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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5520059, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484562

RESUMO

Due to the increase of stress-related memory impairment accompanying with the COVID-19 pandemic and financial crisis, the prevention of cognitive decline induced by stress has gained much attention. Based on the evidence that an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk demonstrated the cognitive enhancing effect, we hypothesized that it should be able to enhance memory in working-age volunteers who are exposed to working stress. This study is an open-label, two-arm randomized study. Both men and women volunteers at age between 18 and 60 years old were randomly assigned to consume the tested product either 1 or 2 servings daily for 6 weeks. All subjects were assessed for cortisol, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A), and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) in saliva, and their working memory was determined both at baseline and at a 6-week period. The results showed that the working memory of subjects in both groups was enhanced at the end of the study period together with the reduction of saliva cortisol. The suppression of AChE, MAO, and MAO-A was also observed in subjects who consumed the tested product 2 servings daily. Therefore, we suggest the memory enhancing effect of an anthocyanin-rich mulberry milk. The possible mechanism may occur primarily via the suppression of cortisol. In addition, the high dose of mulberry milk also suppresses AChE, MAO, and MAO-A.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus , Estresse Ocupacional , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monoaminoxidase/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Morus/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445281

RESUMO

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication system that regulates several bacterial mechanisms, including the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. Thus, targeting microbial QS is seen as a plausible alternative strategy to antibiotics, with potentiality to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Many phytochemicals with QS interference activity are currently being explored. Herein, an extract and a compound of bioinspired origin were tested for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation and interfere with the expression of QS-related genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The extract, a carboxypyranoanthocyanins red wine extract (carboxypyrano-ant extract), and the pure compound, carboxypyranocyanidin-3-O-glucoside (carboxypyCy-3-glc), did not cause a visible effect on the biofilm formation of the P. aeruginosa biofilms; however, both significantly affected the formation of biofilms by the S. aureus strains, as attested by the crystal violet assay and fluorescence microscopy. Both the extract and the pure compound significantly interfered with the expression of several QS-related genes in the P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms, as per reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results. Indeed, it was possible to conclude that these molecules interfere with QS at distinct stages and in a strain-specific manner. An extract with anti-QS properties could be advantageous because it is easily obtained and could have broad, antimicrobial therapeutic applications if included in topical formulations.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443527

RESUMO

A hypoxia-responsive probe based on a flavylium dye containing an azo group (AZO-Flav) was synthesized to detect hypoxic conditions via a reductase-catalyzed reaction in cancer cells. In in vitro enzymatic investigation, the azo group of AZO-Flav was reduced by a reductase in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) followed by fragmentation to generate a fluorescent molecule, Flav-NH2. The response of AZO-Flav to the reductase was as fast as 2 min with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 µM. Moreover, AZO-Flav displayed high enzyme specificity even in the presence of high concentrations of biological interferences, such as reducing agents and biothiols. Therefore, AZO-Flav was tested to detect hypoxic and normoxic environments in cancer cells (HepG2). Compared to the normal condition, the fluorescence intensity in hypoxic conditions increased about 10-fold after 15 min. Prolonged incubation showed a 26-fold higher fluorescent intensity after 60 min. In addition, the fluorescence signal under hypoxia can be suppressed by an electron transport process inhibitor, diphenyliodonium chloride (DPIC), suggesting that reductases take part in the azo group reduction of AZO-Flav in a hypoxic environment. Therefore, this probe showed great potential application toward in vivo hypoxia detection.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Antocianinas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia
4.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(16): 2660-2667, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414846

RESUMO

Particular features in the pulp of blood oranges are marked levels of anthocyanin, a class of polyphenolic compounds well known to exert numerous health-promoting actions on human wellbeing including anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated in vitro, the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities of Morosil®, a standardised extract of Moro blood oranges. During adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with concentrations of extract containing 2.5, 5, 10, 25 µM of anthocyanins. After seven days of treatment and differentiation, we measured reactive oxygen species production, non-proteic thiol groups content, adipokine secretion and triglyceride accumulation together with mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c. Furthermore, both ACCα, FAS protein expression and citrate synthase activity were measured. Results show that Morosil® exerts antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes , Citrus sinensis , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus sinensis/química , Frutas/química , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153721, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bark and petal of Hibiscus syriacus L. (Malvaceae) have been used to relieve pain in traditional Korean medicine. Recently, we identified anthocyanin-enriched polyphenols from the petal of H. syriacus L. (AHs) and determined its anti-melanogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. Nevertheless, the osteogenic potential of AHs remains unknown. PURPOSE: This study was aimed to investigating the effect of AHs on osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis in osteoblastic cell lines and zebrafish larvae. Furthermore, we investigated whether AHs ameliorates prednisolone (PDS)-induced osteoporosis. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cell viability was assessed by cellular morphology, MTT assay, and flow cytometry analysis, and osteoblast differentiation was measured alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoblast-specific marker expression. Osteogenic and anti-osteoporotic effects of AHs were determined in zebrafish larvae. RESULTS: AHs enhanced calcification and ALP activity concomitant with the increased expression of osterix (OSX), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and ALP in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast and MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Additionally, AHs accelerated vertebral formation and mineralization in zebrafish larvae, concurrent with the increased expression of OSX, RUNX2a, and ALP. Furthermore, PDS-induced loss of osteogenic activity and vertebral formation were restored by treatment with AHs, accompanied by a significant recovery of calcification, ALP activity, and osteogenic marker expression. Molecular docking studies showed that 16 components in AHs fit to glucagon synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß); particularly, isovitexin-4'-O-glucoside most strongly binds to the peptide backbone of GSK-3ß at GLY47(O), GLY47(N), and ASN361(O), with a binding score of -7.3. Subsequently, AHs phosphorylated GSK-3ß at SER9 (an inactive form) and released ß-catenin into the nucleus. Pretreatment with FH535, a Wnt/ß-catenin inhibitor, significantly inhibited AH-induced vertebral formation in zebrafish larvae. CONCLUSION: AHs stimulate osteogenic activities through the inhibition of GSK-3ß and subsequent activation of ß-catenin, leading to anti-osteoporosis effects.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Hibiscus , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose , Polifenóis , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Hibiscus/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
Environ Res ; 200: 111759, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310969

RESUMO

The recent upsurge of antibiotic-resistant infections has posed to be a serious health concern worldwide. In the present paper, the effect of shape & capping agent on the antibacterial activity (on Skin and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causing bacteria) of copper iodide (CuI) particles was probed. CuI synthesized without a capping agent was leaf-like, and that with one was prismatic in shape. XRD of the synthesized CuI confirmed their high crystalline nature and purity. The average crystallite sizes of capped and uncapped CuI were calculated to be 91.10 nm and 89.01 nm respectively from X-Ray powder diffraction data. The average particle size of capped CuI was found to be 492.7 nm and that of uncapped CuI was found to be 2.96 µm using HR-SEM analysis. The crystals obtained were further characterized using EDAX, FTIR spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of prismatic CuI capped with the flower extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis showed better activity than that of uncapped CuI. AFM analysis was carried out to confirm the proposed mechanism for antibacterial activity through the morphological changes on the bacterial cell wall in the presence of capped CuI. Molecular docking studies were performed to reaffirm the enhanced antibacterial activity of prismatic CuI further. The present study demonstrates the superior antibacterial propensity of prismatic CuI, consequently making it a potent antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Antibacterianos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cobre , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
7.
Phytother Res ; 35(9): 5189-5202, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34327741

RESUMO

Obesity is acknowledged as being a world health problem and increases the risk of several chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease. High-fat diet consumption and obesity-related renal disease show a close correlation with increased oxidative stress. Black rice bran extract, (BRE) Oryza sativa L. variety "Luem Pua" contains a high anthocyanin content. This study evaluated the effects of an anthocyanin-rich fraction from BRE on renal function and oxidative stress in obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HF) for 16 weeks. After this, the rats were given either vehicle (HF), BRE 100 (HF100) or BRE 200 mg/kg/day (HF200) orally for 8 weeks. The HF rats had increased body weight, visceral fat weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. These parameters were normalized following HF100 administration and showed a decreasing trend with HF200. Serum creatinine and renal cortical MDA were increased in the HF group but these effects were attenuated by BRE. Negative kidney injury and histopathology changes were observed following a HF, but treatment with BRE reversed these deleterious effects. These results suggest that BRE could be used as a food supplement to improve metabolic disturbance and prevent kidney dysfunction in cases of obesity.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade , Oryza , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Apoptose , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Rim/fisiologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/etiologia , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199668

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by elevated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The black soybean seed coat is a rich source of anthocyanins with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of black soybean anthocyanin extract (BSAn) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in a coculture system of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Coculture of adipocytes with macrophages increased the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators and cytokines (NO, MCP-1, PGE2, TNFα, and IL-6) and the release of free fatty acids but reduced anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion. BSAn treatment (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) alleviated the coculture-induced changes (p < 0.001) and inhibited coculture-induced activation of JNK and ERK signaling (p < 0.01). BSAn also blocked the migration of RAW264.7 macrophages toward 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, treatment with BSAn increased PPARγ expression and glucose uptake in response to insulin in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocyte and RAW264.7 macrophage coculture (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that BSAn attenuates inflammatory responses and improves adipocyte metabolic function in the coculture of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting the effectiveness of BSAn for obesity-induced insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200816

RESUMO

The effectiveness of anthocyanins may differ according to their chemical structures; however, randomized clinical controlled trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses that examine the consequences of these structural differences have not been reported yet. In this meta-analysis, anthocyanins in test foods of 18 selected RCTs were categorized into three types: cyanidin-, delphinidin-, and malvidin-based. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins demonstrated significant effects on triglycerides (mean difference (MD): -0.24, p < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD: -0.28, p < 0.001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (MD: 0.11, p < 0.01), whereas no significant effects were observed for cyanidin- and malvidin-based anthocyanins. Although non-significant, favorable effects on total cholesterol (TC) and HDL-C were observed for cyanidin- and malvidin-based anthocyanins, respectively (both p < 0.1). The ascending order of effectiveness on TC and LDL-C was delphinidin-, cyanidin-, and malvidin-based anthocyanins, and the differences among the three groups were significant (both p < 0.05). We could not confirm the significant effects of each main anthocyanin on glucose metabolism; however, insulin resistance index changed positively and negatively with cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanins, respectively. Therefore, foods containing mainly unmethylated anthocyanins, especially with large numbers of OH groups, may improve glucose and lipid metabolism more effectively than those containing methylated anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Antocianinas/química , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Viés de Publicação , Risco
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199904

RESUMO

Nutrition determines our health, both directly and indirectly. Consumed foods affect the functioning of individual organs as well as entire systems, e.g., the cardiovascular system. There are many different diets, but universal guidelines for proper nutrition are provided in the WHO healthy eating pyramid. According to the latest version, plant products should form the basis of our diet. Many groups of plant compounds with a beneficial effect on human health have been described. Such groups include anthocyanins and iridoids, for which it has been proven that their consumption may lead to, inter alia, antioxidant, cholesterol and lipid-lowering, anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. Transcription factors directly affect a number of parameters of cell functions and cellular metabolism. In the context of lipid and cholesterol metabolism, five particularly important transcription factors can be distinguished: liver X receptor (LXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Both anthocyanins and iridoids may alter the expression of these transcription factors. The aim of this review is to collect and systematize knowledge about the impact of anthocyanins and iridoids on transcription factors crucial for lipid and cholesterol homeostasis.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Iridoides/farmacologia , Lipídeos/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201208

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is the central enzyme involved in the highly complex process of melanin formation, catalyzing the rate-limiting steps of this biosynthetic pathway. Due to such a preponderant role, it has become a major target in the treatment of undesired skin pigmentation conditions and also in the prevention of enzymatic food browning. Numerous phenolic-based structures from natural sources have been pointed out as potential tyrosinase inhibitors, including anthocyanins. The aim of the present study was to individually assess the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of eight purified compounds with a variable degree of structural complexity: native anthocyanins, deoxyanthocyanins, and pyranoanthocyanins. The latter two, the groups of anthocyanin-related compounds with enhanced stability, were tested for the first time. Compounds 1 to 4 (luteolinidin, deoxymalvidin, cyanidin-, and malvidin-3-O-glucoside) revealed to be the most effective inhibitors, and further kinetic studies suggested their inhibition mechanism to be of a competitive nature. Structure-activity relationships were proposed based on molecular docking studies conducted with mushroom tyrosinase (mTYR) and human tyrosinase-related protein 1 (hTYRP1) crystal structures, providing information about the binding affinity and the different types of interactions established with the enzyme's active center which corroborated the findings of the inhibition and kinetic studies. Overall, these results support the applicability of these compounds as pigmentation modulators.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Agaricales/enzimologia , Catálise , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204250

RESUMO

Supplementation with anthocyanins, which are a type of flavonoids mainly found in various berries, is hypothesized to be a promising approach to lower the risk of developing cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of dietary intervention trials describing effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance in humans, while also addressing potential underlying mechanisms. A total of 1197 articles were identified through a systematic search, and 49 studies reporting effects on cognitive performance (n = 18), vascular function (n = 22), or cardiometabolic risk markers (n = 32) were included. Significant improvements were observed on memory, while some of the studies also reported effects on attention and psychomotor speed or executive function. Vascular function markers such as brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also affected and consistent evidence was provided for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on endothelial function. Finally, studies reported improvements in blood pressure, but effects on metabolic risk markers (e.g. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism) were less consistent. In conclusion, this review provides evidence for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance as memory improved. Whether observed anthocyanin-induced improvements in vascular function and blood pressure underlie beneficial effects on cognitive performance warrants further study.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200974

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and paramagnetic species in dragon fruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). HPLC analysis demonstrated that dragon fruit is enriched with bioactive phytochemicals, with significant variations between each part of the fruit. Anthocyanins namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside were detected in the dragon fruit peel and fresh red pulp. Epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, caffeine, and gallic acid were found in the dragon fruit seed. Additionally, 25-100 mg × L-1 of dragon fruit pulp and peel extracts containing enrichment of cyanidin 3-glucoside were found to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cell-based studies without exerted cytotoxicity. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in the red samples. These two different radical species were assigned as stable radicals and Mn2+ (paramagnetic species) based on the g-values and hyperfine components. In addition, the broad EPR line width of the white peel can be correlated to a unique moiety in dragon fruit. Our EPR and HPLC results provide new insight regarding the phytochemicals and related stable intermediates found in various parts of dragon fruit. Thus, we suggest here that there is the potential to use dragon fruit peel, which contains anthocyanins, as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cactaceae/química , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
14.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202440

RESUMO

Usually, wine-making by-products are discarded, presenting a significant environmental impact. However, they can be used as a source of bioactive compounds. Moreover, consumers' increasing demand for naturally nutritious and healthy products requires new formulations and food product improvement, together with sustainable, environmentally friendly extraction methods. Thus, this work aimed to compare ohmic heating (OH) with conventional methodology (CONV), using food-grade solvents, mainly water, compared to standard methanol extraction of anthocyanins. No significant differences were found between the CONV and OH for total phenolic compounds, which were 2.84 ± 0.037 and 3.28 ± 0.46 mg/g DW gallic acid equivalent, respectively. The same tendency was found for antioxidant capacity, where CONV and OH presented values of 2.02 ± 0.007 g/100 g and 2.34 ± 0.066 g/100 g ascorbic acid equivalent, respectively. The major anthocyanins identified were malvidin-3-O-acetylglucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidine-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, and peonidine-3-O-glucoside. These extracts displayed antimicrobial potential against microorganisms such as Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, a methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA), and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, OH provides similar recovery yields with reduced treatment times, less energy consumption, and no need for organic solvents (green extraction routes). Thus, OH combined with water and citric acid allows a safe anthocyanin extraction from grape by-products, thus avoiding the use of toxic solvents such as methanol, and with high biological potential, including antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Alta , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Água/química
15.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(4): 3192-3224, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125477

RESUMO

In this article, we reviewed studies on the fruits of the jussara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius), an endangered Brazilian Atlantic Forest palm tree, also coined as "Superfruit." We summarized the chemical components of the pulp and observed biological activities in murine and humans, as well as the best practices involving the extraction of its target compounds, bioavailability, and stability of extracts. Jussara has shown a rich phenolic profile that justifies its antioxidant properties, in addition to a considerable lipidic and energetic value. As the main feature, the fruit possesses large amounts of anthocyanins that can be commercially explored as a food additive or cosmetic colorants. Recent studies emphasized jussara's antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective capabilities via reshaping of the gut microbiota. Further knowledge is needed to establish bioavailability and optimal serving size, as many of its antioxidant compounds go under chemical bioconversion in the intestinal tract. While extraction of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and oils have interesting results, more studies are required in order to reduce the use of conventional organic solvents and improve their stability and shelf life when added to food products, an area in which nanotechnology seems promising.


Assuntos
Euterpe , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenóis/farmacologia
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 666-677, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146561

RESUMO

The roselle anthocyanin extracts (RAE) were immobilized into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film matrix, their interaction behavior and mechanism was fully understood for better shrimp freshness monitoring. Structural characterizations revealed RAE was firmly immobilized PVA/HPMC matrix by hydrogen bonds. With increasing RAE contents, dramatic increases of film thickness (from 15.90 ± 0.14 to 23.20 ± 3.35 µm), tensile strength (from 45.66 ± 1.07 to 56.98 ± 0.24 MPa), light barrier and active properties (increased by 83.18% for antioxidant and 146.91%, 59.18% for antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus) were observed, while hydrophobic properties decreased significantly. Owing to great ammonia-sensitive ability, the PVA/HPMC/RAE (PHR) films were applied on shrimp freshness qualitative monitoring and greater visible color variations were identified with increasing RAE contents. Furthermore, mathematical models were established for quantitative monitoring. In conclusion, with the increasing RAE contents, the tighter interaction between RAE and PVA/HPMC matrix contributed to the better functional properties and freshness monitoring effects of PHR films.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Antocianinas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Teóricos , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Tração
17.
Phytochemistry ; 189: 112849, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182200

RESUMO

Anthocyanins (AN), natural compounds daily consumed by humans, have outstanding therapeutical potential if administered topically in melanoma pathology. However, the search for efficient therapy development is still in progress, owing to the lack of complete understanding of the AN intracellular path, once they are uptaken by the cells. This target is constrained by the need for an imaging strategy that would enable their intracellular detection and localization in-situ. In this light, diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethyl (DPBA), a non-fluorescent reagent, was here successfully used to form fluorescent complexes with AN. The AN used are the cyanidin aglycon as a free standard molecule (CY), and the glycosylated compounds, extracted and purified from chokeberry fruits (AE). In solution, it was observed that the fluorescence emission increased by 39% (CY@DPBA), and by 34% (AE@DPBA), which concludes that AN form fluorescent complexes with DPBA (CY@DPBA and AE@DPBA). In addition, using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, and HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis, the structure of the CY@DPBA complex was efficiently elucidated. In-vitro experiments showed that the complexes formed after the treatment proved to be non-toxic on B16-F10 cells. The sub-cellular visualization of all AN was monitored by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, demonstrating detectable signals of the non-metabolized CY and glycosylated CY inside melanoma cells. This study reports that the use of DPBA to image AN intracellularly is a sensitive, non-invasive and successful method that can extend its application in broad fields like drug development or metabolism-associated mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Melanoma Experimental , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imagem Óptica
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112256, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974948

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and its metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) mediated protection against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The effects of C3G and PCA on cell viability, LDH release and apoptosis in IQ-induced HepG2 cells were evaluated using CCK-8, LDH release and flow cytometry assays, respectively. TMT-based proteomics was utilized to characterize the proteins and pathways associated with the improvement after C3G and PCA treatment. Results showed that exposure to IQ significantly increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which were alleviated by C3G and PCA. C3G was more effective than PCA in protecting HepG2 cells against IQ-induced cytotoxicity and regulating the related signaling pathways. Proteomics and bioinformatics analyses and Western blot validation revealed that apoptosis-related signaling pathways played pivotal roles in protecting against the cytotoxicity of IQ by C3G, and XIAP was identified as the target protein. Molecular docking proved that C3G had strong binding affinity to XIAP and hindered the binding of IQ to the BIR3 domain of XIAP, resulting in the inhibition of apoptosis. Our findings suggested that C3G has potential as a preventive food ingredient to prevent carcinogenic risk of heterocyclic aromatic amines.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Quinolinas/toxicidade , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia Computacional , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Quinolinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 359: 129876, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940472

RESUMO

The low stability of anthocyanins is a constraint in the food industry. The present work has been carried out to overcome this low stability by encapsulating fruit concentrate of underutilized plant Carissa spinarum (CS) with polyphenols in microemulsions (CSME) and nanoemulsions (CSNE). Increasing the amount of CS reduced the particle size from 1154 to 70-300 nm whereas addition of Tween 80 reduced it optimally to 5-25 nm. Degradation of anthocyanins in control and ME/NE proceeded with zero- and first-order reaction rates, respectively, at 28 °C (half-life 6, 25 and 40 days, respectively). The degradation kinetics of phenolics-flavonoids were also studied. CSNE exhibited higher anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity than CSME against Chromobacterium violaceum (73.7%); it inhibited biofilm formation by 70.1 and 64.4% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Yersinia enterocolitica, respectively. This is the first report of using the more stable ME/NE to study anti-QS activity, an alternative to conventional antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Chromobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Chromobacterium/fisiologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Cinética , Polifenóis/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Yersinia enterocolitica/efeitos dos fármacos , Yersinia enterocolitica/fisiologia
20.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4132-4141, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978000

RESUMO

Anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-O-glucose) is a natural water-soluble pigment with a robust antioxidant capacity. However, its poor stability and bioavailability limits its application as a functional food ingredient. This study explored the ability of the silkworm pupa protein-glucose (Spp-Glu) conjugate, developed under wet-heating conditions, to improve the thermal stability and antioxidant activity of cyanidin-3-O-glucose (C3G) at pH 3.0 and 6.8. The characterization experiments suggested that C3G complexed with the Spp-Glu conjugate could modify the protein's microenvironment and cause unfolding of the protein's secondary structures under varied pH conditions. Spectroscopic techniques further revealed the formation of complexes via hydrophobic interactions and static quenching processes when C3G was bound to Spp or Spp-Glu. The formation of these complexes effectively attenuated C3G degradation, thereby enhancing its stability under heat treatment over a range of pH values, and the experiments measuring antioxidant activity suggested that the Spp-Glu conjugate formed does not affect the efficacy of C3G after complexation. Therefore, our study suggests that Spp-Glu has the potential to effectively protect and deliver anthocyanins during industrial application for functional food formulation.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bombyx/química , Glucose/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Alimento Funcional , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Células MCF-7 , Estresse Oxidativo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Pupa/química
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