antioxidant capacity. Regardless of BC levels, irrigation of plants with WW decreased the percentage of menthone, menthofuran, isomenthone and pulegone in the essential oil, and increased the percentage of menthol and carvone. Similarly, BC application raised the percentage of menthol, and decreased that of pulegone. Overall, the application of BC in the culture medium is able to decrease the heavy metal concentration and improves the essential oil quality and quantity of peppermint under WW irrigation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Óleos Voláteis , Mentol , Mentha piperita , Antocianinas , Ecossistema
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 302: 120375, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604053

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for the development of intelligent active packaging films to maintain and monitor the freshness of meat food. Herein, nano Co-based MOF (ZIF67) with ammonia-sensitive and antimicrobial functions was successfully synthesized and then integrated into cellulose acetate (CA) matrix to prepare intelligent active films. The impacts of ZIF67 incorporation on the structure, physical and functional characteristics of CA film were fully investigated. The results demonstrated that the ZIF67 nanofillers were evenly dispersed in CA matrix, resulting in remarkable improvement on tensile strength, toughness, thermal stability, UV barrier, hydrophobicity and water vapor barrier ability of CA film. Furthermore, the prepared CA/ZIF67 films exhibited superb antimicrobial and ammonia-sensitive functions. The CA/ZIF67 intelligent films turned their color from blue at beginning to brown during progressive spoilage of shrimp. These results revealed that the CA/ZIF67 films with excellent antimicrobial and ammonia-sensitive functions could be applied in intelligent active food packaging.


Assuntos
Amônia , Anti-Infecciosos , Amônia/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Carne , Embalagem de Alimentos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antocianinas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
11.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112258, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596169

RESUMO

In this study the effect of the direct application of different concentrations of boron in grape bunches on the phytochemical composition of grapes and wine was evaluated. The experiment was carried out by direct application to the grape bunch of different concentrations (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g/L) of boron solution, in two consecutive vintages, 2018 and 2019. The wines were elaborated by the same microvinification method. Histological analyzes by optical microscopy and phenolic profile by HPLC-DAD were performed on the grapes. The wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and ICP-MS for phenolic profile and elemental composition, respectively. Histological analyzes of the grape skin showed an increase in the presence of polyphenols in the cellular tissue of grapes treated with different concentrations of boron when compared to the control samples in both vintages. The addition of boron influenced the phenolic profile of the grapes, resulting in an increase in the content of anthocyanins and flavanols. Regarding to wines, the treatment of grapes by direct application of boron significantly influenced the chemical composition of wines. In 2018, the application of 2 g/L of boron showed a significant increase in the concentration of malvidin and delphinidin in wines. The application of 1 g/L showed the highest concentration of malvidin, delphinidin and peonidin in the 2019 vintage. The boron content increased in the wine samples according to the boron concentrations applied to the grape. Thus, it is possible to produce chemically distinct wines with the direct application of boron to the grapes.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Boro/análise , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
12.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112277, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596187

RESUMO

Natural pigments are bioactive compounds that can present health-promoting bioactivities in the human body. Due to their strong coloring properties, these compounds have been widely used as color additives as an alternative to artificial colorants. However, since these pigments are unstable under certain conditions, such as the presence of light, oxygen, and heat, the use of complexation and encapsulation techniques with biopolymers is in demand. Moreover, some functional properties can be achieved by using natural pigments-biopolymers complexes in food matrices. The complexation and encapsulation of natural pigments with biopolymers consist of forming a complex with the aim to make these compounds less susceptible to oxidative and degrading agents, and can also be used to improve their solubility in different media. This review aims to discuss different techniques that have been used over the last years to create natural pigment-biopolymers complexes, as well as the recent advances, limitations, effects, and possible applications of these complexes in foods. Moreover, the understanding of thermodynamic parameters between natural pigments and biopolymers is very important regarding the complex formation and their use in food systems. In this sense, thermodynamic techniques that can be used to determine binding parameters between natural pigments and potential wall materials, as well as their applications, advantages, and limitations are presented in this work. Several studies have shown an improvement in many aspects regarding the use of these complexes, including increased thermal and storage stability. Nonetheless, data regarding the biological effects on the human body and the sensory acceptance of natural pigments-biopolymers complexes in food systems are scarce in the literature.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Betalaínas , Humanos , Antocianinas/química , Betalaínas/química , Carotenoides , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Biopolímeros
13.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615569

RESUMO

In response to stress factors, plants produce a wide range of biologically active substances, from a group of secondary metabolites, which are applied in medicine and health prophylaxis. Chitosan is a well-known elicitor affecting secondary metabolism in plants, but its effect on the phytochemical profile of Plectranthus amboinicus has not been assessed yet. In the present experiment, the effectiveness of the foliar application of two forms of chitosan (chitosan suspension or chitosan lactate) was compared in order to evaluate their potential to induce the accumulation of selected polyphenolic compounds in the aboveground parts of P. amboinicus. It was shown that chitosan lactate had substantially higher elicitation efficiency, as the use of this form exerted a beneficial effect on the analysed quality parameters of the raw material, especially the content of selected polyphenolic compounds (total content of polyphenols, flavonols, anthocyanins, and caffeic acid derivatives) and the free radical-scavenging activity of extracts from elicited plants. Concurrently, it had no phytotoxic effects. Hence, chitosan lactate-based elicitation can be an effective method for optimisation of the production of high-quality P. amboinicus raw material characterised by an increased concentration of health-promoting and antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Plectranthus , Quitosana/farmacologia , Plectranthus/química , Antocianinas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615650

RESUMO

Winemaking involves contact at different stages with atmospheric oxygen, the consumption of which determines its final properties. The chemical analysis of red wines subjected to consecutive cycles of air saturation has been extensively researched; however, the capacity to consume different doses of oxygen before bottling is an aspect that has been little studied. In this work, the effect of saturation of different levels of oxygen on the final characteristics of different wines made from Tempranillo and Garnacha grape extracts was studied. For this purpose, the wines were subjected to controlled oxygen saturation levels to simulate their possible oxygenation before bottling. The only difference was the phenolic composition of grape extracts that were reconstituted under the same conditions to avoid the interferences inherent to the fermentation process and the additives added in the winery. The kinetics of oxygen consumption was then evaluated and its effect on the color, antioxidant capacity, and phenols of three different wines was analyzed. This work shows the relationship between the oxidation state of wine and changes in its chemical composition. In addition, it provides insight into the effect of oxygen consumption before bottling on the properties of wines subjected to high and single doses of oxygen.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Fenóis/química , Vitis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Oxigênio/química , Cor
15.
Molecules ; 28(1)2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36615653

RESUMO

The Clematis tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. is a wild flowering plant that is most widely distributed on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with beautiful, brightly colored flowers and good ornamental properties and adaptability. In diverse natural environments, the blossom color of C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. varies greatly, although it is unclear what causes this diversity. It was examined using UPLC-MS/MS and transcriptome sequencing for the investigation of various compounds, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and flavonoid biosynthesis-related pathways in two flowers in two ecological settings. The results showed that a total of 992 metabolites were detected, of which 425 were differential metabolites, mainly flavonoid metabolites associated with its floral color. The most abundant flavonoids, flavonols and anthocyanin metabolites in the G type were cynaroside, isoquercitrin and peonidin-3-O-glucoside, respectively. Flavonoids that differed in multiplicity in G type and N type were rhoifolin, naringin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, chrysoeriol and catechin. Rhoifolin and chrysoeriol, produced in flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, two flavonoid compounds of C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. with the largest difference in floral composition in two ecological environments. In two ecological environments of flower color components, combined transcriptome and metabolome analyses revealed that BZ1-1 and FG3-1 are key genes for delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside in anthocyanin biosynthesis, and HCT-5 and FG3-3 are key genes for rhoifolin and naringin in flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol. Key genes for chlorogenic acid in flavonoid biosynthesis include HCT-6, CHS-1 and IF7MAT-1. In summary, differences in flavonoids and their content are the main factors responsible for the differences in the floral color composition of C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh. in the two ecological environments, and are associated with differential expression of genes related to flavonoid synthesis.


Assuntos
Clematis , Flavonas , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Clematis/genética , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flavonas/metabolismo , Cor , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1050, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658178

RESUMO

The existence of purple-pericarp super-sweetcorn based on the supersweet mutation, shrunken2 (sh2), has not been previously reported, due to its extremely tight genetic linkage to a non-functional anthocyanin biosynthesis gene, anthocyaninless1 (a1). Generally, pericarp-pigmented starchy purple corn contains significantly higher anthocyanin. The development of purple-pericarp super-sweetcorn is dependent on breaking the a1-sh2 tight genetic linkage, which occurs at a very low frequency of < 1 in 1000 meiotic crossovers. Here, to develop purple-pericarp super-sweetcorn, an initial cross between a male purple-pericarp maize, 'Costa Rica' (A1Sh2.A1Sh2) and a female white shrunken2 super-sweetcorn, 'Tims-white' (a1sh2.a1sh2), was conducted. Subsequent self-pollination based on purple-pericarp-shrunken kernels identified a small frequency (0.08%) of initial heterozygous F3 segregants (A1a1.sh2sh2) producing a fully sh2 cob with a purple-pericarp phenotype, enabled by breaking the close genetic linkage between the a1 and sh2 genes. Resulting rounds of self-pollination generated a F6 homozygous purple-pericarp super-sweetcorn (A1A1.sh2sh2) line, 'Tim1'. Genome sequencing revealed a recombination break between the a1 and yz1 genes of the a1-yz1-x1-sh2 multigenic interval. The novel purple-pericarp super-sweetcorn produced a similar concentration of anthocyanin and sugar as in its purple-pericarp maize and white super-sweetcorn parents, respectively, potentially adding a broader range of health benefits than currently exists with standard yellow/white sweetcorn.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Zea mays , Antocianinas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenótipo , Zea mays/genética , Genes de Plantas
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 46, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Petal blotch is a unique ornamental trait in angiosperm families, and blotch in rose petal is rare and has great esthetic value. However, the cause of the formation of petal blotch in rose is still unclear. The influence of key enzyme genes and regulatory genes in the pigment synthesis pathways needs to be explored and clarified. RESULTS: In this study, the rose cultivar 'Sunset Babylon Eyes' with rose-red to dark red blotch at the base of petal was selected as the experimental material. The HPLC-DAD and UPLC-TQ-MS analyses indicated that only cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside (Cy3G5G) contributed to the blotch pigmentation of 'Sunset Babylon Eyes', and the amounts of Cy3G5G varied at different developmental stages. Only flavonols but no flavone were found in blotch and non-blotch parts. As a consequence, kaempferol and its derivatives as well as quercetin and its derivatives may act as background colors during flower developmental stages. Despite of the differences in composition, the total content of carotenoids in blotch and non-blotch parts were similar, and carotenoids may just make the petals show a brighter color. Transcriptomic data, quantitative real-time PCR and promoter sequence analyses indicated that RC7G0058400 (F3'H), RC6G0470600 (DFR) and RC7G0212200 (ANS) may be the key enzyme genes for the early formation and color deepening of blotch at later stages. As for two transcription factor, RC7G0019000 (MYB) and RC1G0363600 (WRKY) may bind to the promoters of critical enzyme genes, or RC1G0363600 (WRKY) may bind to the promoter of RC7G0019000 (MYB) to activate the anthocyanin accumulation in blotch parts of 'Sunset Babylon Eyes'. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a theoretical basis for the understanding of the chemical and molecular mechanism for the formation of petal blotch in rose.


Assuntos
Rosa , Transcriptoma , Rosa/genética , Rosa/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675036

RESUMO

Anthocyanin is a natural antioxidant agent extracted from the fruits of Sambucus canadensis, which has been considered to have potential anti-aging effects. Cell senescence is the primary cause of aging and related diseases. Recently, research on the development of compounds for eliminating senescent cells or damaged organs have shown prospects. The compounds which promote the clearing of senescent cells are called "senolytics". Though anthocyanin is considered to have potential anti-aging effects owing to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, the mechanism of the elimination of senescent cells remains unclear. In this study, we prepared anthocyanins extracted from the fruits of Sambucus canadensis and evaluated their anti-aging effects in vivo and in vitro. We found that anthocyanin could significantly reduce cell senescence and aging of the lens by inhibiting the activity of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, consequently promoting the apoptosis of senescent cells, increasing the autophagic and mitophagic flux, and enhancing the renewal of mitochondria and the cell to maintain cellular homeostasis, leading to attenuating aging. Therefore, our study provided a basis for anthocyanin to be used as new "senolytics" in anti-aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Sambucus , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Senescência Celular , Estresse Oxidativo
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1239: 340704, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36628712

RESUMO

This work describes the analysis of formaldehyde using a 96-well microplate as multiple headspaces for the separation of sulfur dioxide gas generated from the sulfite remaining after its reaction with the formaldehyde in the sample. The quantitation of the gas is by colorimetric detection of an indicator paper placed over the microplate. The samples are aqueous extracts of various foods that are possibly adulterated with formaldehyde. A known excess amount of sulfite is added to the extract solution aliquoted in the well. The remaining sulfite is acidified with hydrochloric acid to generate sulfur dioxide gas which diffuses through the headspace above the solution to be absorbed at the moist strip of the indicator paper placed over the mouth of the wells. Anthocyanins extracted from the butterfly pea flower is used as the pH indicator giving a color change from the increase of hydrogen ions by hydrolysis of the absorbed sulfur dioxide gas. The exposed paper strip is scanned, and the digital images of the colored region analyzed using ImageJ software. The optimized method has a linear range of 200-1000 mg L-1 formaldehyde with limit of detection ((2.57*SD of intercept)/(slope of calibration line)) of the aqueous extract of 40 mg L-1 and coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.9979. Samples of fresh produce, such as seafood, meat, and vegetables, and various processed food were analyzed for their possible formaldehyde content. The results obtained from the headspace paper-based colorimetric detection are not statistically different from the values obtained from the titration method by paired t-tests.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Dióxido de Enxofre , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Colorimetria/métodos , Antocianinas , Sulfitos/análise , Água , Formaldeído
20.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 28, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aglaonema commutatum 'Red Valentine', as a foliage ornamental plant, is widely used for interior and exterior decoration because of its easy cultivation and management. However, reduced proportion of red foliage during large-scale production of A. commutatum seedlings is a frequent occurrence, which has considerable implications on the plant's ornamental and market value. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. RESULTS: To explore the molecular basis of the variation in leaf color of A. commutatum Red Valentine, we performed transcriptome sequencing with the Illumina platform using two different varieties of A. commutatum, namely Red Valentine and a green mutant, at three different stages of leaf development. We annotated 63,621 unigenes and 14,186 differentially expressed genes by pairwise comparison. Furthermore, we identified 26 anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes. The transcript per million (TPM) values were significantly higher for Red Valentine than for the green mutant in all three developmental stages, consistent with the high anthocyanin content of Red Valentine leaves. We detected positive transcription factors that may be involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis using BLAST and through correlation analysis. Downregulation of these transcription factors may downregulate the expression of anthocyanin genes. We obtained full-length cDNA of the anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulatory genes and constructed phylogenetic trees to ensure accuracy of the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying leaf variation in A. commutatum Red Valentine and may be used to facilitate the breeding of ornamental cultivars with high anthocyanin levels.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Transcriptoma , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
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