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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 127849, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858383

RESUMO

Anthocyanin-rich purple highland barley has attracted great attention recently due to its health benefits in humans. The composition of the purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) from purple highland barley bran (PHBB) was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with a high acylated anthocyanin profile. PAE exhibited high antioxidant activity and potential neuroprotective effects on cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxic damage in PC12 cells by maintaining cell viability, restoring cell morphology, inhibiting lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities, inhibiting cell apoptosis, and attenuating cell cycle arrest. Treatment cells (PC12 and U2OS) with PAE activated autophagy, indicating that autophagy possibly acted as a survival mechanism against CoCl2-induced injury. This study demonstrated that PAE from the PHBB was a high-quality natural functional food colorant and potentially could be used as a preventive agent for brain dysfunction caused by hypoxic damage.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Hordeum/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cobalto/toxicidade , Hordeum/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 127888, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866705

RESUMO

This study present the effects of different pre-treatment maceration techniques (microwave, thermo-maceration, and enzymatic treatment) on the content of phenolic compounds (by UPLC-PDA) and their redox potential by cyclic voltammetry (CV), antioxidant capacity (ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and FRAP as Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and other basic chemical properties of red wine made from cv. Dornfelder. The pre-treatment maceration technique significantly (p < 0.05) affected the content of total phenolics in Dornfelder must (freshly crushed grapes), with particularly high amounts in the must pre-treated by microwaves (4344.0 mg/100 mL), and the lowest in the must pre-treatment by thermo-maceration (2979.8 mg/100 mL). A positive correlation was found between the content of total phenolics and antioxidant activity (R = 0.69 and 0.52 by ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) and individual groups of polyphenols (for ABTS assay with anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, respectively R = 0.60, 0.64 and 0.66, while for FRAP method only for anthocyanins R = 0.79). The highest antioxidant activity was also determined for the variant with microwave pre-treatment (must 3.31 mM and 3.05 mM Trolox/100 mL for ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively). Following the fermentation and maturation, the amount of polyphenols decreased. No thermal pre-treatment maceration methods gave lighter or redder must. After winemaking process all the samples were characterized by less red and more yellow shade.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Baixa , Cor , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Polifenóis/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 339: 127848, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871302

RESUMO

This work aimed to study long-term impact of micro-oxygenation and/or different aging treatments: (i) high SO2, (ii) high Fe with Cu and (iii) gelatin fining on Plavac mali red wine phenolic and in-mouthfeel sensory development in barrels and furthermore in bottles. Results showed that outcomes of micro-oxygenation strongly depend on aging treatments. High SO2 concentration during aging in barrels and bottles delayed typical phenolic changes and slightly contributed to astringency and lower color intensity, particularly in wine that was not micro-oxygenated. High metal concentrations and gelatin fining promoted intensive polymerization of proanthocyanins and a lower percentage of prodelphinidins after long-term aging in barrels. Also, flavan-3-ol and anthocyanins transformation rates in micro-oxygenated wines of both treatments significantly differed from their controls. Gelatin fining proved to be a very effective treatment for astringency reduction, particularly when combined with micro-oxygenation, but fined wines after long term aging in bottles showed lower color intensity.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Gelatina/química , Ferro/química , Oxigênio/química , Fenóis/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise , Espectrofotometria , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Food Chem ; 340: 127951, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896777

RESUMO

Wheat is a relevant source not only of essential macronutrients but also of many other health-promoting phytochemicals (carotenoids, anthocyanins, tocols, phenolic acids, etc.). Colored-grain wheats were used for extrusion and kernel puffing. The total content of carotenoids (sum of lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and ß-carotene, and xanthophyll esters) decreased significantly due to extrusion (to 25.7%) and puffing (to 31.6%), compared to the content in the raw material. Zeaxanthin was shown to be the most stable among all detected carotenoids (30.8 and 48.7% was preserved). The results of the performed analyses have not confirmed greater stability of xanthophyll esters against higher temperatures (decrease to 29.5 and 22.1%). Both technologies induced E-to Z-isomerization of all-E-lutein and puffing also of all-E-zeaxanthin. Higher concentrations of 13-Z- and 9-Z-zeaxanthin were identified in puffed grains (2× and 37× on average). To preserve more carotenoids, it is appropriate to look for a more suitable food processing technology.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Triticum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Grão Comestível/química
5.
Food Chem ; 340: 127905, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882474

RESUMO

Studies regarding composition and evolution of oligomeric proanthocyanidin-anthocyanin adducts in red wines have often focused only on a limited number of small dimers. Now, a group-specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was utilized to measure two-dimensional (2D) chromatographic fingerprints of three different types of oligomeric adducts in commercial red wines. A new protocol was developed to visualize and summarize the chromatographic data. The 2D fingerprints showed how the compositions of the oligomeric adducts had typically only minor differences between wine varieties in young wines, excluding the Pinot Noir wines. Major quantitative differences were found between the wine varieties despite the lack of major compositional differences. The evolution of the concentrations differed between the three structural sub-groups, while similar general patterns were observed in the compositional evolution. Via statistical modelling, several characteristics in the polyphenolic starting material composition were tentatively suggested to affect the formation of the oligomeric adducts.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Cor , Visualização de Dados , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Glicosídeos/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Food Chem ; 340: 127573, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032144

RESUMO

Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged for 15 months in used and new French 225 L oak barrels, followed by a period of 3 months in bottle. In addition to control barrels (3 years old), three bending/toasting protocols, including fire bent and fire toasted (fire-bent); water bent and fire toasted (water-bent); and a hybridized method based on fire bending and toasting followed by a 12 h fill with water at 80 °C (fire-bent + hot water), were trialed in triplicate. Parameters such as acetic acid and alcohol content (higher in control wines), and anthocyanins, color and polymeric pigments (higher in wines aged in the new barrels), were more affected by barrel use (new versus neutral) than by bending/toasting protocols. At the end of the study (day 602), only 4-vinyl-guaiacol, eugenol and cis-lactone showed odor activity values (OAV's) above 1, with the latter being the most relevant odor active compound across treatments whereas eugenol was 10-fold higher in the water-bent wines. Principal component analysis (PCA) including phenolics and volatile compounds suggested differences between wines aged in control and new barrels, but less clear-cut differences within wines aged in barrels produced with the different bending/toasting protocols.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Quercus , Vitis , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Cor , Eugenol/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Guaiacol/análise , Lactonas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Food Chem ; 334: 127586, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707364

RESUMO

It is unknown whether intestinal absorption of acylated anthocyanins occurs in their intact or metabolized form. In this study, with the aid of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging, intestinal absorption of acylated anthocyanins was visually investigated. Anthocyanin extracts from purple carrots were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats. Acylated cyanidins were absorbed into portal and circulating blood systems in their intact form, and aglycon; cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-feruloyl-ß-d-glucopyranosyl)-(1 â†’ 6)-[ß-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 â†’ 2)]-ß-d-galactopyranoside (Cy3XFGG), and showed a high absorption of 39.3 ± 0.1 pmol/mL-plasma at 60 min after administration. MALDI-MS imaging analysis of the rat jejunum membranes showed that an organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporter was involved in Cy3XFGG transport, while deacylated anthocyanins were incorporated through both the glucose transporter 2 and OATP routes. In conclusion, acylated anthocyanin, Cy3XFGG, can be absorbed in its intact form through intestinal OATP.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Acilação , Administração Oral , Animais , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Cor , Daucus carota/química , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Food Chem ; 339: 127795, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836023

RESUMO

Anthocyanin derivatives and chromatic characteristics of 234 different-vintage red wine were investigated based on a targeted HPLC-MS/MS and CIELAB approach. The K-means cluster analysis showed that the evolution pattern varies amongst anthocyanin derivative classes. Their stabilities are: pinotins > flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins, vitisin A > monomeric anthocyanin, direct anthocyanin-flavan-3-ols condensation products > vitisin B, anthocyanin ethyl-linked flavan-3-ols products. The proportion of most pyranoanthocyanins becomes more significant among all detected anthocyanin derivatives during wine aging, whereas flavanols-related anthocyanin derivatives (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) decreased drastically. PLSR showed that aging tawny characteristics is related to pyranoanthocyanins except for vitisin B, especially pinotins, whereas monomeric anthocyanins and flavanol-related derivates (except for flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins) contribute to red violet color. But aging color density is more associated with the content of vitisin A and flavanyl-pyranoanthocyanins. Two predictive models based on random forest and support vector machine modeling showed good performance in predicting the extent of wine aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vinho/análise , Benzofuranos/análise , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Food Chem ; 337: 128006, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919277

RESUMO

Due to the global warming, more and more often the red-pink grape varieties grown in the Mediterranean basin reveal an insufficient accumulation of anthocyanins and thus a scarce coloration. Nowadays, this is becoming an important technological issue, which may result in the reduction of the fresh market value of table grape. This study aimed at assessing the effect of the pre-harvest treatment by specific inactivated yeasts (YE) on the qualitative parameters and anthocyanin pattern of three red table grape varieties, which typically present poor and/or incomplete coloration during warm years. An increment of anthocyanins level up to almost seven folds corresponding to an improvement of red skin appearance was observed in all the treated table grapes, which was preserved after cold storage, too. While, no significant influence on chemical composition and berry texture and dimensions was found, meaning that YE did not cause appreciable taste changes in grapes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Vitis/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta
10.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(4): 532-539, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783148

RESUMO

Chaura (Gaultheria poeppigii) is a plant species native from Southern Chile, which produces a berry fruit with potential beneficial health effects due to its content of phenolic compounds. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds from fruits of different colored genotypes (white-, pink- and red-colored) collected from the Osorno volcano and the Conguillío National Park (CNP) in southern Chile were analyzed by mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) and HPLC-DAD, respectively. The total content of phenolic compounds was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and its antioxidant activity by the CUPRAC, TEAC and DPPH methods. Four anthocyanins were detected, with glycosylated derivatives of delphinidin and cyanidin being the most abundant. Fruits with more coloration had higher anthocyanin concentrations. Six flavonols were detected, with quercetin derivatives being the most abundant. The highest concentration of total flavonols reached 0.41 mg g-1 in red colored fruits. The profiles of phenolic compounds showed differences between fruits depending on both the color and the area of collection. Finally, it would be interesting to evaluate the genetic profiles of chaura to determine whether this variation in phenolics and colorations is dependent on the geographical location or dependent on the genotype of the plant.


Assuntos
Frutas , Gaultheria , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes , Chile , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Food Chem ; 333: 127455, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653683

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) has been recognized as a non-thermal technology for accelerating blueberry wine aging for flavor development. However, influence of US on anthocyanin and color characteristics is uncertain. In this study, US was applied to new blueberry wine, and changes in color characteristics, anthocyanin content and anti-oxidant capacity were evaluated at early stage of aging period. Low-frequency power US resulted in an improvement in color characteristics and lower chromatic aberration as compared to untreated samples, specially at condition of 180 W, 20 min and 2 cycles. Furthermore, this contribution was attributed to unattenuated anthocyanins protected from US stress. Importantly, the structural polarity dependence was mediated by the impact of US on anthocyanins. Additionally, anti-oxidant activity of blueberry wine was not adversely affected under a moderate US condition. US treatment of blueberry wine was therefore considered to significantly enhance the color presentation, hinting at the possibility of promoting blueberry wine aging.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Ultrassom/métodos , Vinho , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Cor , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Vinho/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 333: 127439, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653686

RESUMO

Anthocyanin is derived from a flavylium cation structure, and it promotes health in humans and functions in plants as protection against environmental stress. The rapid analysis of anthocyanin structure and content is a critical challenge for improving fruit quality. In this study, the tomato cultivar Indigo Rose, which is a popular purple cultivated tomato used for breeding, was taken as an example for anthocyanin analysis. A rapid analysis method was developed to minimize anthocyanin loss from the fresh fruit. Four new anthocyanins were discovered in the tomato, and the structures of a total of 12 anthocyanins were determined. Among these, petunidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the main anthocyanins in Indigo Rose. The structural modifications of these anthocyanins were mainly glycosylation and acylation, and there were also hydroxylation and methylation. Our findings provide new insight into the biosynthesis pathway in tomato fruit.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Acilação , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Frutas/química , Glicosilação , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127515, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683260

RESUMO

The nutritional and commercial value of the sweet cherry provides it a great economic importance in Italy. The aim of this study was to characterize 35 sweet cherry cultivars and one of sour cherry, by analyzing values of different pomological and nutraceutical traits, identifying cultivars with antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins content closest to those present in literature for Ferrovia (largely diffused in Italy). To this goal, a multivariate metric index through the Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy analyzing an artificial dataset and testing a real one, two hierarchical clustering and a principal component analysis, were performed. The multivariate analyses result simultaneously investigated all the variables highlighting cvs. Sylvia, Graffione nero Col di Mosso, Ferrovia, Mora della Punta, Bianchetta Nuchis and Sandra to be more similar to literature data of Ferrovia. This matrix index was a useful tool, to select the most commercial promising varieties.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Prunus avium/classificação , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Molibdênio/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus avium/química , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Compostos de Tungstênio/química
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2143-2152, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567692

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion factors on the properties of extruded nixtamalized corn flours (ENCFs), determine the optimal conditions, and produce a tortilla with texture and nutraceutical characteristics acceptable for consumers. The processing factors used were feed moisture (FM, 15 to 30%), extruder temperature (T, 70 to 110 °C), and screw speed (SS, 50 to 145 rpm). The properties evaluated in the flours were total anthocyanins (TA), subjective water absorption capacity, and peak viscosity (PV). Response surface methodology and analysis of variance were used in the evaluation. The linear and quadratic terms of FM had a greater effect on all evaluated parameters. The optimization was performed using the numerical method of global desirability. The response variables that were optimized in the ENCF were TAs (maximize) and PV (maximize). The optimal region was the following: FM (18.17%), T (92.03 °C), and SS (76.61 rpm). The experimental value for the TA in the optimized ENCF was 226.07 mg/kg, and the PV was 1063.9 cP. The results of this study could help develop nixtamalized corn flours with desirable characteristics to make tortillas using the extrusion process. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results obtained would be useful for the tortilla industry, developing nixtamalized corn flours with desirable characteristics to make healthy tortillas using the extrusion process, with minimum losses in biologically active compounds such as anthocyanins (health promoters) without affect negatively the eating quality of the product (good texture).


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Zea mays/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Pão/análise , Cor , Temperatura , Viscosidade , Água/análise
15.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(3): 420-426, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506297

RESUMO

The popularity of edible wild fruits has increased in industrialized countries due to their composition and positive effects. The aim of this study has been to characterize the polyphenolics and anthocyanins of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.), cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna L.), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) and rose hip (Rosa canina L.) harvested in the north-west of Italy by means of HPLC-DAD-ESI HRMS in positive ion mode. Although there is an abundant amount of literature related to the polyphenolics of cultivated fruit, a new type of comparison has here been conducted between wild and cultivated fruits on their polyphenolic content. The HPLC-DAD-ESI HRMS method has detected 64 different polyphenolic molecules and it can be used to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses. Furthermore, the cornelian cherry and elderberry samples showed the highest polyphenolic compound levels. The quercetin glycosylated compounds showed the highest percentage of flavonols in most of the analyzed wild fruits.


Assuntos
Cornus , Frutas/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Itália
16.
Food Chem ; 331: 127279, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563800

RESUMO

Stability of protein-polyphenol aggregate particles, created by complexing polyphenols from blueberry and muscadine grape pomaces with a rice-pea protein isolate blend, was evaluated in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Recovery index (RI; % total phenolics present post-digestion) was 69% and 62% from blueberry and muscadine grape protein-polyphenol particles, compared to 23% and 31% for the respective pomace extracts. Anthocyanins RI was 52% and 42% from particles (6% and 13% from pomace extracts), and proanthocyanidins RI was 77% and 73% from particles (25% and 14% from pomace extracts), from blueberry and grape, respectively. Protein-polyphenol particle digests retained 1.5 to 2-fold higher antioxidant capacity and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, iNOS, IL6, and IL1ß, compared to unmodified extract digests, which only suppressed IL6. Protein-polyphenol particles as a delivery vehicle in foods may confer better stability during gastrointestinal transit, allow protected polyphenols to reach the gut microbiota, and preserve polyphenol bioactivity.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/análise , Digestão , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Células RAW 264.7
17.
Food Chem ; 331: 127341, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569972

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition of crude lyophilized extracts (CLE) and partially purified (PPE) extracts of C. ternatea blue petals as well as the anthocyanin stability against pH, temperature and light in the presence and absence of fructooligosaccharides. Twelve compounds were tentatively identified by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS in CLE and PPE extracts. In direct/reverse spectrophotometric titration, anthocyanins showed colour changes between pH 2.25 to 10.20, and colour reversibility, maintaining antioxidant activity against the DPPH radical. The aqueous extracts at pH 3.6 and 5.4 exhibited thermal stability with the presence and absence of fructooligosaccharides with activation energy higher than 99 kJ/mol. The addition of fructooligosaccharides in the extracts at pH 5.4 exposed to light provided a protective effect against anthocyanin photodegradation. The data show the technological potential of aqueous extract of C. ternatea blue petals as a natural colourant in a functional beverage model system.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Clitoria/química , Flores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corantes de Alimentos/análise , Corantes de Alimentos/química , Liofilização , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oligossacarídeos/química , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127227, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521402

RESUMO

A hydroxycinnamate-like component was identified in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruit, which had identical UV and mass spectrometric properties to an S-linked glutathionyl conjugate of chlorogenic acid synthesized using a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction. The conjugate was present in fruits from all highbush blueberry genotypes grown in one season, reaching 7-20% of the relative abundance of 5-caffeoylquininc acid. It was enriched, along with anthocyanins, by fractionation on solid phase cation-exchange units. Mining of pre-existing LC-MS data confirmed that this conjugate was ubiquitous in highbush blueberries, but also present in other Vaccinium species. Similar data mining identified this conjugate in potato tubers with enrichment in peel tissues. In addition, the conjugate was also present in commercial apple juice and was stable to pasteurization and storage. Although glutathionyl conjugates of hydroxycinnamic acids have been noted previously, this is the first report of glutathionyl conjugates of chlorogenic acids in commonly-eaten fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Tubérculos/química
19.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 330: 127266, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540528

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterize the nutritional value and potential use of elderberries as a source of antioxidant compounds. The chemical composition, fatty acids and phenolic compounds were determined for elderberries. The optimization of extraction parameters was designed with a Box-Behnken design coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function analysis. The process parameters tested included extraction temperature, % of ethanol and pH, while response variables were global extraction yield, total phenolic and anthocyanins content (TAC), carotenoids and antioxidant activity. Analyses revealed that elderberry was a rich source of total soluble solids, proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3: 38.12 g/100 g and omega-6: 39.54 g/100 g fatty acids). Regarding phenolic compounds, elderberries were found abundant in flavonoids (rutin and quercetin), and phenolic acids (i.e. gallic acid and gentisic acid). Finally, numerical optimization indicated that the best extraction parameters were the following: temperature 60 °C, 50% of ethanol and pH 2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Sambucus nigra/química , Antocianinas/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análise , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
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