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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(7): eaay2126, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095524

RESUMO

Coralline red algae (CRA) are important ecosystem engineers in the world's oceans. They play key roles as primary food source and carbonate producers in marine habitats. CRA are also vital for modern reef systems where they act as substrate for coral growth and stabilizers of reef frameworks. However, morphotaxonomic identification of these important marine organisms is hampered by the fact that morphological concepts used for their classification do not correspond to molecular data. We present the first analysis of nanoscale features in calcified cell walls of CRA in a globally distributed sample set. We use new morphological traits based on these cell wall ultrastructures to construct an independent morphological phyletic tree that shows a promising congruency with existing CRA molecular phylogenies. Our results highlight cellular ultrastructures as a tool to define the phenotypic expression of genotypic information showing their potential to unify morphology with molecular phylogeny.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Rodófitas/genética , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Genótipo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Rodófitas/anatomia & histologia
2.
Mar Genomics ; 50: 100703, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466869

RESUMO

The genus Alveopora is a scleractinian coral taxon whose phylogenetic classification has recently changed from the family Poritidae to Acroporidae. This change, which was made based on single-locus genetic data, has led to uncertainty about the placement of Alveopora and the ability for deep evolutionary relationships in these groups to be accurately recovered and represented by limited genetic datasets. We sought to characterize the higher-level position of Alveopora using newly available transcriptome data to confirm its placement within Acroporidae and resolve its closest ancestor. Here we present an analysis of a new 2031 gene dataset that confirms the placement of Alveopora within Acroporidae corroborating other single-locus (COI, 16S and ITS) analyses and a mitogenome dataset. We also resolve the position of Alveopora as sister to the genus Montipora. This has allowed the re-interpretation of morphology, and a rediagnosis of the family Acroporidae and the genus Alveopora.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Filogenia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/genética
3.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax2950, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633024

RESUMO

Climate change is affecting reef-building corals worldwide, with little hope for recovery. However, coral fossils hint at the existence of environmental stress-triggered survival strategies unreported in extant colonial corals. We document the living evidence and long-term ecological role of such a survival strategy in which isolated polyps from coral colonies affected by warming adopt a transitory resistance phase, in turn expressing a high recovery capacity in dead colony areas. Such processes have been described in fossil corals as rejuvenescence but were previously unknown in extant reef-builder corals. Our results based on 16 years of monitoring show the significance of this process for unexpected recoveries of coral colonies severely affected by warming. These findings provide a link between rejuvenescence in fossil and extant corals and reveal that beyond adaptation and acclimatization processes, modern scleractinian corals show yet undiscovered and highly effective survival strategies that help them withstand and recover from rapid environmental changes.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósseis , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13469, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530904

RESUMO

Shallow-water marine organisms are among the first to suffer from combined effects of natural and anthropogenic drivers. The orange coral Astroides calycularis is a shallow-water bioconstructor species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Although raising conservation interest, also given its special position within the Dendrophylliidae, information about the threats to its health is scant. We investigated the health status of A. calycularis at five locations in northwestern Sicily along a gradient of cumulative human impact and the most probable origin of the threats to this species, including anthropogenic land-based and sea-based threats. Cumulative human impact appeared inversely related to the performance of A. calycularis at population, colony, and polyp levels. Sea-based human impacts appeared among the most likely causes of the variation observed. The reduction in polyp length can limit the reproductive performance of A. calycularis, while the decrease of percent cover and colony area is expected to impair its peculiar feeding behaviour by limiting the exploitable dimensional range of prey and, ultimately, reef functioning. This endangered habitat-forming species appeared susceptible to anthropogenic pressures, suggesting the need to re-assess its vulnerability status. Creating microprotected areas with specific restrictions to sea-based human impacts could be the best practice preserve these bioconstructions.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Sicília
6.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 14(5): 056006, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298225

RESUMO

Self-assembly in biology is an inspiration for engineered large-scale multi-modular systems with desirable characteristics, such as robustness, scalability, and adaptivity. Previous works have shown that simple mobile robots can be used to emulate and study self-assembly behaviors. However, many of these studies were restricted to rather static and inflexible aggregations in predefined shapes, and were limited in adaptivity compared to that observed in nature. We propose a photomorphogenesis approach for robots using our vascular morphogenesis model-a light-stimuli directed method for multi-robot self-assembly inspired by the tissue growth of trees. Robots in the role of 'leaves' collect a virtual resource that is proportional to a real, sensed environmental feature. This is then used to build a virtual underlying network that shares a common resource throughout the whole robot aggregate and determines where it grows or shrinks as a reaction to the dynamic environment. In our approach the robots use supplemental bioinspired models to collectively select a leading robot to decide who starts to self-assemble (and where), or to assemble static aggregations. The robots then use our vascular morphogenesis model to aggregate in a directed way preferring bright areas, hence resembling natural phototropism (growth towards light). Our main result is that the assembled robots are adaptive and able to react to dynamic environments by collectively and autonomously rearranging the aggregate, discarding outdated parts, and growing new ones. In representative experiments, the self-assembling robots collectively make rational decisions on where to grow. Cutting off parts of the aggregate triggers a self-organizing repair process in the robots, and the parts regrow. All these capabilities of adaptivity, collective decision-making, and self-repair in our robot self-assembly originate directly from self-organized behavior of the vascular morphogenesis model. Our approach opens up opportunities for self-assembly with reconfiguration on short time-scales with high adaptivity of dynamic forms and structures.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Luz , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Robótica , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Biomimética , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/efeitos da radiação
7.
Acta Biomater ; 96: 631-645, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302296

RESUMO

In reef-building corals, larval settlement and its rapid calcification provides a unique opportunity to study the bio-calcium carbonate formation mechanism involving skeleton morphological changes. Here we investigate the mineral formation of primary polyps, just after settlement, in two species of the pocilloporoid corals: Stylophora pistillata (Esper, 1797) and Pocillopora acuta (Lamarck, 1816). We show that the initial mineral phase is nascent Mg-Calcite, with rod-like morphology in P. acuta, and dumbbell morphology in S. pistillata. These structures constitute the first layer of the basal plate which is comparable to Rapid Accretion Deposits (Centers of Calcification, CoC) in adult coral skeleton. We found also that the rod-like/dumbbell Mg-Calcite structures in subsequent growth step will merge into larger aggregates by deposition of aragonite needles. Our results suggest that a biologically controlled mineralization of initial skeletal deposits occurs in three steps: first, vesicles filled with divalent ions are formed intracellularly. These vesicles are then transferred to the calcification site, forming nascent Mg-Calcite rod/pristine dumbbell structures. During the third step, aragonite crystals develop between these structures forming spherulite-like aggregates. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Coral settlement and recruitment periods are highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Successful mineralization during these periods is vital and influences the coral's chances of survival. Therefore, understanding the exact mechanism underlying carbonate precipitation is highly important. Here, we used in vivo microscopy, spectroscopy and molecular methods to provide new insights into mineral development. We show that the primary polyp's mineral arsenal consists of two types of minerals: Mg-Calcite and aragonite. In addition, we provide new insights into the ion pathway by showing that divalent ions are concentrated in intracellular vesicles and are eventually deposited at the calcification site.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(151): 20180567, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958182

RESUMO

Coral reefs are highly productive photosynthetic systems and coral optics studies suggest that such high efficiency is due to optimized light scattering by coral tissue and skeleton. Here, we characterize the inherent optical properties, i.e. the scattering coefficient, µs, and the anisotropy of scattering, g, of eight intact coral species using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we describe light scattering by coral skeletons, coenoarc tissues, polyp tentacles and areas covered by fluorescent pigments (FP). Our results reveal that light scattering between coral species ranges from µs = 3 mm-1 ( Stylophora pistillata) to µs = 25 mm-1 ( Echinopora lamelosa) . For Platygyra pini, µs was 10-fold higher for tissue versus skeleton, while in other corals (e.g. Hydnophora pilosa) no difference was found between tissue and skeletal scattering. Tissue scattering was threefold enhanced in coenosarc tissues ( µs = 24.6 mm-1) versus polyp tentacles ( µs = 8.3 mm-1) in Turbinaria reniformis. FP scattering was almost isotropic when FP were organized in granule chromatophores ( g = 0.34) but was forward directed when FP were distributed diffusely in the tissue ( g = 0.96). Our study provides detailed measurements of coral scattering and establishes a rapid approach for characterizing optical properties of photosynthetic soft tissues via OCT in vivo.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Cromatóforos/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Luz , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia
9.
Mar Genomics ; 47: 100676, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005610

RESUMO

Octocorals have now become the most visually dominant metazoan benthic taxa of most Caribbean reefs, following the precipitous decline of scleractinian corals. Yet taxonomic issues because of their extensive phenotypic plasticity are still abound. Briareum asbestinum one of the iconic octocorals of the shallow Caribbean coral reefs exhibits a biform morphology, the digitate and the encrusting one. The taxonomic status of each form has not been clarified, yet. Until recently, there were few genetic resources for non-model metazoans, however, affordable high-throughput DNA sequencing has removed this hindrance. We present the first transcriptome of the digitate form of Briareum asbestinum from southwest Puerto Rico. We used paired-end sequencing (Illumina NextSeq 500), with a total yield of 159,754,702 raw reads. De novo assembly was performed utilizing a multi-assembler approach generating 371,554 biologically true, non-redundant transcripts. Open reading frame analysis identified 102,839 putative ORFs of which 78,607 were with annotations. BUSCO analysis indicated a total of 96.4% complete orthologous genes from the metazoan dataset. The assembly presented here serves as an important new genomic reference for the Briareum genus that will facilitate future population and phylogenetic studies aiming to better understand the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity exhibited throughout the genus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Porto Rico
10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0203732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913227

RESUMO

This study assessed morphological variation of the depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa across shallow and mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) using thirteen corallite metrics. While corallite structure differed significantly across sites, we observed that mean corallite diameters were smaller and spacing was greater in mesophotic corals as compared to shallow corals. Additional corallite variation, including greater mean corallite height of mesophotic samples, are hypothesized to be photoadaptive responses to low light environments. Multivariate analyses also revealed two distinct morphotypes identified by significant variation in corallite spacing with >90% accuracy. A 'shallow' morphotype was characterized by larger, more closely-spaced corallites, while a 'depth-generalist' type exhibited smaller, further-spaced corallites. Variable presence of morphotypes within some sites suggests genotypic influence on corallite morphology as there was a slight, but significant, impact of morphotype on genetic structure within shallow zones in the Flower Garden Banks. Patterns of increased algal symbiont (Symbiodiniaceae) density and chlorophyll concentration were retained in the depth-generalist morphotype even in shallow zones, identifying multiple photoadaptive strategies between morphotypes. The results of this study suggest that morphological variation among M. cavernosa represents a combination of genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity rather than responses to environmental stimuli alone.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Simbiose , Animais , Antozoários/classificação
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 758, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679551

RESUMO

Coral reefs are threatened by a multitude of environmental and biotic influences. Among these, excavating sponges raise particular concern since they bore into coral skeleton forming extensive cavities which lead to weakening and loss of reef structures. Sponge bioerosion is achieved by a combination of chemical dissolution and mechanical chip removal and ocean acidification has been shown to accelerate bioerosion rates. However, despite the ecological relevance of sponge bioerosion, the exact chemical conditions in which dissolution takes place and how chips are removed remain elusive. Using fluorescence microscopy, we show that intracellular pH is lower at etching sites compared to ambient seawater and the sponge's tissue. This is realised through the extension of filopodia filled with low intracellular pH vesicles suggesting that protons are actively transported into this microenvironment to promote CaCO3 dissolution. Furthermore, fusiform myocyte-like cells forming reticulated pathways were localised at the interface between calcite and sponge. Such cells may be used by sponges to contract a conductive pathway to remove chips possibly instigated by excess Ca2+ at the boring site. The mechanism underlying CaCO3 dissolution by sponges provides new insight into how environmental conditions can enhance dissolution and improves predictions of future rates of coral dissolution due to sponge activity.


Assuntos
Antozoários/metabolismo , Recifes de Corais , Hidrobiologia , Poríferos/metabolismo , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares , Poríferos/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química
12.
ISME J ; 13(4): 989-1003, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542077

RESUMO

Under homoeostatic conditions, the relationship between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus is commensal. An increase in temperature, or in the abundance of V. coralliilyticus, can turn this association pathogenic, causing tissue lysis, expulsion of the corals' symbiotic algae (genus Symbiodinium), and eventually coral death. Using a combination of microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy, stable isotopes, electron microscopy and NanoSIMS isotopic imaging, we provide insights into the onset and progression of V. coralliilyticus infection in the daytime and at night, at the tissue and (sub-)cellular level. The objective of our study was to connect the macro-scale behavioural response of the coral to the micro-scale nutritional interactions that occur between the host and its symbiont. In the daytime, polyps enhanced their mucus production, and actively spewed pathogens. Vibrio infection primarily resulted in the formation of tissue lesions in the coenosarc. NanoSIMS analysis revealed infection reduced 13C-assimilation in Symbiodinium, but increased 13C-assimilation in the host. In the night incubations, no mucus spewing was observed, and a mucus film was formed on the coral surface. Vibrio inoculation and infection at night showed reduced 13C-turnover in Symbiodinium, but did not impact host 13C-turnover. Our results show that both the nutritional interactions that occur between the two symbiotic partners and the behavioural response of the host organism play key roles in determining the progression and severity of host-pathogen interactions. More generally, our approach provides a new means of studying interactions (ranging from behavioural to metabolic scales) between partners involved in complex holobiont systems, under both homoeostatic and pathogenic conditions.


Assuntos
Antozoários/microbiologia , Simbiose , Vibrio/fisiologia , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/metabolismo , Antozoários/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Nutrientes , Temperatura
13.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 66, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous phylogenetic analyses of primnoid octocorals utilizing morphological or molecular data have each recovered evolutionary relationships among genera that are largely incongruent with each other, with some exceptions. In an effort to reconcile molecular-based phylogenies with morphological characters, phylogenetic reconstructions were performed with 33 of 43 primnoid genera using four loci (mtMutS, COI, 28S and 18S), and ancestral state reconstructions were performed using 9 taxonomically relevant characters. In addition, an updated illustrated key to the current 48 genus-level (43 genera, 5 subgenera) primnoids is presented. RESULTS: Ancestral state reconstruction recovered the ancestral colony shape of primnoids as dichotomous planar. Convergence was detected among all 9 characters, and reversals to the character state of the common ancestor occurred in 4 characters. However, some characters were found to be informative. For example, the weak ascus scale of Metafannyella is not likely homologous to the ascus scales of Onogorgia and Fannyella, and the monophyly of two subgenera within Thouarella, which contain polyps in either whorls or an isolated arrangement, was supported. Phylogenetic analyses were generally consistent with previous studies, and resulted in the synonymy of one genus and a subgenus, the elevation of two subgenera, and the transfer of two species back to an original genus. For example, body wall ornamentation of Fanellia was re-evaluated, indicating a synonymy with Callogorgia; the utility of polyp arrangement for the subgenus Plumarella (Dicholaphis) was not supported, and is synonymized with the nominate subgenus Plumarella (Plumarella); the subgenera Plumarella (Faxiella) and Plumarella (Verticillata) are raised to generic status; and the two Plumarella species (P. diadema and P. undulata) are transferred back to Thouarella based on the homology of their marginal scales. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, and similar to other octocorallian groups, these results indicate that many of the morphological characters examined among primnoids, particularly colony morphology, are labile and exhibit complex evolutionary histories. However, some morphological characters such as coordination of polyps, presence of the ascus body wall scale, number of rows of body wall scales, and number of marginal scales help identify many clades, and are suitable for robust systematic assessments among primnoids.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 17, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement. Rise of competence through development was accompanied by up-regulation of sensory and signal transduction genes such as ion channels, genes involved in neuropeptide signaling, and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs). A drug screen targeting components of GPCR signaling pathways confirmed a role in larval settlement behavior and metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results gives insight into the molecular complexity underlying these transitions and reveals receptors and pathways that, if altered by changing environments, could affect dispersal capabilities of reef-building corals. In addition, this dataset provides a toolkit for asking broad questions about sensory capacity in multicellular animals and the evolution of development.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antozoários/genética , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/embriologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilização , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Transcriptoma
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1046, 2017 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051488

RESUMO

Coralgal reefs preserve the signatures of sea-level fluctuations over Earth's history, in particular since the Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago, and are used in this study to indicate that punctuated sea-level rise events are more common than previously observed during the last deglaciation. Recognizing the nature of past sea-level rises (i.e., gradual or stepwise) during deglaciation is critical for informing models that predict future vertical behavior of global oceans. Here we present high-resolution bathymetric and seismic sonar data sets of 10 morphologically similar drowned reefs that grew during the last deglaciation and spread 120 km apart along the south Texas shelf edge. Herein, six commonly observed terrace levels are interpreted to be generated by several punctuated sea-level rise events forcing the reefs to shrink and backstep through time. These systematic and common terraces are interpreted to record punctuated sea-level rise events over timescales of decades to centuries during the last deglaciation, previously recognized only during the late Holocene.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Groenlândia , Oceanos e Mares
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9849, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852107

RESUMO

Colony morphological features is among the best predictor of the scleractinian coral's function in reef ecosystems. However, morphological traits are categorical and to convert this information into a quantitative value as well as estimate their influence on ecosystem process remain a challenge. Here, we propose a trait-based approach to quantify morphological diversity and assess the structural complexity of the habitat provided by corals. We used a previously published dataset that is related to a bleaching event that affected the coral reef off Tikus Island in Indonesia in 1983. We found clear signs of recovery of the coral assemblage's complexity toward pre El Niño conditions five years after the event. Independent of the change observed in species richness, this return in structural complexity was accompanied by a global decrease in species number associated with each particular morphological entity (Functional Redundancy) and an increase in the number of single-species entities (Functional Vulnerability). Together with species loss, we show an overall functional erosion of the coral assemblage and suggest that the role of the coral reef habitat could be strongly imperiled under repeated or synergistic disturbances. This approach offers an opportunity for a better understanding of coral responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Indonésia , Fenótipo
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4568, 2017 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676643

RESUMO

We used a high-resolution oxygen isotope (δ18Ocoral), carbon isotope (δ13Ccoral) and Sr/Ca ratios measured in the skeleton of a reef-building coral, Porites sp., to reveal seasonal-scale upwelling events and their interannual variability in the Gulf of Oman. Our δ13Ccoral record shows sharp negative excursions in the summer, which correlate with known upwelling events. Using δ13Ccoral anomalies as a proxy for upwelling, we found 17 summer upwelling events occurred in the last 26 years. These anomalous negative excursions of δ13Ccoral result from upwelled water depleted in 13C (dissolved inorganic carbon) and decreased water-column transparency. We reconstructed biweekly SSTs from coral Sr/Ca ratios and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18OSW) by subtracting the reconstructed Sr/Ca-SST from δ18Ocoral. Significant δ18OSW anomalies occur during major upwelling events. Our results suggest δ13Ccoral anomalies can be used as a proxy for seasonal upwelling intensity in the Gulf of Oman, which, driven by the Indian/Arabian Summer Monsoon, is subject to interannual variability.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Estações do Ano , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Carbonatos/análise , Carbonatos/química , Omã , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar/química , Oligoelementos
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 873-884, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886678

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.


Assuntos
Animais , Mudança Climática , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recifes de Corais , Fatores de Tempo , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Crescimento Demográfico , Mapeamento Geográfico
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 89(2): 1143-1153, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513777

RESUMO

Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mapeamento Geográfico , Crescimento Demográfico , Fatores de Tempo
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