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1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124784, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520976

RESUMO

Little knowledge exists on the state of metal contamination in corals from the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Fragments of four soft and five hard coral genera were collected from five sites in the WIO- Sodwana Bay and Aliwal Shoal from South Africa, and Agalega, Rodrigues, and St. Brandon's Rock from the Mascarene Basin. Fragments were analysed for 31 metallic elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Corals from the WIO contained lower concentrations of most metals than corals from the Red Sea. South African corals contained higher concentrations of most of the metallic elements than the Mascarene corals. Sinularia was the coral with the most elements at the highest mean concentrations. A very high concentration of Ni was found in Sinularia (1300 mg/kg dm) from Sodwana Bay. Corals from the Mascarene Islands, especially Agalega, had comparatively low concentrations and could serve as a benchmark for corals from other regions.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oceano Índico , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , África do Sul
2.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540107

RESUMO

Three new 8-hydroxybriaranes-fragilides R-T (1-3) were obtained from a sea whip gorgonian coral Junceella fragilis. The structures of briaranes 1-3 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H and 13C NMR), 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments) NMR studies, and (+)-HRESIMS. Fragilides S and T (2 and 3) are the only briaranes known to possess 8α-hydroxy and 17ß-methyl groups, respectively. Briarane 2 exerted an inhibition effect on iNOS release from RAW264.7; a macrophage cell line that originated from a mouse monocyte macrophage, stimulated with lipopolysaccharides.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480497

RESUMO

: An Antarctic coral belonging to the order Pennatulacea, collected during the 2013 austral autumn by trawl from 662 to 944 m depth, has yielded three new briarane diterpenes, bathyptilone A-C (1-3) along with a trinorditerpene, enbepeanone A (4), which bears a new carbon skeleton. Structure elucidation was facilitated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The three compounds were screened in four cancer cell lines. Bathyptilone A displayed selective nanomolar cytotoxicity against the neurogenic mammalian cell line Ntera-2.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Terpenos/química , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Diterpenos/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
4.
Mar Drugs ; 17(9)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514359

RESUMO

Two new steroids, dendronesterones D (1) and E (2), featuring with 1,4-dienone moiety, along with three known steroids, methyl 3-oxochola-4,22-diene-24-oate (3), 5α,8α-epidioxy-24(S)- methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3ß-ol (4), and 5α,8α-epidioxy-24(S)-methylcholesta-6,9(11),22-trien-3ß-ol (5), were isolated from an octocoral Dendronephthya sp. The structures of steroids 1 and 2 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods and steroid 1 was found to exhibit significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells by inhibiting the expression of the iNOS protein.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Células RAW 264.7 , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação
5.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394844

RESUMO

Two new capnosane-based diterpenoids, flaccidenol A (1) and 7-epi-pavidolide D (2), two new cembranoids, flaccidodioxide (3) and flaccidodiol (4), and three known compounds 5 to 7 were characterized from the marine soft coral Klyxum flaccidum, collected off the coast of the island of Pratas. The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic data comparison with related structures. The rare capnosane diterpenoids were isolated herein from the genus Klyxum for the first time. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 to 7 against the proliferation of a limited panel of cancer cell lines was assayed. The isolated diterpenoids also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity through suppression of superoxide anion generation and elastase release in the N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine/cytochalasin B (fMLF/CB)-stimulated human neutrophils. Furthermore, 1 and 7 also exhibited cytotoxicity toward the tested cancer cells, and 7 could effectively inhibit elastase release. It is worth noting that the biological activities of 7 are reported for the first time in this paper.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocalasina B/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , N-Formilmetionina Leucil-Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3580, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395889

RESUMO

Ocean acidification is expected to negatively impact calcifying organisms, yet we lack understanding of their acclimation potential in the natural environment. Here we measured geochemical proxies (δ11B and B/Ca) in Porites astreoides corals that have been growing for their entire life under low aragonite saturation (Ωsw: 0.77-1.85). This allowed us to assess the ability of these corals to manipulate the chemical conditions at the site of calcification (Ωcf), and hence their potential to acclimate to changing Ωsw. We show that lifelong exposure to low Ωsw did not enable the corals to acclimate and reach similar Ωcf as corals grown under ambient conditions. The lower Ωcf at the site of calcification can explain a large proportion of the decreasing P. astreoides calcification rates at low Ωsw. The naturally elevated seawater dissolved inorganic carbon concentration at this study site shed light on how different carbonate chemistry parameters affect calcification conditions in corals.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Antozoários/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Fontes Hidrotermais/química , Animais , Antozoários/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isótopos , México , Água do Mar/química
7.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430922

RESUMO

Two new cembrane-type diterpenoids, lobophytins A (1) and B (3), and four new prostaglandins, (5E)-PGB2 (10), (5E)-13,14-dihydro-PGB2 (11), 13,14-dihydro-PGB2 (12) and 13,14-dihydro-PGB2-Me (13), together with ten known compounds were isolated from the soft coral Lobophytum sarcophytoides. The structures of these new secondary metabolites were identified by high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESIMS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron circular dichroism (ECD) analyses, as well as the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15 and 16 showed potential anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 cells that were activated by lipopolysaccharide, with IC50 values ranging from 7.1 to 32.1 µM and were better than the positive control indomethacin, IC50 = 39.8 µM.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Prostaglandinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405226

RESUMO

Marine invertebrates and their associated microorganisms are rich sources of bioactive compounds. Among them, coral and its associated microorganisms are promising providers of marine bioactive compounds. The present review provides an overview of bioactive compounds that are produced by corals and coral-associated microorganisms, covering the literature from 2010 to March 2019. Accordingly, 245 natural products that possess a wide range of potent bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antivirus, and antifouling activities, among others, are described in this review.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Antozoários/microbiologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Fatores Biológicos/química , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 148: 85-96, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422307

RESUMO

Pulau Redang and Pulau Tioman have experienced huge tourism growth over the last two decades, but minimal sewage treatment may threaten the resilience of their coral reefs. This study uses stable isotope techniques to identify suitable bioindicators of sewage nutrients (δ15N) at these islands by measuring macroalgae (Lobophora spp.), gastropods (Drupella spp.), scleractinian coral (Acropora spp.), and leather coral (Sinularia spp.). At tourist hubs using seepage septic tank systems, enrichment of Acropora δ15N (Redang, +0.7‰) and Sinularia δ15N (Tioman, +0.4‰) compared to pristine background levels indicate enhanced sewage nutrient discharge. Carbon isotopes and survey data suggest that sedimentation did not confound these δ15N trends. Potential damaging effects of sewage discharge on the coral reef communities at both islands are highlighted by strong correlations between Acropora δ15N and regional variation in coral reef community structure, and exclusive occurrence of degraded reefs at regions of high sewage influence.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Recifes de Corais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química
10.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284657

RESUMO

Two new 11,20-epoxybriaranes, fragilides P (1) and Q (2), as well as two known analogues, robustolide F (3) and juncin Z (4), were obtained from the gorgonian coral Junceella fragilis. The structures, including the absolute configurations of briaranes 1 and 2, were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods and comparing the spectroscopic and rotation data with those of known related analogues. Briarane 4 decreased the generation of superoxide anions by human neutrophils. The propionate group in 1 is rarely found.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Diterpenos/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Animais , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Análise Espectral
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2896, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263108

RESUMO

Distinguishing between environmental and species-specific physiological signals, recorded in coral skeletons, is one of the fundamental challenges in their reliable use as (paleo)climate proxies. To date, characteristic biological bias in skeleton-recorded environmental signatures (vital effect) was shown in shifts in geochemical signatures. Herein, for the first time, we have assessed crystallographic parameters of bio-aragonite to study the response of the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata to experimental seawater acidification (pH 8.2, 7.6 and 7.3). Skeletons formed under high pCO2 conditions show systematic crystallographic changes such as better constrained crystal orientation and anisotropic distortions of bio-aragonite lattice parameters due to increased amount of intracrystalline organic matrix and water content. These variations in crystallographic features that seem to reflect physiological adjustments of biomineralizing organisms to environmental change, are herein called crystallographic vital effect (CVE). CVE may register those changes in the biomineralization process that may not yet be perceived at the macromorphological skeletal level.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Recifes de Corais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ecossistema , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
12.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340503

RESUMO

Prostaglandins (PGs) are lipid mediators belonging to the eicosanoid family. PGs were first discovered in mammals where they are key players in a great variety of physiological and pathological processes, for instance muscle and blood vessel tone regulation, inflammation, signaling, hemostasis, reproduction, and sleep-wake regulation. These molecules have successively been discovered in lower organisms, including marine invertebrates in which they play similar roles to those in mammals, being involved in the control of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, ion transport, and defense. Prostaglandins have also been found in some marine macroalgae of the genera Gracilaria and Laminaria and very recently the PGs pathway has been identified for the first time in some species of marine microalgae. In this review we report on the occurrence of prostaglandins in the marine environment and discuss the anti-inflammatory role of these molecules.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Antozoários/química , Antozoários/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Gracilaria/química , Gracilaria/metabolismo , Laminaria/química , Laminaria/metabolismo , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/metabolismo , Prostaglandinas/química , Tromboxanos/química , Tromboxanos/metabolismo
13.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336764

RESUMO

The combination of liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRESMS)-based dereplication and antiproliferative activity-guided fractionation was applied on the Red Sea-derived soft coral Sarcophyton sp. This approach facilitated the isolation of five new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1-5), along with two known analogs (6 and 7), as well as the identification of 19 further, known compounds. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated while using comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR and HRMS. All of the isolated cembranoids (1-7) showed moderate in vitro antiproliferative activity against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), with IC50 ranging from 22.39-27.12 µg/mL. This class of compounds could thus serve as scaffold for the future design of anticancer leads.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Desenho de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Oceano Índico , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Células MCF-7 , Estrutura Molecular
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 234-241, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232298

RESUMO

The impact of microplastics (MPs) on reef-building corals are still largely unknown. The scientific literature provides evidence from lab feeding trials that coral may ingest MPs. Several adverse effects, i.e., necrosis and bleaching, have also been highlighted. However, field studies are limited. Here, we investigated for the first time the possible correlation between MP seawater contamination and the presence of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of MP-associated contaminants, in scleractinian corals. The survey was carried out in a remote coral reef atoll in the Indian Ocean located in the Maldivian archipelago, considered as a case study. MPs and PAEs were monitored in subsurface neustonic tow samples and scleractinian corals across twelve sampling sites. The results showed widespread MP contamination and the presence of appreciable levels of PAEs in the scleractinian corals sampled inside the atoll rim near an inhabited island, which correlated with the highest MP concentration.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Recifes de Corais , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Ésteres/análise , Oceano Índico , Ilhas do Oceano Índico , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plásticos/toxicidade , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluição Química da Água/análise
15.
Fitoterapia ; 136: 104176, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121253

RESUMO

Four new cembranoids (1-4) were isolated from the extracts of a soft coral collected from the sea area near Xisha Island, South China Sea. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by spectroscopic analyses, with the absolute configuration of 1 being established by X-ray diffraction analysis. In bioassay, compounds 1 and 3 displayed moderate inhibitory activity against Aß42 aggregation (20.6% and 37.2% inhibition at 10 µM). The binding mode of 1 with Aß42 monomer was predicted by molecular docking. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 did not show cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines (SH-SY5Y, MDA-MB-426, A549, Hep3B, and HT-29) at 100 µM. Taken together, these cembranoids as new anti-Aß aggregation agents derived from Sinularia sp. provided a new chemical scaffold for anti-Alzhemer's disease drug discovery.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides , Antozoários/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular
16.
Fitoterapia ; 136: 104162, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075489

RESUMO

Three new cembranolides (1-3) were isolated from an Okinawan soft coral, Lobophytum sp., together with the known cembranolide diterpenoids (4-9). Their structures were determined by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, IR, and MS), molecular modeling, and comparison with data reported elsewhere. All compounds contain an α-methylene-γ-lactone ring adjacent to a cembrane, and some of them (1, 6-8) have an epoxide ring as well. The new metabolites were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HeLa, A459, B16-F10, and RAW 264.7 cells and anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated inflammatory RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Japão , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7
17.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034482

RESUMO

To expand our knowledge of lipid and fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis in marine cnidarians, polar lipidomes of hydrocorals were studied for the first time and then compared with those of soft corals from tropical and boreal regions. The structure and content of FAs and molecular species of ethanolamine, choline, serine, and inositol glycerophospholipids (PE, PC, PS, and PI, respectively), and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) in tropical hydrocorals (Millepora platyphylla, M. dichotoma) and the cold-water hydrocoral Allopora steinegeri were determined by chromatography and mass spectrometry. All soft corals and cold-water hydrocorals are characterized by a considerable amount of C20 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) elongated into C22 PUFAs. In the Millepora species, the high level of 22:5n-6 and 22:6n-3 against the background of the extremely low level of C20 PUFAs may be explained by a high activity of rare Δ4 desaturase. In contrast to hydrocorals, soft corals are able to elongate and further desaturate C22 PUFAs into C24 PUFAs. Allopora and soft corals use C20 PUFAs mainly for the synthesis of PE and PC. The molecular species of PS of soft corals concentrate C24 PUFAs, while in Allopora and Millepora the PS molecules are mainly based on 22:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 acyl groups, respectively. Short acyl groups (C14) dominate the CAEP molecules of Allopora. In all the animals compared, most molecular species of PE and PC are ether lipids, but diacyl molecular species dominate PI. Hydrocorals and tropical soft corals contain diacyl and ether PS molecules, respectively, whereas cold-water soft corals contain a mixture of these PS forms. The high similarity of the alkyl/acyl compositions indicates a possible biosynthetic relationship between PS and PI in hydrocorals. The data obtained in our study will provide a resource to further investigate the lipid metabolism in marine invertebrates.


Assuntos
Antozoários/metabolismo , Recifes de Corais , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Antozoários/química , Antozoários/classificação , Clima Frio , Ecossistema , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Glicerofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
18.
Mar Drugs ; 17(4)2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959843

RESUMO

Three new furanocembranoids-briaviodiol F (1) and briaviotriols A (2) and B (3)-along with a known analogue, briaviodiol A (4), were obtained from a cultured-type octocoral Briareum violaceum. The structures of cembranoids 1⁻3 were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods. In vitro study demonstrated that compounds 2 and 4 exerted inhibition effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) release from RAW 264.7, a macrophage cell line that originated from a mouse monocyte macrophage, stimulated with lipopolysaccharides.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7
19.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 70(1): 14-17, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956217

RESUMO

Palythoa spp. corals and some other marine organisms contain one of the most poisonous substances ever known - palytoxin (PTX). Due to their modest life requirements and ease of breeding, these corals are popular in home aquariums. Here we refer to a case of PTX poisoning of a middle-aged woman who inhaled poisonous vapours while brushing the corals from live rock and compare it with the available literature. As the case revealed that the symptoms of PTX poisoning are not specific and neither is treatment, our aim was to give a brief tabulated review of the symptoms that may indicate such poisoning. Cases of palytoxin poisoning have been reported worldwide, and severe ones (mostly due to ingestion of contaminated sea food) can end in death. As it appears, most (if not all) poisonings result from unawareness of the risk and reckless handling by aquarists. This is one of the first articles which provides some practical advice about the use of personal protection equipment, including gloves, masks, eyewear, and other clothing during any coral manipulation to minimise the risk. We also draw attention to the lack of marketing/trading regulations for dangerous coral species and/or regulations or instructions dealing with their removal and health protection.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/envenenamento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/envenenamento , Antozoários/química , Venenos de Cnidários/envenenamento , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes da Água/envenenamento , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(6): e1800692, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957385

RESUMO

Marine natural products display a wide range of biological activities, which play a vital role in the innovation of lead compounds for the drug development. Soft corals have been ranked at the top in regard to the discovery of bioactive metabolites with potential pharmaceutical applications. Many of the isolated cembranoids revealed diverse biological activities, such as anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-osteoporosis. Likewise, sterols from soft corals exhibited interesting biological potential as anti-inflammatory, antituberculosis and anticancer. Consequently, investigating marine soft corals will definitely lead to the discovery of a large number of chemically varied secondary metabolites with countless bioactivities for possible applications in medicine and pharmaceutical industry. This review provides a complete survey of all metabolites isolated from the family Nephtheidae, from 2011 until November 2018, along with their natural sources and biological potential whenever possible.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Animais , Antozoários/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/farmacologia
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