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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579596

RESUMO

A country's cultural landscapes are an important part of its heritage. The growing need to identify, catalogue and preserve these resources has led to a rapid change in the management and inventorying of heritage in general and of cultural landscapes in particular. The main aim of this work is to develop and apply an updated and integrated methodology for capturing and processing geo-information for the digital documentation of cultural heritage. The proposed case study is the atomic garden in the Finca El Encín (Madrid), a singular space with unique biogeographical features created over 60 years ago. The results of the case study validate the method, consisting of an unmanned aerial platform equipped with sensors to obtain point clouds and aerial images in conjunction with point clouds and images captured with a terrestrial laser scanner.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Jardinagem/métodos , Jardins , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fotogrametria/métodos , Geografia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Fotogrametria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229719, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101571

RESUMO

In the last decade, a cross-national community of like-minded young men has emerged, commonly known as 'the seduction community'. This community is led by professional 'pick-up artists' who teach these young men a variety of techniques and mindsets with the stated aim of improving their success with women, or 'game'. There has been little research on the men who participate in this community, and none from a mental health angle. As such, this study is propelled by two specific objectives, namely documenting and understanding (i) the reasons why young men join the seduction community; and (ii) the impacts of community involvement on participants' lives. To meet these aims, we used an inductive qualitative methodology giving ample scope for bottom-up understandings to emerge. Specifically, we recruited young men participating in the seduction community for an in-depth qualitative interview (N = 34) to explore self-reported motives and impacts. Interviews were augmented by lengthy participant observation, and data was analyzed by content analysis techniques. The results reveal that men often join the community to address a range of psychosocial deficits, and that community involvement successfully equips participants with numerous valued social and communication skills. The community appears to fill a void in providing a place of hope, fellowship and learning for young (often immigrant) men. The findings are summarized in five themes (i) loneliness and social inclusion; (ii) lack of male role models and need for guidance; (iii) mental health and well-being issues; (iv) skill acquisition and personal development; and (v) the dark side of pick-up. Interestingly, some of the practices commonly taught and utilized within the community resemble aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and mental health peer support. This may explain its evident appeal. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the findings for official mental health service provision for young men.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Casamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Homens/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autorrelato , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(3): 422-441, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Working with people with eating disorders (EDs) is known to elicit strong emotional reactions, and the therapeutic alliance has been shown to affect outcomes with this clinical population. As a consequence, it is important to understand healthcare professionals' (HCPs') experiences of working with this client group. METHOD: A meta-synthesis was conducted of qualitative research on HCPs' lived experiences of working with people with EDs. The results from the identified studies were analyzed using Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic method. Data were synthesized using reciprocal translation, and a line of argument was developed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Reciprocal translation resulted in a key concept: "Coping with caring without curing." This was underpinned by the following third-order concepts: (a) "The dissonance and discomfort of being a helper struggling to help," (b) "Defending against the dissonance," and (c) "Accepting the dissonance to provide safe and compassionate care." These concepts were used to develop a line-of-argument synthesis, which was expressed as a new model for understanding HCPs' experiences of working with people who have an ED. DISCUSSION: Although the conflict associated with being a helper struggling to help led some HCPs to avoid and blame people with EDs, others adopted a compassionate stance characterized by humanity, humility, balance, and awareness.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 54: e03547, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1091972

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To characterize ethnographic research in the area of obstetric nursing regarding its theoretical, methodological and analytical aspects. Method: An integrative review performed in the MEDLINE®, LILACS, BDENF and CINAHL databases, as well as the SciELO virtual library. Results: Thirty (30) articles formed the analytical corpus after screening and reading the primary references in full. The most used methods were ethno-nursing, ethnography and institutional ethnography; the immersion time in the field ranged from 12 visits to 48 months occurring in institutional contexts. The main data collection techniques were observation, individual interviews and training guides for ethno-nursing. The data were organized as themes and subthemes, analyzed through the ethno-nursing analysis guide, implementing the Theory of Diversity and Universality of Cultural Care as theoretical reference. Conclusion: Ethnographic studies in the area of obstetric nursing are within the scope of microethnographies and are operationalized based on theoretical-methodological nursing references, being useful to analyze the complexity of phenomena involving obstetric nursing care, and focusing on the etic (professional) and emic (women) perspectives.


Resumen Objetivo: Caracterizar las investigaciones etnográficas en el área de enfermería obstétrica en cuanto a sus aspectos teóricos, metodológicos y analíticos. Método: Revisión integrativa llevada a cabo en las bases de datos MEDLINE®, LILACS, BDENF y CINAHL, así como en la biblioteca virtual SciELO. Resultados: Tras el proceso de cribado y lectura integral de las referencias primarias, 30 artículos formaron el corpus analítico. Los métodos más utilizados fueron etnoenfermería, etnografía y etnografía institucional; el tiempo de inmersión en el campo varió entre 12 visitas y 48 meses, ocurriendo en contextos institucionales. La principales técnicas de recolección de datos fueron observación, entrevistas individuales y guías capacitadoras de la etnoenfermería. Los datos fueron organizados bajo la forma de temas y subtemas, analizados mediante la guía de análisis de la etnoenfermería, teniendo con marco de referencia teórico la Teoría de la Diversidad y Universalidad del Cuidado Cultural. Conclusión: Estudios etnográficos en el área de enfermería obstétrica se ubican en el marco de las microetnografías y se operacionalizan con aporte en marcos de referencia teóricos metodológicos de la enfermería, siendo útiles para analizarse la complejidad de los fenómenos que involucran el cuidado de enfermería obstétrico, con enfoque en las perspectivas etic (profesionales) y emic (mujeres).


Resumo Objetivo: Caracterizar as pesquisas etnográficas na área de enfermagem obstétrica quanto a seus aspectos teóricos, metodológicos e analíticos. Método: Revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE®, LILACS, BDENF e CINAHL, bem como na biblioteca virtual SciELO. Resultados: Após processo de triagem e leitura na íntegra das referências primárias, 30 artigos formaram o corpus analítico. Os métodos mais utilizados foram etnoenfermagem, etnografia e etnografia institucional; o tempo de imersão no campo variou entre 12 visitas e 48 meses, ocorrendo em contextos institucionais. As principais técnicas de coleta de dados foram observação, entrevistas individuais e guias capacitadores da etnoenfermagem. Os dados foram organizados sob a forma de temas e subtemas, analisados por meio do guia de análise da etnoenfermagem, tendo como referencial teórico a Teoria da Diversidade e Universalidade do Cuidado Cultural. Conclusão: Estudos etnográficos na área de enfermagem obstétrica situam-se no âmbito das microetnografias e são operacionalizados com aporte em referenciais teórico-metodológicos da enfermagem, sendo úteis para se analisar a complexidade dos fenômenos que envolvem o cuidado de enfermagem obstétrico, com foco nas perspectivas etic (profissionais) e emic (mulheres).


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Enfermagem Obstétrica/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Revisão
5.
Asclepio ; 71(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191060

RESUMO

O artigo analisa a participação da zoóloga alemã Emília Snethlage (1868-1929), pesquisadora e depois diretora do Museu Goeldi, em Belém, Brasil, na rede de conhecimento que se estabeleceu no início do século XX na região amazônica, destinada à investigação etnológica e à coleta de artefatos indígenas, e que teve, entre seus mais conhecidos atores, os alemães Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) e Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Ambos são reconhecidos pelo trabalho em prol dos povos indígenas do Brasil e pelo legado científico nos campos da antropologia, arqueologia e linguística. Menos conhecida, Snethlage teve, entretanto, decisiva participação na inserção de Nimuendajú no meio científico. A partir de uma extensa pesquisa em fontes documentais localizadas no Brasil e na Alemanha, demonstra-se que, no primeiro período em que Nimuendajú esteve vinculado ao Museu Goeldi, entre 1913 e 1921, Snethlage viabilizou suas primeiras expedições e publicações científicas, além de articular suas relações com museus e etnólogos alemães, incluindo aquele que viria a ser seu dileto amigo e interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, de maneira a lhe permitir trabalhar também como coletor profissional


The article analyses the participation of the German zoologist Emilia Snethlage (1868-1929), researcher and later director of the Goeldi Museum, in Belém, Brazil, in the network of knowledge that was established in the early 20th century in the Amazonian region, aimed at ethnological research and to the collection of indigenous artifacts, and among its best known actors were Germans Theodor Koch-Grünberg (1872-1924) and Curt Nimuendajú (1883-1945). Both are recognized for working for the indigenous peoples of Brazil and for the scientific legacy in the fields of anthropology, archaeology and linguistics. Less well-known, Snethlage had, however, decisive participation in the insertion of Nimuendajú in the scientific environment. From an extensive research on documentary sources located in Brazil and Germany, it is shown that in the first period when Nimuendajú was linked to the Goeldi Museum between 1913 and 1921, Snethlage made possible his first expeditions and scientific publications, in addition to articulating his relations with German museums and ethnologists, including the one who would become his beloved friend and interlocutor, Koch-Grünberg, in order to allow him to work as a professional collector


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Coleções como Assunto , Etnologia/métodos , Construção Social da Identidade Étnica , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , História do Século XX , Ecossistema Amazônico/história , Brasil , Gestão do Conhecimento , Alemanha
6.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 47: 100804, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Waiting is an inevitable experience in all emergency departments (EDs). This waiting time may negatively influence the patients and their relatives' satisfaction, healthcare professionals' (HCPs) performance, and the quality of care provided. This study aims to explore, gain understanding of and describe what it is like to wait in an Iranian emergency department (ED) with particular focus on cultural features. METHOD: A focused ethnographic approach based on Spradley's (1980) developmental research sequence was conducted in the ED of a tertiary academic medical center in northwest Iran over a 9-month study period from July 2017 to March 2018. Participant observation, ethnographic interviews and examination of related documents and artefacts were used to collect data. All the data were recorded in either field notes or verbatim transcripts and were analysed using Spradley's ethnographic data analysis method concurrently. RESULTS: The overarching theme of "Me first, others later" emerged. Within this overarching theme there were seven sub-themes as follows: human-related factors, system-related factors, patients and their relatives' beliefs and behaviors, HCPs' beliefs and behaviors, consequences for patients and their relatives, consequences for HCPs, and consequences for ED environment and care process. CONCLUSION: The mentality 'me first, others later' as the main cultural barrier to emergency care, strenuously undermined our positive practice environment. An accountable patient/relative support liaison, a clearly-delineated process of ED care delivery, guidelines for providing culturally competent ED care, and public awareness programs are needed to address the concerns and conflicts which establish a mutual trust and rapport.


Assuntos
Características Culturais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Listas de Espera , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224043, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Agitation is common in people living with dementia especially at the end of life. We examined how staff interpreted agitation behavior in people with dementia nearing end of life, how this may influence their responses and its impact on the quality of care. RESEARCH DESIGN: Ethnographic study. Structured and semi-structured non-participant observations (referred to subsequently in this paper as "structured observations") of people living with dementia nearing the end of life in hospital and care homes (south-east England) and in-depth interviews with staff, conducted August 2015-March 2017. METHODS: Three data sources: 1) detailed field notes, 2) observations using a structured tool and checklist for behaviors classed as agitation and staff and institutional responses, 3) staff semi-structured qualitative interviews. We calculated the time participants were agitated and described staff responses. Data sources were analyzed separately, developed continuously and relationally during the study and synthesized where appropriate. RESULTS: We identified two main 'ideal types' of staff explanatory models for agitation: In the first, staff attribute agitated behaviors to the person's "moral judgement", making them prone to rejecting or punitive responses. In the second staff adopt a more "needs-based" approach in which agitation behaviors are regarded as meaningful and managed with proactive and investigative approaches. These different approaches appear to have significant consequences for the timing, frequency and quality of staff response. While these models may overlap they tend to reflect distinct organizational resources and values. CONCLUSIONS: Care worker knowledge about agitation is not enough, and staff need organizational support to care better for people living with dementia towards end of life. Positional theory may help to explain much of the cultural-structural context that produces staff disengagement from people with dementia, offering insights on how agitation behavior is reframed by some staff as dangerous. Such behavior may be associated with low-resource institutions with minimal staff training where the personhood of staff may be neglected.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Demência/complicações , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia
8.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 13(3): 283-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-quality, early caregiver-child interaction facilitates language, cognitive, and health outcomes. Children in low socioeconomic status households experience less frequent and lower-quality language interactions on average than their middle to high socioeconomic status peers. Early caregiver-implemented intervention may help to improve outcomes for these children. OBJECTIVES: This article describes how we used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop and implement a community-based, caregiver-implemented early language intervention, including the challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in the process of CBPR. METHODS: We adopted an ethnographic approach to document and analyze our CBPR experiences in multiple phases of the project, including intervention design, training, implementation, and evaluation. LESSONS LEARNED: Developing the CBPR partnership, co-designing and implementing the study, and managing systems- level concerns like obtaining funding were central challenges for the researcher-community team. CONCLUSIONS: The CBPR model enhances early language intervention research by facilitating understanding of families in underserved communities and increasing the cultural relevancy of intervention materials.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade/métodos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Cuidadores/educação , Pré-Escolar , Competência Cultural , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While parents' construction of and actions around child growth are embedded in their cultural framework, the discourse on child growth monitoring (CGM) has been using indicators grounded in the biomedical model. We believe that for CGM to be effective, it should also incorporate other relevant socio-cultural constructs. To contribute to the further development of CGM to ensure that it reflects the local context, we report on the cultural conceptualization of healthy child growth in rural Tanzania. Specifically, we examine how caregivers describe and recognize healthy growth in young children, and the meanings they attach to these cultural markers of healthy growth. METHODS: Caregivers of under-five children, including mothers, fathers, elderly women, and community health workers, were recruited from a rural community in Kilosa District, Southeastern Tanzania. Using an ethnographic approach and the cultural schemas theory, data for the study were collected through 19 focus group discussions, 30 in-depth interviews, and five key informant interviews. Both inductive and deductive approaches were used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Participants reported using multiple markers for ascertaining healthy growth. These include 'being bonge' (chubby), 'being free of illness', 'eating well', 'growing in height', as well as 'having good kilos' (weight). Despite the integration of some biomedical concepts into the local conceptualization of growth, the meanings attached to these concepts are largely rooted in the participants' cultural framework. For instance, a child's weight is ascribed to the parents' adherence to postpartum sex taboos and to the nature of a child's bones. The study noted conceptual differences between the meanings attached to height from a biomedical and a local perspective. Whereas from a biomedical perspective the height increment is considered an outcome of growth, the participants did not see height as linked to nutrition, and did not believe that they have control over their child's height. CONCLUSIONS: To provide context-sensitive advice to mothers during CGM appointments, health workers should use a tool that takes into account the mothers' constructs derived from their cultural framework of healthy growth. The use of this approach should facilitate communication between health professionals and caregivers during CGM activities, increase the uptake and utilization of CGM services, and, eventually, contribute to reduced levels of childhood malnutrition in the community.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Antropologia Cultural/tendências , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Características Culturais , Cultura , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/etnologia
10.
J Aging Stud ; 50: 100788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526495

RESUMO

With increasing numbers of older migrants adopting a transnational lifestyle or returning to their country of origin following retirement, the sense of attachment to and identification with the places they inhabit remains an under explored field of enquiry. Through an ethnographic approach, this paper seeks to raise awareness of the diversity within a group of older migrants, given the heterogeneity of affective bonds established with places. By highlighting the perspective of older Italian migrants living in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, this paper illustrates the role of a sense of identification with the context of migration in later life. In referring to migration as a process of transformation, some older Italians re-define their identities, as these become interwoven with the characteristics of the places in which they grow older. However, older migrants' sense of attachment to places also reveals the complexity of aging in the context of migration, when a sense of identification with these is never fully achieved in older age. This paper argues that the notion of aging that these older Italian migrants uphold is not only altered by their experience of migration, but also shaped through their identification with the places they inhabit, given formal and informal practices of identification. Thus, by addressing the determinants for a positive experience of aging in the context of migration, this paper challenges the ways in which older migrant groups are conceptualized in gerontological scholarship.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Conscientização/fisiologia , Diversidade Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Identificação Psicológica , Itália , Masculino , Apego ao Objeto , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389355

RESUMO

Scientists and social scientists often read the same text differently. They also construct categories having the same nomenclature independently. Many of us also work in isolated domains, rarely reading texts researched and documented by others. We conduct our research within the defined format of our disciplines. We engage with others only when contestations emerge and challenge some of the rooted paradigms of each other's disciplines. This paper reflects the reactions of a social scientist to texts on population genetics and attempts to arrive at the genetic theory of the origin of ethnological history of human populations in India. Inadvertently, most of these intensely researched and passionately documented DNA evidence present a serious challenge to the discourse of cultural pluralism and social diversity that the humanist perspective of science and social science takes pride in documenting. This paper is based on secondary resource materials and the methodology adopted is that of narrative research.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Idioma/história , Características Culturais/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História Antiga , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
12.
Nurse Res ; 27(2): 21-25, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The experiences of nurses participating in ethnographic fieldwork have been well documented, but often feature short-term, intermittent periods in the field of less than a day. AIM: To provide an overview of methodological issues related to collecting data while undertaking a focused ethnography of nurses volunteering with a humanitarian organisation providing surgical care in a remote setting. DISCUSSION: Particular challenges during the fieldwork included limited space and privacy influencing data collection and secure storage; sporadic and unreliable communications limiting contact with other members of the research team; the challenges of withdrawing from the intensity of the setting; and navigating blurred boundaries between the roles of clinician and researcher. CONCLUSION: Social research in practice, despite the best of intentions and significant planning, may not always travel the expected path of rational enquiry. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Awareness of the challenges involved before embarking on longer term entry into remote environments may help prepare future nurse ethnographers.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pesquisa , Comunicação , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Missões Médicas , Socorro em Desastres , Pesquisadores , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 46: 100777, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accountability in nursing practice is a concept that influences quality care, decision-making, safety standards and staff values. Therefore, understanding accountability and how it affects nursing practice could improve patient care and nurses' working conditions. AIM: The aim of this study was to find factors that influenced ethical, legal and professional accountability in emergency nursing practice. METHODS: A qualitative ethnographic approach using participant observation through convenience sampling was employed as the data collection method, while ethnographic content analysis was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The factors linked to nursing accountability found were classified into four main themes: daily dynamics, work environment evolution, customs and routines and bioethics principles' application. DISCUSSION: The long-term effect of chronic high workload and crowding, which affects nursing accountability, could promote burnout in a junior ED workforce. Changes in the nurses' working conditions need to be implemented to limit the workload to which an ED nurse is subjected to. CONCLUSION: ED nurses have to manage their accountability in difficult situations regularly, which followed patterns of four main themes across the majority of situations. Nonetheless, all those factors were influenced by nursing workload, an ever-present factor that was always considered by ED nurses during decision-making.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Emergência/ética , Enfermagem em Emergência/legislação & jurisprudência , Responsabilidade Social , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Enfermagem em Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reino Unido , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
14.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(7): e13817, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones and tablets are being increasingly integrated into the daily lives of many people worldwide. Mobile health (mHealth) apps have promising possibilities for optimizing health systems, improving care and health, and reducing health disparities. However, health care apps often seem to be underused after being downloaded. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to reach a better understanding of people's perceptions, beliefs, and experience of mHealth apps as well as to determine how highly they appreciate these tools. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out on qualitative studies published in English, on patients' perception of mHealth apps between January 2013 and June 2018. Data extracted from these articles were synthesized using a meta-ethnographic approach and an interpretative method. RESULTS: A total of 356 articles were selected for screening, and 43 of them met the inclusion criteria. Most of the articles included populations inhabiting developed countries and were published during the last 2 years, and most of the apps on which they focused were designed to help patients with chronic diseases. In this review, we present the strengths and weaknesses of using mHealth apps from the patients' point of view. The strengths can be categorized into two main aspects: engaging patients in their own health care and increasing patient empowerment. The weaknesses pointed out by the participants focus on four main topics: trustworthiness, appropriateness, personalization, and accessibility of these tools. CONCLUSIONS: Although many of the patients included in the studies reviewed considered mHealth apps as a useful complementary tool, some major problems arise in their optimal use, including the need for more closely tailored designs, the cost of these apps, the validity of the information delivered, and security and privacy issues. Many of these issues could be resolved with more support from health providers. In addition, it would be worth developing standards to ensure that these apps provide patients accurate evidence-based information.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Pacientes/psicologia , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Antropologia Cultural/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/instrumentação , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/normas
15.
Nurs Health Sci ; 21(3): 390-398, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215126

RESUMO

Migrants to Thailand come from low-income border countries, such as Burma (Myanmar). Generally, migrant women experience difficulties obtaining high-quality health care due to socioeconomic barriers and conflicts with their practices. The aim of this study was to explore migrant Burmese women's experiences of becoming a mother while living in Thailand and their perceptions of motherhood, family support, and traditional postpartum practices. The study used an ethnographic design. In 2015, data were gathered through individual interviews with 10 migrant Burmese women before and after birth. Interview and field note data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged from the data: (i) the more children, the stronger the family; (ii) finding ways to promote baby's health and growth; (iii) sharing responsibility to fulfill parenting role; and (iv) peer and family support. Becoming a mother was important to the Burmese women interviewed; however, as migrants in Thailand, they had to juggle work and care for young children. Most decided that once their child was school age they would be sent to Burma to live with relatives. They engaged in a range of traditional practices to support their infant's health and well-being and protect their baby from evil spirits. Support from family, and the ability to participate in postpartum practices, were important for Burmese migrant women becoming mothers in Thailand.


Assuntos
Mães/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Mianmar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 234-244, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192714

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore Bugis culture related to feeding practice in children age 0-23 months. The study used a qualitative research method with an ethnographic study approach. Observations and focused group discussions were conducted on 22 caregivers, while in-depth interviews were conducted with a customary leader, two cadres, and a village mindwife. Data analysis applied a thematic analysis with an ethnonursing approach. This study resulted in three themes: giving sweet food, choosing a qualified person to give the first bribe, and delayed feeding of animal-sourced food (ASF) before the age of one year. These results affirm that culture is one of the most influential aspects of feeding children. The culture embraced by parents and society can affect the nutritional intake of children, especially during the first 1000 days of life.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural/tendências , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(7): 925, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081385
18.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 32(3): 143-147, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966812

RESUMO

Qualitative research in the health system has made tremendous developments in the last decade to better understand patient experiences. What is often overlooked, are the influences that the internal structures, policies and people have on the individuals that use health services. Institutional ethnography is a qualitative approach that aims to capture the social organization of "everyday life" at various system levels. An institutional ethnographic framework was applied to two research studies exploring how families experience care in neonatal intensive care units. Data were collected to develop a deep understanding of the social contexts that exist within institutional boundaries. This paper provides evidence that how care is organized and delivered can significantly influence patient experiences, perceptions and ultimately health outcomes. Adopting institutional ethnographic techniques as a common research method is a valuable tool for health leaders seeking to understand and develop recommendations for health system reform.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/normas , Mães/psicologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
19.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(2): 217-228, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) program for cancer patients based on the best available evidence, the expertise of rehabilitation professionals and the perspective of the patients, to ensure the fidelity of its implementation and to prepare its subsequent outcome evaluation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The implementation study was based on organizational ethnography and action research, and followed a multimethod, participatory and iterative approach to data collection and analysis. The authors carried out observations in 4 rehabilitation centers and conducted focus groups with rehabilitation professionals and patients. The obtained data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. All findings were discussed promptly with the rehabilitation centers at feedback meetings that contributed to the further development of the program. RESULTS: The following WMR modules were defined based on the findings: additional work-related diagnostics, multi-professional team meetings, an introductory session, work-related functional capacity training, work-related psychological groups and intensified social counseling. Process descriptions for the subsequent evaluation of the program via a cluster-randomized trial were also developed, containing, e.g., instructions for patient information and recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation studies can help to prepare for valid trials as they facilitate ensuring the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of program implementation and evaluation. Organizational ethnography and action research are suitable methods for carrying out such studies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):217-28.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Retorno ao Trabalho , Grupos Focais , Alemanha , Humanos , Pacientes , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Centros de Reabilitação/organização & administração , Projetos de Pesquisa
20.
Psychiatry ; 82(2): 103-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925114

RESUMO

Objective: Constructing a meaningful biopsychosocial model for the mental health field has been extremely elusive. Identifying the linkages between the biological, psychological and social domains has been especially daunting. There has been important progress in clarifying general correlations of certain social factors related to the mental health of individuals and in developing training programs to recognize these social factors. However, efforts have usually focused on broad correlations and there have been serious deficiencies in developing methods for understanding and dealing with the specific processes happening at the psychological and social interface. For this reason, it would be important to be able to do such things as for example have a means to clarify the processes that connect the individual's mental health and its specific interactions with his or her social class. In this report we suggest two approaches that can contribute to solving this problem. Methods: We will describe approaches from the fields of anthropology and microhistory that link the specific experiences of the individual and the nature of the social context in which he or she finds him/herself. Results: Careful application of certain anthropological and history study methods that "take seriously" the specific interactions between the environmental situation and the individual can provide approaches to improved understanding of the relevant variables and the causal links between "psycho" and "social" in the biopsychosocial model. Conclusions: Teaching and applying these principles in treatment and research can contribute to a more effective model of biopsychosocial interactions in the mental health field.


Assuntos
História , Psiquiatria/métodos , Ciências Sociais/métodos , Antropologia Cultural/métodos , Humanos
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