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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Mar Genomics ; 47: 100676, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005610

RESUMO

Octocorals have now become the most visually dominant metazoan benthic taxa of most Caribbean reefs, following the precipitous decline of scleractinian corals. Yet taxonomic issues because of their extensive phenotypic plasticity are still abound. Briareum asbestinum one of the iconic octocorals of the shallow Caribbean coral reefs exhibits a biform morphology, the digitate and the encrusting one. The taxonomic status of each form has not been clarified, yet. Until recently, there were few genetic resources for non-model metazoans, however, affordable high-throughput DNA sequencing has removed this hindrance. We present the first transcriptome of the digitate form of Briareum asbestinum from southwest Puerto Rico. We used paired-end sequencing (Illumina NextSeq 500), with a total yield of 159,754,702 raw reads. De novo assembly was performed utilizing a multi-assembler approach generating 371,554 biologically true, non-redundant transcripts. Open reading frame analysis identified 102,839 putative ORFs of which 78,607 were with annotations. BUSCO analysis indicated a total of 96.4% complete orthologous genes from the metazoan dataset. The assembly presented here serves as an important new genomic reference for the Briareum genus that will facilitate future population and phylogenetic studies aiming to better understand the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity exhibited throughout the genus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Porto Rico
3.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0203732, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913227

RESUMO

This study assessed morphological variation of the depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa across shallow and mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) using thirteen corallite metrics. While corallite structure differed significantly across sites, we observed that mean corallite diameters were smaller and spacing was greater in mesophotic corals as compared to shallow corals. Additional corallite variation, including greater mean corallite height of mesophotic samples, are hypothesized to be photoadaptive responses to low light environments. Multivariate analyses also revealed two distinct morphotypes identified by significant variation in corallite spacing with >90% accuracy. A 'shallow' morphotype was characterized by larger, more closely-spaced corallites, while a 'depth-generalist' type exhibited smaller, further-spaced corallites. Variable presence of morphotypes within some sites suggests genotypic influence on corallite morphology as there was a slight, but significant, impact of morphotype on genetic structure within shallow zones in the Flower Garden Banks. Patterns of increased algal symbiont (Symbiodiniaceae) density and chlorophyll concentration were retained in the depth-generalist morphotype even in shallow zones, identifying multiple photoadaptive strategies between morphotypes. The results of this study suggest that morphological variation among M. cavernosa represents a combination of genotypic variation and phenotypic plasticity rather than responses to environmental stimuli alone.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Simbiose , Animais , Antozoários/classificação
4.
ISME J ; 13(4): 989-1003, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542077

RESUMO

Under homoeostatic conditions, the relationship between the coral Pocillopora damicornis and Vibrio coralliilyticus is commensal. An increase in temperature, or in the abundance of V. coralliilyticus, can turn this association pathogenic, causing tissue lysis, expulsion of the corals' symbiotic algae (genus Symbiodinium), and eventually coral death. Using a combination of microfluidics, fluorescence microscopy, stable isotopes, electron microscopy and NanoSIMS isotopic imaging, we provide insights into the onset and progression of V. coralliilyticus infection in the daytime and at night, at the tissue and (sub-)cellular level. The objective of our study was to connect the macro-scale behavioural response of the coral to the micro-scale nutritional interactions that occur between the host and its symbiont. In the daytime, polyps enhanced their mucus production, and actively spewed pathogens. Vibrio infection primarily resulted in the formation of tissue lesions in the coenosarc. NanoSIMS analysis revealed infection reduced 13C-assimilation in Symbiodinium, but increased 13C-assimilation in the host. In the night incubations, no mucus spewing was observed, and a mucus film was formed on the coral surface. Vibrio inoculation and infection at night showed reduced 13C-turnover in Symbiodinium, but did not impact host 13C-turnover. Our results show that both the nutritional interactions that occur between the two symbiotic partners and the behavioural response of the host organism play key roles in determining the progression and severity of host-pathogen interactions. More generally, our approach provides a new means of studying interactions (ranging from behavioural to metabolic scales) between partners involved in complex holobiont systems, under both homoeostatic and pathogenic conditions.


Assuntos
Antozoários/microbiologia , Simbiose , Vibrio/fisiologia , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/metabolismo , Antozoários/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Nutrientes , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
BMC Evol Biol ; 18(1): 66, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous phylogenetic analyses of primnoid octocorals utilizing morphological or molecular data have each recovered evolutionary relationships among genera that are largely incongruent with each other, with some exceptions. In an effort to reconcile molecular-based phylogenies with morphological characters, phylogenetic reconstructions were performed with 33 of 43 primnoid genera using four loci (mtMutS, COI, 28S and 18S), and ancestral state reconstructions were performed using 9 taxonomically relevant characters. In addition, an updated illustrated key to the current 48 genus-level (43 genera, 5 subgenera) primnoids is presented. RESULTS: Ancestral state reconstruction recovered the ancestral colony shape of primnoids as dichotomous planar. Convergence was detected among all 9 characters, and reversals to the character state of the common ancestor occurred in 4 characters. However, some characters were found to be informative. For example, the weak ascus scale of Metafannyella is not likely homologous to the ascus scales of Onogorgia and Fannyella, and the monophyly of two subgenera within Thouarella, which contain polyps in either whorls or an isolated arrangement, was supported. Phylogenetic analyses were generally consistent with previous studies, and resulted in the synonymy of one genus and a subgenus, the elevation of two subgenera, and the transfer of two species back to an original genus. For example, body wall ornamentation of Fanellia was re-evaluated, indicating a synonymy with Callogorgia; the utility of polyp arrangement for the subgenus Plumarella (Dicholaphis) was not supported, and is synonymized with the nominate subgenus Plumarella (Plumarella); the subgenera Plumarella (Faxiella) and Plumarella (Verticillata) are raised to generic status; and the two Plumarella species (P. diadema and P. undulata) are transferred back to Thouarella based on the homology of their marginal scales. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, and similar to other octocorallian groups, these results indicate that many of the morphological characters examined among primnoids, particularly colony morphology, are labile and exhibit complex evolutionary histories. However, some morphological characters such as coordination of polyps, presence of the ascus body wall scale, number of rows of body wall scales, and number of marginal scales help identify many clades, and are suitable for robust systematic assessments among primnoids.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 17, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Molecular mechanisms underlying coral larval competence, the ability of larvae to respond to settlement cues, determine their dispersal potential and are potential targets of natural selection. Here, we profiled competence, fluorescence and genome-wide gene expression in embryos and larvae of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora daily throughout 12 days post-fertilization. RESULTS: Gene expression associated with competence was positively correlated with transcriptomic response to the natural settlement cue, confirming that mature coral larvae are "primed" for settlement. Rise of competence through development was accompanied by up-regulation of sensory and signal transduction genes such as ion channels, genes involved in neuropeptide signaling, and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs). A drug screen targeting components of GPCR signaling pathways confirmed a role in larval settlement behavior and metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results gives insight into the molecular complexity underlying these transitions and reveals receptors and pathways that, if altered by changing environments, could affect dispersal capabilities of reef-building corals. In addition, this dataset provides a toolkit for asking broad questions about sensory capacity in multicellular animals and the evolution of development.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antozoários/genética , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/embriologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilização , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1046, 2017 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051488

RESUMO

Coralgal reefs preserve the signatures of sea-level fluctuations over Earth's history, in particular since the Last Glacial Maximum 20,000 years ago, and are used in this study to indicate that punctuated sea-level rise events are more common than previously observed during the last deglaciation. Recognizing the nature of past sea-level rises (i.e., gradual or stepwise) during deglaciation is critical for informing models that predict future vertical behavior of global oceans. Here we present high-resolution bathymetric and seismic sonar data sets of 10 morphologically similar drowned reefs that grew during the last deglaciation and spread 120 km apart along the south Texas shelf edge. Herein, six commonly observed terrace levels are interpreted to be generated by several punctuated sea-level rise events forcing the reefs to shrink and backstep through time. These systematic and common terraces are interpreted to record punctuated sea-level rise events over timescales of decades to centuries during the last deglaciation, previously recognized only during the late Holocene.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Groenlândia , Oceanos e Mares
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9849, 2017 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852107

RESUMO

Colony morphological features is among the best predictor of the scleractinian coral's function in reef ecosystems. However, morphological traits are categorical and to convert this information into a quantitative value as well as estimate their influence on ecosystem process remain a challenge. Here, we propose a trait-based approach to quantify morphological diversity and assess the structural complexity of the habitat provided by corals. We used a previously published dataset that is related to a bleaching event that affected the coral reef off Tikus Island in Indonesia in 1983. We found clear signs of recovery of the coral assemblage's complexity toward pre El Niño conditions five years after the event. Independent of the change observed in species richness, this return in structural complexity was accompanied by a global decrease in species number associated with each particular morphological entity (Functional Redundancy) and an increase in the number of single-species entities (Functional Vulnerability). Together with species loss, we show an overall functional erosion of the coral assemblage and suggest that the role of the coral reef habitat could be strongly imperiled under repeated or synergistic disturbances. This approach offers an opportunity for a better understanding of coral responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Indonésia , Fenótipo
9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4568, 2017 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676643

RESUMO

We used a high-resolution oxygen isotope (δ18Ocoral), carbon isotope (δ13Ccoral) and Sr/Ca ratios measured in the skeleton of a reef-building coral, Porites sp., to reveal seasonal-scale upwelling events and their interannual variability in the Gulf of Oman. Our δ13Ccoral record shows sharp negative excursions in the summer, which correlate with known upwelling events. Using δ13Ccoral anomalies as a proxy for upwelling, we found 17 summer upwelling events occurred in the last 26 years. These anomalous negative excursions of δ13Ccoral result from upwelled water depleted in 13C (dissolved inorganic carbon) and decreased water-column transparency. We reconstructed biweekly SSTs from coral Sr/Ca ratios and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18OSW) by subtracting the reconstructed Sr/Ca-SST from δ18Ocoral. Significant δ18OSW anomalies occur during major upwelling events. Our results suggest δ13Ccoral anomalies can be used as a proxy for seasonal upwelling intensity in the Gulf of Oman, which, driven by the Indian/Arabian Summer Monsoon, is subject to interannual variability.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Estações do Ano , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Carbonatos/análise , Carbonatos/química , Omã , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Água do Mar/química , Oligoelementos
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 112: 174-184, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467886

RESUMO

The development of coalescent-based and other multilocus methods for species delimitation has facilitated the identification of cryptic species complexes across the tree of life. A recent taxonomic revision of the ecologically important soft coral genus Ovabunda validated 11morphospecies, all with type localities and overlapping geographic ranges in the Red Sea. A subsequent molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and 28S nrDNA genes divided the genus into just two clades, with no apparent genetic distinctions among morphospecies. To further explore species boundaries among morphospecies of Ovabunda we sequenced three additional nuclear genes (ITS, ATPSα, ATPSß), and obtained data for 1332 unlinked SNPs from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing. Both coalescent-based and allele-sharing species delimitation analyses supported four species of Ovabunda, each of which included multiple morphotypes encompassing the full range of morphological variation observed within the genus. All four species occurred over the same depth range of 5-41m, and were sympatric at sites separated by 1100km in the Red Sea. The only characters that have been found to distinguish three of the four species are diagnostic substitutions in the nuclear genome; the fourth differs by exhibiting polyp pulsation, a behavioral trait that can be assessed only in live colonies. The lack of any obvious morphological, life history, ecological or geographical differences among these four species begs the question of what drove the evolution and maintenance of reproductive isolating mechanisms in this cryptic species complex.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Geografia , Alelos , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Oceano Índico , Funções Verossimilhança , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 89(2): 1143-1153, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513777

RESUMO

Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mapeamento Geográfico , Crescimento Demográfico , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Biol Bull ; 232(1): 58-70, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28445091

RESUMO

The genus Siderastrea exhibits high levels of morphological variability. Some of its species share similar morphological characteristics with congeners, making their identification difficult. Siderastrea stellata has been reported as an intermediary of S. siderea and S. radians in the Brazilian reef ecosystem. In an earlier study conducted in Mexico, we detected Siderastrea colonies with morphological features that were not consistent with some siderastreid species previously reported in the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, we performed a combined morphological and molecular analysis to identify Siderastrea species boundaries from the Gulf of Mexico. Some colonies presented high morphologic variability, with characteristics that corresponded to Siderastrea stellata. Molecular analysis, using the nuclear ITS and ITS2 region, corroborated the morphological results, revealing low genetic variability between S. radians and S. stellata. Since the ITS sequences did not distinguish between Siderastrea species, we used the ITS2 region to differentiate S. stellata from S. radians. This is the first report of Siderastrea stellata and its variability in the Gulf of Mexico that is supported by morphological and molecular analyses.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Brasil , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Variação Genética , Golfo do México , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
J R Soc Interface ; 14(128)2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28250104

RESUMO

Application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for in vivo imaging of tissue and skeleton structure of intact living corals enabled the non-invasive visualization of coral tissue layers (endoderm versus ectoderm), skeletal cavities and special structures such as mesenterial filaments and mucus release from intact living corals. Coral host chromatophores containing green fluorescent protein-like pigment granules appeared hyper-reflective to near-infrared radiation allowing for excellent optical contrast in OCT and a rapid characterization of chromatophore size, distribution and abundance. In vivo tissue plasticity could be quantified by the linear contraction velocity of coral tissues upon illumination resulting in dynamic changes in the live coral tissue surface area, which varied by a factor of 2 between the contracted and expanded state of a coral. Our study provides a novel view on the in vivo organization of coral tissue and skeleton and highlights the importance of microstructural dynamics for coral ecophysiology.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Cromatóforos/citologia , Cromatóforos/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Animais
15.
Cell Tissue Res ; 368(2): 311-323, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138798

RESUMO

Because hermatypic species use symbiotic algal photosynthesis, most of the literature in this field focuses on this autotrophic mode and very little research has studied the morphology of the coral's digestive system or the digestion process of particulate food. Using histology and histochemestry, our research reveals that Stylophora pistillata's digestive system is concentrated at the corals' peristome, actinopharynx and mesenterial filaments (MF). We used in-situ hybridization (ISH) of the RNA transcript of the gene that codes for the S. pistillata digestive enzyme, chymotrypsinogen, to shed light on the functionality of the digestive system. Both the histochemistry and the ISH pointed to the MF being specialized digestive organs, equipped with large numbers of acidophilic and basophilic granular gland cells, as well as acidophilic non-granular gland cells, some of which produce chymotrypsinogen. We identified two types of MF: short, trilobed MF and unilobed, long and convoluted MF. Each S. pistillata polyp harbors two long convoluted MF and 10 short MF. While the short MF have neither secreting nor stinging cells, each of the convoluted MF display gradual cytological changes along their longitudinal axis, alternating between stinging and secreting cells and three distinctive types of secretory cells. These observations indicate the important digestive role of the long convoluted MF. They also indicate the existence of novel feeding compartments in the gastric cavity of the polyp, primarily in the nutritionally active peristome, in the actinopharynx and in three regions of the MF that differ from each other in their cellular components, general morphology and chymotrypsinogen excretion.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Quimotripsinogênio/química , Quimotripsinogênio/metabolismo , Sistema Digestório/citologia , Hibridização In Situ , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim ; 53(2): 111-122, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709417

RESUMO

Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO2-induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Regeneração , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Endoderma/fisiologia , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Ecology ; 97(12): 3485-3493, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27912010

RESUMO

Understanding species differences in demographic strategies is a fundamental goal of ecology. In scleractinian corals, colony morphology is tightly linked with many demographic traits, such as size-specific growth and morality. Here we test how well morphology predicts the colony size-fecundity relationship in eight species of broadcast-spawning corals. Variation in colony fecundity is greater among morphologies than between species with a similar morphology, demonstrating that colony morphology can be used as a quantitative proxy for demographic strategies. Additionally, we examine the relationship between size-specific colony fecundity and mechanical vulnerability (i.e., vulnerability to colony dislodgment). Interestingly, the relationship between size-specific fecundity and mechanical vulnerability varied among morphologies. For tabular species, the most fecund colonies are the most mechanically vulnerable, while the opposite is true for massive species. For corymbose and digitate colonies, mechanical vulnerability remains relatively constant as fecundity increases. These results reveal strong differences in the demographic tradeoffs among species of different morphologies. Using colony morphology as a quantitative proxy for demographic strategies can help predict coral community dynamics and responses to anthropogenic change.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36535, 2016 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27857209

RESUMO

Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1-5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Biodiversidade , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Mar Mediterrâneo
19.
J Exp Biol ; 219(Pt 24): 3896-3906, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802143

RESUMO

Body size has large effects on organism physiology, but these effects remain poorly understood in modular animals with complex morphologies. Using two trials of a ∼24 day experiment conducted in 2014 and 2015, we tested the hypothesis that colony size of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa affects the response of calcification, aerobic respiration and gross photosynthesis to temperature (∼26.5 and ∼29.7°C) and PCO2  (∼40 and ∼1000 µatm). Large corals calcified more than small corals, but at a slower size-specific rate; area-normalized calcification declined with size. Whole-colony and area-normalized calcification were unaffected by temperature, PCO2 , or the interaction between the two. Whole-colony respiration increased with colony size, but the slopes of these relationships differed between treatments. Area-normalized gross photosynthesis declined with colony size, but whole-colony photosynthesis was unaffected by PCO2 , and showed a weak response to temperature. When scaled up to predict the response of large corals, area-normalized metrics of physiological performance measured using small corals provide inaccurate estimates of the physiological performance of large colonies. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of colony size in modulating the response of branching corals to elevated temperature and high PCO2.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Teorema de Bayes , Tamanho Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Lineares , Pressão Parcial
20.
Zootaxa ; 4154(5): 526-40, 2016 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615857

RESUMO

The scleractinian genus Faksephyllia Floris, 1972, is revised based on the study of original and topotypic material as well as original descriptions. Representatives of this genus have been reported from only a small number of lower Paleogene localities, including the Danian of Azerbaijan, Denmark (Greenland), Kazakhstan, and Sweden, as well as the Paleocene of Austria and Denmark (Fakse). New material belonging to the type species of Faksephyllia (F. faxoensis) is described from the Lower Oligocene of Austria (Northern Calcareous Alps, Tyrol). In addition, material from the Oligocene of Germany and the Lower Oligocene of Italy, formerly grouped with the genera Calamophyllia and Rhabdophyllia, are here re-assigned and transferred to Faksephyllia. The genus Faksephyllia remains a monospecific taxon, including only the type species, Faksephyllia faxoensis (Beck, in Lyell). In addition, Faksephyllia represents the earliest colonial genus among the caryophylliids.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Áustria , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Alemanha , Itália , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
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