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1.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(6): 528-538, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833324

RESUMO

Two species of Synactinernus sea anemones were found in Japanese waters. Synactinernus flavus Carlgren, 1918, the only described species of this genus, is rediscovered from off the Goto Islands a century after the original description. Synactinernus flavus was once synonymized with Isactinernus quadrilobatus Carlgren, 1918; however, we show that, based on morphological (including examination of type specimens) and molecular (using nuclear 18S rDNA) evidence, these species are completely different. The other species, Synactinernus churaumi sp. nov., was found off Ishigaki Island and Okinawa Island by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), and had been kept for 15 years in a tank at the Okinawa Churaumi Aquarium. There are clear differences between these two species; therefore, we describe the second species and revise the diagnosis of Synactinernus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Antozoários/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 187, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heliopora coerulea, the blue coral, is the octocoral characterized by its blue skeleton. Recently, two Heliopora species were delimited by DNA markers: HC-A and HC-B. To clarify the genomic divergence of these Heliopora species (HC-A and HC-B) from sympatric and allopatric populations in Okinawa, Japan, we used a high throughput reduced representation genomic DNA sequencing approach (ezRAD). RESULTS: We found 6742 biallelic SNPs shared among all target populations, which successfully distinguished the HC-A and HC-B species in both the sympatric and allopatric populations, with no evidence of hybridization between the two. In addition, we detected 410 fixed SNPs linking functional gene differences, including heat resilience and reproductive timing, between HC-A and HC-B. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed clear genomic divergence between Heliopora species and found possible genes related to stress-responses and reproduction, which may shed light on the speciation process and ecological divergence of coral species.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Hibridização Genética , Japão , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria/genética
3.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 153, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evolutionary patterns of scleractinian (stony) corals are difficult to infer given the existence of few diagnostic characters and pervasive phenotypic plasticity. A previous study of Hawaiian Montipora (Scleractinia: Acroporidae) based on five partial mitochondrial and two nuclear genes revealed the existence of a species complex, grouping one of the rarest known species (M. dilatata, which is listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature - IUCN) with widespread corals of very different colony growth forms (M. flabellata and M. cf. turgescens). These previous results could result from a lack of resolution due to a limited number of markers, compositional heterogeneity or reflect biological processes such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or introgression. RESULTS: All 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes from 55 scleractinians (14 lineages from this study) were used to evaluate if a recent origin of the M. dilatata species complex or rate heterogeneity could be compromising phylogenetic inference. Rate heterogeneity detected in the mitochondrial data set seems to have no significant impacts on the phylogenies but clearly affects age estimates. Dating analyses show different estimations for the speciation of M. dilatata species complex depending on whether taking compositional heterogeneity into account (0.8 [0.05-2.6] Myr) or assuming rate homogeneity (0.4 [0.14-0.75] Myr). Genomic data also provided evidence of introgression among all analysed samples of the complex. RADseq data indicated that M. capitata colour morphs may have a genetic basis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the volume of data (over 60,000 SNPs), phylogenetic relationships within the M. dilatata species complex remain unresolved most likely due to a recent origin and ongoing introgression. Species delimitation with genomic data is not concordant with the current taxonomy, which does not reflect the true diversity of this group. Nominal species within the complex are either undergoing a speciation process or represent ecomorphs exhibiting phenotypic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Genoma , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Genoma Mitocondrial , Hawaii , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(4): 830-844, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225585

RESUMO

As scleractinian coral cover declines in the face of increased frequency in disease outbreaks, future reefs may become dominated by octocorals. Understanding octocoral disease responses and consequences is therefore necessary if we are to gain insight into the future of ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. In Florida, populations of the octocoral Eunicea calyculata infected with Eunicea black disease (EBD) were observed in the field in the fall of 2011. This disease was recognized by a stark, black pigmentation caused by heavy melanization. Histological preparations of E. calyculata infected with EBD demonstrated granular amoebocyte (GA) mobilization, melanin granules in much of the GA population, and the presence of fungal hyphae penetrating coral tissue. Previous transcriptomic analysis also identified immune trade-offs evidenced by increased immune investment at the expense of growth. Our investigation utilized proteogenomic techniques to reveal decreased investment in general cell signaling while increasing energy production for immune responses. Inflammation was also prominent in diseased E. calyculata and sheds light on factors driving the extreme phenotype observed with EBD. With disease outbreaks continuing to increase in frequency, our results highlight new targets within the cnidarian immune system and provide a framework for understanding transcriptomics in the context of an organismal disease phenotype and its protein expression.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteoma/imunologia , Animais
5.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(4): 819-829, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236558

RESUMO

Historically mechanisms with which basal animals such as reef-building corals use to respond to changing and increasingly stressful environments have remained elusive. However, the increasing availability of genomic and transcriptomic data from these organisms has provided fundamental insights into the biology of these critically important ecosystem engineers. Notably, insights into cnidarians gained in the post-genomics age have revealed a surprisingly complex immune system which bears a surprising level of similarity with the vertebrate innate immune system. This system has been critically linked to how corals respond to the two most prominent threats on a global scale, emerging coral diseases and increasing water temperature, which are recognized cellularly as either foreign or domestic threats, respectively. These threats can arise from pathogenic microbes or internal cellular dysfunction, underscoring the need to further understand mechanisms corals use to sense and respond to threats to their cellular integrity. In this investigation and meta-analysis, we utilize resources only recently available in the post-genomic era to identify and characterize members of an underexplored class of molecules known as NOD-like receptors in the endangered Caribbean coral Orbicella faveolata. We then leverage these data to identify pathways possibly mediated by NLRs in both O. faveolata and the ecologically important branching coral Acropora digitifera. Overall, we find support that this class of proteins may provide a mechanistic link to how reef-building corals respond to threats both foreign and domestic.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Evolução Molecular , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(4): 845-855, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150064

RESUMO

Coral reefs are faced with almost complete destruction by the end of the century due to global warming unless humanity can cap global temperature rise. There is now a race to develop a diverse set of solutions to save coral reefs. In this perspective, a case is made for understanding the cell biology of coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis to help inform development of solutions for saving reefs. Laboratory model systems for the study of coral symbiosis, including the sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida, are featured as valuable tools in the fight to save corals. The roles of host innate immunity and inter-partner nutrient dynamics in the onset, ongoing maintenance, and dysregulation of symbiosis are reviewed and discussed. Key innate immune genes and pathways, such as glycan-lectin interactions, the sphingosine rheostat, and the cytokine transforming growth factor beta are shown to modulate a host immune response in the symbiotic state. An upset in the homeostatic inorganic nutrient balance during heat stress and high exogenous nutrient availability is credited with driving the partnership toward dysregulation and coral bleaching. Specific examples are given where knowledge of the cell biology of symbiosis is informing the development of solutions, including studies showing clear limitations in the value of partner switching and acclimatization protocols. Finally, emphasis is placed on rapid advancement of knowledge to try to meet the urgent need for solutions. This includes real-time open communication with colleagues on successes and failures, sharing of resources and information, and working together in the spirit of a collective mission to save coral reefs.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Dinoflagelados/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/imunologia , Recifes de Corais , Aquecimento Global , Imunidade Inata/genética , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/imunologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Simbiose/imunologia
7.
Elife ; 82019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159921

RESUMO

Reef-building corals depend on intracellular dinoflagellate symbionts that provide nutrients. Besides sugars, the transfer of sterols is essential for corals and other sterol-auxotrophic cnidarians. Sterols are important cell components, and variants of the conserved Niemann-Pick Type C2 (NPC2) sterol transporter are vastly up-regulated in symbiotic cnidarians. Types and proportions of transferred sterols and the mechanism of their transfer, however, remain unknown. Using different pairings of symbiont strains with lines of Aiptasia anemones or Acropora corals, we observe both symbiont- and host-driven patterns of sterol transfer, revealing plasticity of sterol use and functional substitution. We propose that sterol transfer is mediated by the symbiosis-specific, non-canonical NPC2 proteins, which gradually accumulate in the symbiosome. Our data suggest that non-canonical NPCs are adapted to the symbiosome environment, including low pH, and play an important role in allowing corals to dominate nutrient-poor shallow tropical seas worldwide.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Elastase Pancreática/genética , Esteróis/metabolismo , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Antozoários/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Colesterol/genética , Colesterol/metabolismo , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/genética , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/metabolismo
8.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 116, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our ability to investigate processes shaping the evolutionary diversification of corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is limited by a lack of understanding of species boundaries. Discerning species of corals has been challenging due to a multitude of factors, including homoplasious and plastic morphological characters and the use of molecular markers that are either not informative or have not completely sorted. Hybridization can also blur species boundaries by leading to incongruence between morphology and genetics. We used traditional DNA barcoding and restriction-site associated DNA sequencing combined with coalescence-based and allele-frequency methods to elucidate species boundaries and simultaneously examine the potential role of hybridization in a speciose genus of octocoral, Sinularia. RESULTS: Species delimitations using two widely used DNA barcode markers, mtMutS and 28S rDNA, were incongruent with one another and with the morphospecies identifications. When mtMutS and 28S were concatenated, a 0.3% genetic distance threshold delimited the majority of morphospecies. In contrast, 12 of the 15 examined morphospecies formed well-supported monophyletic clades in both concatenated RAxML phylogenies and SNAPP species trees of > 6000 RADSeq loci. DAPC and Structure analyses also supported morphospecies assignments, but indicated the potential for two additional cryptic species. Three morphologically distinct species pairs could not, however, be distinguished genetically. ABBA-BABA tests demonstrated significant admixture between some of those species, suggesting that hybridization may confound species delimitation in Sinularia. CONCLUSIONS: A genomic approach can help to guide species delimitation while simultaneously elucidating the processes generating coral diversity. Results support the hypothesis that hybridization is an important mechanism in the evolution of Anthozoa, including octocorals, and future research should examine the contribution of this mechanism in generating diversity across the coral tree of life.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Análise Discriminante , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(7): 2045-2054, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243452

RESUMO

The rice coral, Montipora capitata, is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific and comprises one of the most important reef-building species in the Hawaiian Islands. Here, we describe a de novo assembly of its genome based on a linked-read sequencing approach developed by 10x Genomics. The final draft assembly consisted of 27,870 scaffolds with a N50 size of 186 kb and contained a fairly complete set (81%) of metazoan benchmarking (BUSCO) genes. Based on haploid assembly size (615 Mb) and read k-mer profiles, we estimated the genome size to fall between 600 and 700 Mb, although the high fraction of repetitive sequence introduced considerable uncertainty. Repeat analysis indicated that 42% of the assembly consisted of interspersed, mostly unclassified repeats, and almost 3% tandem repeats. We also identified 36,691 protein-coding genes with a median coding sequence length of 807 bp, together spanning 7% of the assembly. The high repeat content and heterozygosity of the genome proved a challenging scenario for assembly, requiring additional steps to merge haplotypes and resulting in a higher than expected fragmentation at the scaffold level. Despite these challenges, the assembly turned out to be comparable in most quality measures to that of other available coral genomes while being considerably more cost-effective, especially with respect to long-read sequencing methods. Provided high-molecular-weight DNA is available, linked-read technology may thus serve as a valuable alternative capable of providing quality genome assemblies of nonmodel organisms.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Genoma/genética , Animais , Genômica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 387, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scleractinian corals are important reef builders, but around the world they are under the threat of global climate change as well as local stressors. Molecular resources are critical for understanding a species' stress responses and resilience to the changing environment, but such resources are unavailable for most scleractinian corals, especially those distributed in the South China Sea. We therefore aimed to provide transcriptome resources for 14 common species, including a few structure forming species, in the South China Sea. DESCRIPTION: We sequenced the transcriptome of 14 species of scleractinian corals using high-throughput RNA-seq and conducted de novo assembly. For each species, we produced 7.4 to 12.0 gigabases of reads, and assembled them into 271 to 762 thousand contigs with a N50 value of 629 to 1427 bp. These contigs included 66 to 114 thousand unigenes with a predicted open reading frame, and 74.3 to 80.5% of the unigenes were functionally annotated. In the azooxanthelate species Tubastraea coccinea, 41.5% of the unigenes had at least a best-hit sequence from corals. In the other thirteen species, 20.2 to 48.9% of the annotated unigenes had best-hit sequences from corals, and 28.3 to 51.6% from symbiotic algae belonging to the family Symbiodinaceae. With these resources, we developed a transcriptome database (CoralTBase) which features online BLAST and keyword search for unigenes/functional terms through a user friendly Internet interface. SHORT CONCLUSION: We developed comprehensive transcriptome resources for 14 species of scleractinian corals and constructed a publicly accessible database ( www.comp.hkbu.edu.hk/~db/CoralTBase ). CoralTBase will facilitate not only functional studies using these corals to understand the molecular basis of stress responses and adaptation, but also comparative transcriptomic studies with other species of corals and more distantly related cnidarians.


Assuntos
Antozoários/classificação , Antozoários/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Transcriptoma , Animais , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Simbiose
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035578

RESUMO

More than a decade ago, a new mitochondrial Open Reading Frame (mtORF) was discovered in corals of the family Pocilloporidae and has been used since then as an effective barcode for these corals. Recently, mtORF sequencing revealed the existence of two differentiated Stylophora lineages occurring in sympatry along the environmental gradient of the Red Sea (18.5°C to 33.9°C). In the endemic Red Sea lineage RS_LinB, the mtORF and the heat shock protein gene hsp70 uncovered similar phylogeographic patterns strongly correlated with environmental variations. This suggests that the mtORF too might be involved in thermal adaptation. Here, we used computational analyses to explore the features and putative function of this mtORF. In particular, we tested the likelihood that this gene encodes a functional protein and whether it may play a role in adaptation. Analyses of full mitogenomes showed that the mtORF originated in the common ancestor of Madracis and other pocilloporids, and that it encodes a transmembrane protein differing in length and domain architecture among genera. Homology-based annotation and the relative conservation of metal-binding sites revealed traces of an ancient hydrolase catalytic activity. Furthermore, signals of pervasive purifying selection, lack of stop codons in 1830 sequences analyzed, and a codon-usage bias similar to that of other mitochondrial genes indicate that the protein is functional, i.e., not a pseudogene. Other features, such as intrinsically disordered regions, tandem repeats, and signals of positive selection particularly in Stylophora RS_LinB populations, are consistent with a role of the mtORF in adaptive responses to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Biologia Computacional , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Conformação Proteica , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética
13.
Nature ; 568(7750): 41-42, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944488
14.
Mar Genomics ; 47: 100676, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005610

RESUMO

Octocorals have now become the most visually dominant metazoan benthic taxa of most Caribbean reefs, following the precipitous decline of scleractinian corals. Yet taxonomic issues because of their extensive phenotypic plasticity are still abound. Briareum asbestinum one of the iconic octocorals of the shallow Caribbean coral reefs exhibits a biform morphology, the digitate and the encrusting one. The taxonomic status of each form has not been clarified, yet. Until recently, there were few genetic resources for non-model metazoans, however, affordable high-throughput DNA sequencing has removed this hindrance. We present the first transcriptome of the digitate form of Briareum asbestinum from southwest Puerto Rico. We used paired-end sequencing (Illumina NextSeq 500), with a total yield of 159,754,702 raw reads. De novo assembly was performed utilizing a multi-assembler approach generating 371,554 biologically true, non-redundant transcripts. Open reading frame analysis identified 102,839 putative ORFs of which 78,607 were with annotations. BUSCO analysis indicated a total of 96.4% complete orthologous genes from the metazoan dataset. The assembly presented here serves as an important new genomic reference for the Briareum genus that will facilitate future population and phylogenetic studies aiming to better understand the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity exhibited throughout the genus.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Antozoários/anatomia & histologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Porto Rico
15.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(6): 1220-1238, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863851

RESUMO

Extracellular matrix (ECM) is considered central to the evolution of metazoan multicellularity; however, the repertoire of ECM proteins in nonbilaterians remains unclear. Thrombospondins (TSPs) are known to be well conserved from cnidarians to vertebrates, yet to date have been considered a unique family, principally studied for matricellular functions in vertebrates. Through searches utilizing the highly conserved C-terminal region of TSPs, we identify undisclosed new families of TSP-related proteins in metazoans, designated mega-TSP, sushi-TSP, and poriferan-TSP, each with a distinctive phylogenetic distribution. These proteins share the TSP C-terminal region domain architecture, as determined by domain composition and analysis of molecular models against known structures. Mega-TSPs, the only form identified in ctenophores, are typically >2,700 aa and are also characterized by N-terminal leucine-rich repeats and central cadherin/immunoglobulin domains. In cnidarians, which have a well-defined ECM, Mega-TSP was expressed throughout embryogenesis in Nematostella vectensis, with dynamic endodermal expression in larvae and primary polyps and widespread ectodermal expression in adult Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata polyps. Hydra Mega-TSP was also expressed during regeneration and siRNA-silencing of Mega-TSP in Hydra caused specific blockade of head regeneration. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the conserved TSP C-terminal region identified each of the TSP-related groups to form clades distinct from the canonical TSPs. We discuss models for the evolution of the newly defined TSP superfamily by gene duplications, radiation, and gene losses from a debut in the last metazoan common ancestor. Together, the data provide new insight into the evolution of ECM and tissue organization in metazoans.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Invertebrados/genética , Trombospondinas/genética , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/metabolismo , Hydra/fisiologia , Família Multigênica , Trombospondinas/metabolismo
16.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(3): 949-953, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825304

RESUMO

Coral reefs composed of stony corals are threatened by global marine environmental changes. However, soft coral communities of octocorallian species, appear more resilient. The genomes of several cnidarians species have been published, including from stony corals, sea anemones, and hydra. To fill the phylogenetic gap for octocoral species of cnidarians, we sequenced the octocoral, Dendronephthya gigantea, a nonsymbiotic soft coral, commonly known as the carnation coral. The D. gigantea genome size is ∼276 Mb. A high-quality genome assembly was constructed from PacBio long reads (29.85 Gb with 108× coverage) and Illumina short paired-end reads (35.54 Gb with 128× coverage) resulting in the highest N50 value (1.4 Mb) reported thus far among cnidarian genomes. About 12% of the genome is repetitive elements and contained 28,879 predicted protein-coding genes. This gene set is composed of 94% complete BUSCO ortholog benchmark genes, which is the second highest value among the cnidarians, indicating high quality. Based on molecular phylogenetic analysis, octocoral and hexacoral divergence times were estimated at 544 MYA. There is a clear difference in Hox gene composition between these species: unlike hexacorals, the Antp superclass Evx gene was absent in D. gigantea. Here, we present the first genome assembly of a nonsymbiotic octocoral, D. gigantea to aid in the comparative genomic analysis of cnidarians, including stony and soft corals, both symbiotic and nonsymbiotic. The D. gigantea genome may also provide clues to mechanisms of differential coping between the soft and stony corals in response to scenarios of global warming.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Animais , Genoma , Filogenia
17.
Mar Drugs ; 17(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832211

RESUMO

The ubiquitous metalloenzymes carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are responsible for the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate (HCO3-) and protons (H⁺). Bicarbonate may subsequently generate carbonate used in many functional activities by marine organisms. CAs play a crucial role in several physiological processes, e.g., respiration, inorganic carbon transport, intra and extra-cellular pH regulation, and bio-mineralization. Multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms exist in the organisms. Recently, 16 α-CA isoforms have been identified in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Here, we focalized the interest on three coral isoforms: SpiCA1 and SpiCA2, localized in the coral-calcifying cells; and SpiCA3, expressed in the cytoplasm of the coral cell layers. The three recombinant enzymes were heterologously expressed and investigated for their inhibition profiles with sulfonamides and sulfamates. The three coral CA isoforms differ significantly in their susceptibility to inhibition with sulfonamides. This study provides new insights into the coral physiology and the comprehension of molecular mechanisms involved in the bio-mineralization processes, since CAs interact with bicarbonate transporters, accelerating the trans-membrane bicarbonate movement and modulating the pH at both sides of the plasma membranes.


Assuntos
Antozoários/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Antozoários/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/genética , Anidrases Carbônicas/isolamento & purificação , Genoma , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/isolamento & purificação , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Mol Ecol ; 28(9): 2238-2253, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913323

RESUMO

Reef-building corals are highly sensitive to rising ocean temperatures, and substantial adaptation will be required for corals and the ecosystems they support to persist in changing ocean conditions. Genetic variation that might support adaptive responses has been measured in larval stages of some corals, but these estimates remain unavailable for adult corals and the functional basis of this variation remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the potential for adaptation in Orbicella faveolata, a dominant reef-builder in the Caribbean. We conducted thermal stress experiments using corals collected from natural populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama, and used multilocus SNP genotypes to estimate genetic relatedness among samples. This allowed us to estimate narrow-sense heritability of variation in bleaching responses, revealing that variation in these responses was highly heritable (h2  = 0.58). This suggests substantial potential for adaptive responses to warming by natural populations of O. faveolata in this region. We further investigated the functional basis for this variation using genomic and transcriptomic approaches. We used a publicly available genetic linkage map and genome assembly to map markers associated with bleaching responses, identifying twelve markers associated with variation in bleaching responses. We also profiled gene expression in corals with contrasting bleaching phenotypes, uncovering substantial differences in transcriptional stress responses between heat-tolerant and heat-susceptible corals. Together, our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that natural populations of corals possess genetic variation in thermal stress responses that may potentially support adaptive responses to rising ocean temperatures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Antozoários/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagelados/genética , Panamá , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Simbiose , Termotolerância/genética
20.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 9(5): 1633-1646, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914426

RESUMO

Genomic sequence data for non-model organisms are increasingly available requiring the development of efficient and reproducible workflows. Here, we develop the first genomic resources and reproducible workflows for two threatened members of the reef-building coral genus Acropora We generated genomic sequence data from multiple samples of the Caribbean A. cervicornis (staghorn coral) and A. palmata (elkhorn coral), and predicted millions of nucleotide variants among these two species and the Pacific A. digitifera A subset of predicted nucleotide variants were verified using restriction length polymorphism assays and proved useful in distinguishing the two Caribbean acroporids and the hybrid they form ("A. prolifera"). Nucleotide variants are freely available from the Galaxy server (usegalaxy.org), and can be analyzed there with computational tools and stored workflows that require only an internet browser. We describe these data and some of the analysis tools, concentrating on fixed differences between A. cervicornis and A. palmata In particular, we found that fixed amino acid differences between these two species were enriched in proteins associated with development, cellular stress response, and the host's interactions with associated microbes, for instance in the ABC transporters and superoxide dismutase. Identified candidate genes may underlie functional differences in how these threatened species respond to changing environments. Users can expand the presented analyses easily by adding genomic data from additional species, as they become available.


Assuntos
Antozoários/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genômica , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Genômica/métodos , Geografia , Mutação INDEL , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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