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1.
Mutagenesis ; 33(2): 129-135, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378067

RESUMO

Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the extracted DNA samples: IL1ß T-511C (rs16944), IL6 C-174G (rs1800795), IL12b A1188C (rs3212227) and VEGFA C634G (rs2010963). Genotoxic effects were assessed by the analysis of chromosome aberrations in cultured peripheral lymphocytes. The mean frequency of chromatid-type aberrations and chromosome-type aberrations, namely, chromatid-type breaks and dicentric chromosomes, was found to be higher in AS patients [3.70 (95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.29-4.10) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.17-0.38)] compared to the control group [2.41 (95% CI, 2.00-2.82) and 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.15)], respectively. IL1ß gene T/T genotype (rs16944) was associated with AS [17.83% in AS patients against 4.35% in healthy donors, odds ratio = 4.77 (1.88-12.15), P < 0.01]. A significant increase in the level of certain chromosome interchanges among AS donors is of interest because such effects are typical for radiation damage and caused by acute oxidative stress. IL1ß T allele probably may be considered as an AS susceptibility factor among coal miners.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Antracossilicose/patologia , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Carvão Mineral/efeitos adversos , Minas de Carvão , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Dióxido de Silício/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
2.
Med Tr Prom Ekol ; (2): 10-4, 2014.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25073334

RESUMO

The author analyzed dynamics and structure of occupational morbidity including pneumoconiosis in Rostov region of Russian Federation, since 1990 until now. They were compared with analogous parameters of previous historical period. Findings are that contemporary dynamics of anthracosilicosis clinical features is characterized by severily reduced terms of the disease development from medical registration of the diseased miner, earlier addition of malignancy, respiratory failure and other complications--that in aggregate causes earlier disablement and drastically reduced survival rate in occupational patients with anthracosilicosis.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/epidemiologia , Minas de Carvão/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
3.
Med Tr Prom Ekol ; (2): 15-21, 2011.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21506373

RESUMO

In miners anthracosilicosis is caused by chronic exposure to coal dust and is characterized by progressive development of the inflammatory process, the expressed disorders of lipid metabolism, and immunodeficiency. In the experiment we revealed the stages of anthracosilicosis development according to which adequate measures of prevention and correction of the disorders caused by long exposure of an organism to coal dust are recommended.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/metabolismo , Minas de Carvão , Carvão Mineral , Poeira , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Antracossilicose/sangue , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Antracossilicose/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Lipídeos/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Federação Russa
5.
Thorax ; 63(7): 655-7, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18587036

RESUMO

Anthracofibrosis, defined as bronchial luminal narrowing with black pigmentation of the overlying mucosa, has been attributed to tuberculosis. Three patients with anthracofibrosis without mycobacterial infection are described who had previous occupational exposure to mixed dusts. CT scans showed calcified hilar lymph nodes in two patients. Surgical biopsy in one patient and autopsy in another revealed fibrotic lymph nodes with black pigmentation. Mineralogical analysis by transmission electron microscopy of pulmonary, hilar and/or bronchial samples found high levels of particle retention, raised percentages of free crystalline silica and mica in two patients, and free crystalline silica, kaolin and other silicates in the third. No evidence of any other contributory factor was found, suggesting that mixed mineral dust was the most probable cause. These observations suggest that exposure to mixed mineral dust should be added to the aetiology of anthracofibrosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Poeira , Fibras Minerais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Med Klin (Munich) ; 102(1): 59-63, 2007 Jan 15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17221354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary disease due to inhalation of smoke from open woodfires represents a major health problem in developing countries. Due to increasing migration such patients also present to medical services in Europe. CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION: An 84-year-old Afghan housewife who never smoked nor has a history of exposure to inorganic dusts, presents with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with bronchial anthracosis and stenosis of a bronchus. The complaints are found to be caused by chronic inhalation of smoke from an open woodfire which was used for cooking. The main complaints of "woodsmoke-associated lung disease" are cough und dyspnea with bronchial obstruction. Radiology and bronchoscopy usually reveal changes which are similar to pneumoconiosis of miners but without patients' relevant exposure. There is a frequent association of anthracotic bronchial stenosis and infection with tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: Since patients rarely recognize the risks of woodsmoke inhalation, they hardly report their exposure. Thus, the anamnesis is crucial to establish the right diagnosis and guide the patient to the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/etiologia , Broncopatias/etiologia , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Incêndios , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/etiologia , Afeganistão/etnologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antracossilicose/diagnóstico , Antracossilicose/patologia , Biópsia , Brônquios/patologia , Broncopatias/diagnóstico , Broncopatias/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Emigração e Imigração , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/diagnóstico , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Rev Mal Respir ; 20(2 Pt 1): 267-71, 2003 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12844024

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The discovery of anthracotic plaques generally suggests either a history of tuberculosis or occupational exposure to dust. Other etiologies should, however, be considered. CASE REPORTS: A 60-year-old Iranian woman presented with a history of dyspnoea and with chest radiography demonstrating calcified hilar lymph nodes and interstitial lung disease. Pulmonary function tests revealed airway obstruction. A diffuse bronchial inflammatory appearance accompanied by anthracotic plaques was found at bronchoscopy, which prompted transmission electron microscopy analysis of non-fibrous mineral particles in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). This demonstrated the presence of an alveolar particle count greater than 10(7) particles/ml (p/ml), significantly more than that found in 42 BALF samples taken from controls without a history of occupational dust exposure (4,4.10(5) p/ml). Furthermore, the analysis also revealed an abnormally elevated proportion of mica particles (64%). Two other individuals, a 68 year-old Moroccan woman and a 70-year-old Algerian woman, who had anthracotic plaques, but no radiological evidence of interstitial lung disease, also underwent mineral analysis of BALF. Neither were found to have a raised alveolar particle count, but the mineral profile showed an abnormally elevated proportion of micas (62%) for one patient, and silica crystalline (40%) as well as micas (32%) for the other patient. CONCLUSIONS: Even if mica is present in 30 to 90% of the BALF, the results observed in these three patients raises the possibility of non-occupational environmental exposure and that anthracotic plaques might be associated with domestic pollution.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Antracossilicose/diagnóstico , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Bronquite/diagnóstico , Bronquite/etiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Idoso , Argélia/etnologia , Biópsia , Broncoscopia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dispneia/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/etnologia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/etnologia , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Med Pr ; 43(3): 209-16, 1992.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1406242

RESUMO

In order to determine biological aggressiveness of settled dusts (mechanical, crumbled) and dusts collected using the gravimetric method, experimental studies were carried out, including: 1) evaluation of the physicochemical parameters (size of dust particles, content of silica, metals and other chemical compounds), 2) evaluation of the haemolytic activity, 3) experimental evaluation of fibrogenic potentials by means of: a) intraperitoneal test--to identity morphological type of reactive changes in the peritoneum and b) intratracheal test--to determine the level of hydroxyproline (collagen) in lungs and the morphological type of reactive changes. Albino rats were used for the experiment. The animals were divided into ten groups which received a single intratracheal injection of 50 mg of mining dust in 0.9% NaCl suspension. Comparative evaluation of biological aggressiveness of mining dusts was conducted basing on the findings of collagen levels in lungs. After the end of the experimental period (3 and 6 months, respectively) histopathological a examination of the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes was made and the collagen levels in the pulmonary tissue (following Stegemann) were determined. As evidenced by the results of the pathomorphological examination and a statistical analysis: 1) after intratracheal injection the mining dusts induced changes within the respiratory system e.g. inflammatory process and emphysema. The exposure also brought about double increase of collagen level as compared to the control group, 2) histopathological study of the lungs and lymph nodes did not reveal progressive development of fibrogenic changes, 3) cytotoxic test showed differences in the haemolytic activity of settled dust and dusts collected by the gravimetric method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Minas de Carvão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Animais , Antracossilicose/diagnóstico , Antracossilicose/patologia , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Polônia , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Med Pr ; 43(3): 217-25, 1992.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1406243

RESUMO

Comparative studies on the impact of the detergents Emulkop and Rokafenol N-8 upon the development and course of experimental pneumoconiosis caused by mine dusts were carried out. Albino rats and rabbits were used for the experiment. Methodological assumptions were based on the analogy with the conditions observed at the workplaces where some means of dust control were used. The acute toxicity evaluation was based on determination of the medial lethal dose (DL50) after intragastric administration of the detergents. Irritating action of the detergents on the skin was also evaluated. The effect of the detergents on the aggressiveness of selected dusts was estimated by means of the intratracheal and intraperitoneal tests. At the end of the experimental period (3 and 6 months, respectively) histopathological investigations of the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes were carried out, and the hydroxyproline (collagen) levels in the pulmonary tissue were determined. According to Hodge and Sterner Chemical Substance Toxicity Classifications, Emulkop has been classified as non-toxic, and Rokafenol N-8 as a weakly toxic substance. On the basis of the investigation results obtained it has been established that: 1) Rokafenol N-8 does not qualify for use in coal mines as a formulation designed for dust control because it doesn't eliminate coniotic changes and causes a significant increase in the level of hydroxyproline (collagen) in pulmonary tissue, 2) in the case of Emulkop our studies have shown that this detergent can be used to prevent pneumoconiosis in coal mine workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Antracossilicose/prevenção & controle , Minas de Carvão/normas , Detergentes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Poeira/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Polônia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Med Pr ; 43(3): 245-50, 1992.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1406245

RESUMO

Basing on the prevention system for pneumoconiosis in ++coal mining, an analysis of the disease incidence in the workers of a selected ++coal mine was performed. The subjects were 2.495 miners with the work period longer than 8 years and a group of 822 retired miners. In the former group 16 cases (0.64%) of pneumoconiosis were diagnosed, whereas in the latter as many as 89 cases (10.8%) were found which would indicate a necessity for more detailed examinations in ex-miners of this ++coal mine. The pneumoconiosis changes were detected in the early period of their development. The highest risk was found to refer to longwall and blasting miners and cutter-loadermen. The correlation between radiological changes of the s, t, and u type and the duration of work as well as the high frequency of these changes at highly polluted workplaces seem to point to their relation to dust exposure.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/epidemiologia , Minas de Carvão , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Polônia , Aposentadoria , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Med Pr ; 43(1): 17-24, 1992.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1321939

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the changes in the respiratory system of animals administered intratracheally settled dusts sampled from the following coal mines: "Debiensko" in Leszczyny, "Zabrze" in Zabrze, "Gliwice" in Gliwice, "Janina" in Libiaz and "Victoria" in Walbrzych. Total dustiness in those mines in 1985-1988 was found to be as follows: "Debiensko"--1.39 mg/m3-22.3 mg/m3, "Zabrze"--7.6 mg/m3-16.8 mg/m3, "Janina"--16.0 mg/m3-34.0 mg/m3, "Victoria"--3.7 mg/m3-15.6 mg/m3. In the examined dusts the content of crystalline silica determined using the Polezajev's method amounted to 3.5%-9.4% in "Debiensko", 2%-10% in "Zabrze", 3.8% in "Gliwice", 3.6%-8.4% in "Janina" and 3.7%-11% in "Victoria". The biological aggressiveness of the mine dusts was determined using intraperitoneal, lung and hemolitic tests. The biochemical determinations of hydroxyproline level were made using the Stegemann's method modified by Hurych and Chvapil. The obtained results of biochemical analyses were examined statistically using the t-Student's test. The lung sections for histopathological examination were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Collagen fibres were stained according to the Van Giesan's method. Certain discrepancies were found between epidemiological analysis concerning the incidence of pneumoconiosis and animal experiments focusing on the fibrogenic activity of the dusts from particular mines. The measurements of fibrogenic activity of dusts based on animal experiments and the determination of SiO2 content in dusts cannot be used for estimating the risk of pneumoconiosis. Therefore, biological exposure should be assessed on the basis of the monitoring of occupational environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Minas de Carvão , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade , Animais , Antracossilicose/metabolismo , Antracossilicose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/química , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Polônia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Med Pr ; 43(1): 7-16, 1992.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1321941

RESUMO

Apart from certain changes which are typical for pneumoconiosis, the radiological picture of the lungs of sigma coal miners does frequently show some irregular small opacities of s, t and u types. The role and specificity of these changes in the early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis has not been too well defined by now. A 10-year study (conducted at 2 or 3 year intervals) was carried out among 150 miners from 2 mines characterized by different dust loading. Some irregular changes in the miners' lungs were observed. The control group derived from the same mines comprised 115 miners with no radiological changes found in their lungs. The evolution of radiological changes took place in 55.3% of the miners and was more intensive in the heavily dusted mine. Radiological changes were revealed in 38.3% of the controls. It was indicated that pneumoconiosis results much more frequently (38.6%) from the evolution of the irregular changes rather than directly from the proper radiological picture of the lungs (5.3%). In 44.7% of the subjects the changes of s, t and u type did not undergo any evolution, which may be due to their non-specific characteristics. The evolution of irregular opacities is dominating in the patients with bronchitis and emphysema. No significant correlation between smoking and the progress of irregular opacities was found. The observation of the further exposure to the dusts did not produce any clear results. The progress of the changes of s, t and u type was observed more frequently in those still working under ground, but more cases of pneumoconiosis were found in the miners who stopped working. This fact indicates that the further exposure affects the s, t and u type changes and confirms the observations by other authors concerning the manifestation of pneumoconiosis after the break of exposure. The results of the 10-year study prove that the miners with this sort of changes are exposed to a higher risk of pneumoconiosis, although the answer concerning specificity of irregular changes in the radiological picture has not yet been found.


Assuntos
Antracossilicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Minas de Carvão , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Antracossilicose/classificação , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Radiografia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Gig Tr Prof Zabol ; (6): 17-9, 1992.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1478517

RESUMO

Results of follow-up and treatment of different pneumoconiosis types in 749 patients are represented. Rational employment combined with individualized treatment stabilize pneumoconiosis in 80.5% of cases with interstitial silicosis, in those with silico - silicosis --85.5% the nodular form in 70.5% and 77.8% of cases respectively. In the patients with the first symptoms of silicotuberculosisis the interstitial and nodular forms of the process stabilized in more than 50% of cases and in more than 60% of silico - silicatosis cases. Active interstitial tuberculosis was revealed in 7.3% of cases, nodular one--in 16.2%. The course of the macronodular pneumoconiosis in 50.2% of cases was unfavourable. 23.2% of patients with pneumoconiosis caused by electric-welding aerosol showed regress of pneumoconiosis in afterdust period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Cerâmica , Minas de Carvão , Quartzo/efeitos adversos , Silicose/etiologia , Soldagem , Assistência Ambulatorial , Antracossilicose/etiologia , Antracossilicose/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Poeira/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Federação Russa , Silicose/terapia , Silicotuberculose/etiologia , Silicotuberculose/terapia
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