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1.
Evol Anthropol ; 29(6): 317-331, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331061

RESUMO

In recent years, interest in understanding the effects of climate change on species and ecological systems has sharply increased. We quantify and contextualize the current state of knowledge about the effects of contemporary climate change on non-human primates, a taxon of great ecological and anthropological significance. Specifically, we report findings from a systematic literature search designed to assess the allocation of research effort on primates and climate change and consider how the current distribution of knowledge may be influencing our understanding of the topic. We reveal significant phylogenetic and geographic gaps in our knowledge, which is strongly biased towards lemurs, apes, and a relatively small subset of primate range countries. We show that few analyses investigate changes in primate foods relative to changes in primates themselves or their habitats, and observe that few longitudinal datasets are of sufficient duration to detect effects on the generational scale. We end by identifying areas of research inquiry that would advance our theoretical understanding of primate ecology, evolution, and adaptability, and meaningfully contribute to primate conservation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Primatas/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Animais , Antropologia Física , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos
2.
J Anthropol Sci ; 982020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341755

RESUMO

Recent finds in hominin fossil environments place the transition to terrestriality in a wooded or forested habitat. Therefore, forest-dwelling apes can aid in understanding this important evolutionary transition. Sex differences in ape locomotion have been previously attributed to sexual dimorphism or ecological niche differences between males and females. This study examined the hypothesis that differential advantages of terrestrial travel may impact mating success in male bonobos. We examined whether males are more terrestrial when there are mating benefits for fast travel. We analyzed behavioral data on wild bonobos over a ten-month period in the Lomako Forest, DRC and examined the proportion of time spent at lower heights compared to higher heights between adult females and males relative to their location to feeding contexts with high mating frequencies. We found a significant interaction between sex and height class away from food patches (F=4.65, df =1, p <0.05) such that females were primarily arboreal whereas there was no difference between males across height classes. However, there was also a significant interaction between sex and height class (F =29.35, df =1, p <0.0001) for adults traveling near or entering a food patch. Males often arrived at food patches terrestrially and females arrived almost exclusively arboreally. We found a significant difference between the expected and observed distribution of matings by food patch context (G =114.36, df =4, p <0.0001) such that most mating occurred near or in a food patch. These results suggest that males may travel terrestrially to arrive at food patches before cohesive parties of females arrive arboreally, in order to compete with other males for mating access to these females. Such intrasexual selection for sex differences in locomotion may be important in considerations of the evolution of locomotion strategies in hominins in a forested environment.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Locomoção/fisiologia , Pan paniscus/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Masculino
3.
J Anthropol Sci ; 982020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341756

RESUMO

The discovery of the nearly complete Plio-Pleistocene skeleton StW 573 Australopithecus prometheus from Sterkfontein Member 2, South Africa, has intensified debates as to whether Sterkfontein Member 4 contains a hominin species other than Australopithecus africanus. For example, it has recently been suggested that the partial skeleton StW 431 should be removed from the A. africanus hypodigm and be placed into A. prometheus. Here we re-evaluate this latter proposition, using published information and new comparative data. Although both StW 573 and StW 431 are apparently comparable in their arboreal (i.e., climbing) and bipedal adaptations, they also show significant morphological differences. Surprisingly, StW 431 cannot be unequivocally aligned with either StW 573 or other hominins from Sterkfontein commonly attributed to A. africanus (nor with Paranthropus robustus and Australopithecus sediba). This finding, together with considerations about the recent dating of Plio-Pleistocene hominin-bearing sites in South Africa and palaeoecological/palaeoclimatic conditions, raises questions whether it is justified to subsume hominins from Taung, Makapansgat and Sterkfontein (and Gladysvale) within a single taxon. Given the wealth of fossil material and analytical techniques now available, we call for a re-evaluation of the taxonomy of South African Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such an endeavour should however go beyond the current (narrow) focus on establishing an A. africanus-A. prometheus dichotomy.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/classificação , Animais , Antropologia Física , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Fósseis , Masculino , África do Sul
4.
J Anthropol Sci ; 98: 49-72, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341758

RESUMO

KNM-OG 45500 is a hominin fossil composed of parts of a frontal bone, left temporal bone, and cranial vault pieces. Since its discovery along the Olorgesailie Formation (Kenya) in 2003, it has been associated with the Homo erectus hypodigm. The specimen, derived from a geological context dated to ca. 900 Ka BP, has been described as a very small individual of probable female sex. However, despite its status as an important hominin specimen, it has not been used in a quantitative comparative framework because of its fragmentary condition. Here, we undertake a virtual reconstruction of the better-preserved fragment, the frontal bone. We additionally apply geometric morphometric analyses, using a geographically diverse fossil and modern human sample, in order to investigate the morphological affinities of KNM-OG 45500. Our results show that the frontal shape of KNM-OG 45500 exhibits similarities with Early Pleistocene fossils from Eurasia and Africa that are assigned to H. erectus sensu lato (s.l.). Its size, on the other hand, is notably smaller than most other Homo erectus fossils and modern humans and similar to the specimens from Dmanisi (Georgia) and to Homo naledi. Taken together, our analyses of the frontal bone suggest a taxonomic attribution of KNM-OG 45500 to H. erectus s.l. and extend even further the range of size variability associated with this taxon around 900 Ka BP.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Osso Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Cefalometria , Feminino , Quênia
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21251-21257, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817513

RESUMO

A large brain combined with an upright posture in humans has resulted in a high cephalopelvic proportion and frequently obstructed labor. Fischer and Mitteroecker [B. Fischer, P. Mitteroecker, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 5655-5660 (2015)] proposed that the morphological covariations between the skull and pelvis could have evolved to ameliorate obstructed labor in humans. The availability of quantitative data of such covariation, especially of the fetal skull and maternal pelvis, however, is still scarce. Here, we present direct evidence of morphological covariations between the skull and pelvis using actual mother-fetus dyads during the perinatal period of Macaca mulatta, a species that exhibits cephalopelvic proportions comparable to modern humans. We analyzed the covariation of the three-dimensional morphology of the fetal skull and maternal pelvis using computed tomography-based models. The covariation was mostly observed at the pelvic locations related to the birth canal, and the forms of the birth canal and fetal skull covary in such a way that reduces obstetric difficulties. Therefore, cephalopelvic covariation could have evolved not only in humans, but also in other primate taxa in parallel, or it could have evolved already in the early catarrhines.


Assuntos
Desproporção Cefalopélvica/fisiopatologia , Pelve/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Antropologia Física/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Desproporção Cefalopélvica/genética , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Feto , Hominidae , Humanos , Macaca mulatta/embriologia , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parto/fisiologia , Pelve/fisiologia , Gravidez , Crânio/fisiologia
7.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(3): 259-268, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236288

RESUMO

Recent advances in age-at-death estimation from the skeleton indicate that some of the most commonly used methods based on linear regression provide different results compared to new techniques using Bayesian statistics, and underestimate individuals over 60 years old which leads to biased prehistoric lifespans. The question is how the choice of age-at-death estimation method can influence subsequent comparisons between different populations or further analysis, such as assessment of the effect of early stress on mortality in adult individuals. The aim of our work is twofold: firstly, to test the differences between age estimation methods evaluating one indicator (the auricular surface), namely the original (Lovejoy et al. 1985), revised (Buckberry & Chamberlain 2002) and newly developed (Schmitt 2005) methods, on the Early Medieval adult population from Mikulcice - IIIrd church (Czech Republic, Central Europe). The secondary objective is to assess whether the different age distributions based on the different methods have an impact on age-dependent analyses, in this case the relationship between LEH and age-at-death. Our results showed that in the adult population from Mikulcice - IIIrd church, the original and revised methods provided different mortality profiles: the proportion of individuals older than 60 years acquired using Lovejoy's method was only 6.7%, while the newer methods increased the proportion to 26.7% (Buckberry & Chamberlain 2002) and 23.9% (Schmitt 2005). The choice of age-at-death estimation, and thus the different age distributions, also resulted in differences in the achieved age of individuals with and without stress markers, and specifically in the significance of the differences found. This finding seeks to draw attention to the fact that inconsistency in the use of different age-estimation methods can influence the results of further analyses and cause problems when comparing burial grounds.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Teorema de Bayes , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 5, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether or not the breakpoint (BP), at which the proportion of each of fat mass (FM) and fat-free soft tissue mass (FFSTM) to body mass (BM) alter, exists in male athletes. We examined the hypothesis that in male athletes, the regional FM and FFSTM-BM relationships have a BP, but the body mass at BP (BMBP) differs among the arms, trunk, and legs. METHODS: By using a dual X-ray absorptiometry, whole-body and regional FMs and FFSTMs in the arms, trunk, and legs were estimated in 198 male athletes (20.8 ± 2.1 years; 1.73 ± 0.07 m; 72.7 ± 14.8 kg). To detect the BP in the relationship between each of FM and FFSTM and BM, a piecewise linear regression analysis was used. If a BP was detected in the corresponding relationship, the significant difference between the regression slopes above and below the BP was examined. RESULTS: The regression analysis indicated that the BMBP existed in the FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships regardless of region and whole body. For the whole body, BMBP was 81.8 kg for FM and 82.2 kg for FFSTM. In regional FM-BM relationships, BMBP was 80.5 kg for arms, 82.6 kg for trunk, and 63.3 kg for legs, and the regression slopes above the BMBP became higher than those below the BP, and vice versa in regional FFSTM-BM relationships (BMBP 104.6 kg for arms, 80.9 kg for trunk, and 79.0 kg for legs). The relative differences in the slopes between below and above BMBP in the regional FM-BM relationships were higher in the arms and trunk than in the legs, and those in the regional FFSTM-BM relationships in the legs than in the trunk. CONCLUSION: Whole-body and regional FM- and FFSTM-BM relationships for male athletes have breakpoints at which the proportion of the tissue masses to BM alters. The BMBP and differences in the distribution of regional FM and FFSTM around the breakpoint are region specific.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160224

RESUMO

In this study, we shed light on the interdependency of child growth, morbidity and life expectancy in the fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Jabuticabeira II shell mound (1214-830 cal B.C.E. - 118-413 cal C.E.) located at the South Coast of Brazil. We test the underlying causes of heterogeneity in frailty and selective mortality in a population that inhabits a plentiful environment in sedentary settlements. We reconstruct osteobiographies of 41 individuals (23 adults and 18 subadults) using 8 variables, including age-at-death, stature, non-specific stress markers (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, periosteal reactions, periapical lesions and linear enamel hypoplasia), as well as weaning patterns based on stable isotope data to examine how stress factors module growth and survival. Our results show that shorter adult statures were linked to higher morbidity around weaning age and higher chances of dying earlier (before 35 years) than taller adult statures. In addition, short juvenile stature was related to physiological stressors and mortality. The adult "survivors" experienced recurrent periods of morbidity during childhood and adulthood, possibly associated with the high parasite load of the ecosystem and dense settlement rather than to malnourishment. An association between early-stress exposure and premature death was not demonstrated in our sample. To explain our data, we propose a new model called "intermittent stress of low lethality". According to this model, individuals are exposed to recurrent stress during the juvenile and adult stages of life, and, nevertheless survive until reproductive age or later with relative success.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Expectativa de Vida/história , Estresse Fisiológico , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Estatura , Brasil , Criança , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/história , Dieta Paleolítica/história , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fragilidade , Transtornos do Crescimento/história , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/história , Modelos Biológicos , Morbidade
10.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(3): 235-242, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211746

RESUMO

This paper discusses our approach and results obtained when attempting to identify a saponified human body recovered from the sea, without arms and legs. Bones, especially the long ones, are the only sources of DNA available in several cases involving unidentified bodies in advanced state of putrefaction. In this case, since the body was found without limbs, attempts were made to extract DNA from the sternum bone. The DNA was extracted using a modified version of the NucleoSpin® DNA Trace Kit (Macherey Nagel™) protocol and an STR analysis was performed. Thanks to this modified protocol a complete DNA profile was obtained from the sternum bone, while only partial results were obtained from blood and teeth. The DNA profile obtained from the sternum was compared with the DNA of the putative son searching for a genetic match. Five incompatibilities were detected so it was possible to exclude the kinship. In conclusion this could be a useful technique in personal identification through DNA analysis in case of poor quality and quantity of bone.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , DNA , Dente , Antropologia Física , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Esterno
11.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(3): 363-373, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086765

RESUMO

We investigated changes in the cranial/cephalic index of the Korean population in millennia, centuries, and recent decades. Secular changes of Korean's cephalic index in history were studied using the data of archaeology literature and our measurement data of different adult skull sets for the fifteenth-nineteenth century Joseon people, the Korean War victims (1950-1953), and the Korean skeletons collected by medical schools in the 1960s. A change in head shape during the last century was also estimated by the analysis on Korean cephalometric datasets of Korean Research Institute of Standards and Science. In brief, over the past 2000 years, the crania of Korean people have steadily changed from mesocephalic to brachycephalic, mainly due to the cranial length shortening. Brachycephalization accelerated at the beginning of the twentieth century and continued until the early twenty-first century, largely caused by increased cephalic breadth. We also note that debrachycephalization began in birth cohorts around 1965 for males and around 1970 for females. Taken together, we figure out that the head shape of Korean people has been gradually shortened over millennia and then has undergone dramatic shortening in the last century. In recent decades, however, the changing pattern has reversed to debrachycephalization, for which we discussed about the possible causes in the present report.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Arqueologia , Cefalometria , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
12.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(1): 10, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072309

RESUMO

This is an introduction to a series of essays, originally a panel at the iCHST conference in 2017, which explore the moral economy of physiology in the modern period, focusing particularly on issues of race, place and nation. By examining a series of interconnected, but not interchangeable, concepts, these papers offer a broader context for the understanding of physiology, physical anthropology, and fertility studies, particularly by moving from Europe to South America and from there with explorers and scientists across the globe. Starting with Malthusian discussions in the early nineteenth century, working through to post-colonial debates about race and belonging, the papers argue for an increased focus on cross-century histories of these topics, showing a continuity in beliefs and practices, and highlighting the interdisciplinary and inherently political nature of these researches.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Mudança Climática , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos , Humanos
13.
Homo ; 71(1): 37-42, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939993

RESUMO

Anatomical stature estimation methods reconstruct stature for skeletal specimens by adding up the heights of skeletal elements contributing to stature. In addition, these estimations factor in a certain amount of soft tissue known as "soft tissue correction". Our study focuses on the relationship between living stature and one of the major soft tissue contributors to stature: the intervertebral disc thickness/height. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether intervertebral disc thickness is greater in tall individuals and whether there is a linear correlation between stature and intervertebral disc height. To conduct this study, we utilized a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1966 (n = 12,058) with known stature. We measured vertebral heights and intervertebral disc heights from low back MRI examination performed at the age of 46 years (n = 200). All subjects were considered healthy with no spinal injuries or pathologies. Our results clearly indicate that stature and intervertebral disc height have positive, statistically significant association. According to our results it is advisable to take into account the individual's skeletal height when soft tissue corrections for anatomical stature estimations are performed. Further studies utilizing full body MRI are needed to produce more accurate soft tissue corrections.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física/métodos , Estatura/fisiologia , Disco Intervertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Homo ; 71(1): 43-50, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939994

RESUMO

The beginning of the early Middle Ages period in Poland (10th-14th century) has been widely debated in the context of an active demographic inflow from other countries and its contribution to the creation of the new country. Finding chamber graves which are considered typical for the Scandinavian ethnic group in a few cemeteries in Poland has become the basis for the anthropological inference on the potential participation of North European people in forming the social elite of medieval Poland. However, the question of whether this fact was the result of presence of people from other countries lacks an unambiguous answer. We attempted to isolate ancient DNA from the medieval necropolis in Kaldus where several chamber graves have been found and analysed the genetic diversity of maternal lineage of this population. We analysed the HVR I fragment and coding regions to assess the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. We have identified a few relatively rare haplogroups (A2, T2b4a, HV, K1a11, J2b1a, and X2) which were previously found in early medieval sites in Norway and Denmark. Obtained results might suggest genetic relation between the people of Kaldus and past northern Europe populations. Present and further research can undoubtedly shed new light on the aspect of the formation of the early medieval Polish population.


Assuntos
Cemitérios/história , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Criança , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
15.
Homo ; 71(1): 29-36, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944199

RESUMO

This study reports the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M diversity in two tribal populations of South India. The aim of this study was to analyze and establish a mitochondrial profile to know the genetic origin and relatedness of people of India. MtDNA variability of the complete mitochondrial genome was analyzed by the Sanger sequencing method. Our results revealed novel sub-lineages of haplogroup: M2, M3, M6, M35, M65, and an M* lineage, indicating a deep in-situ origin and spread of haplogroup M lineages in India, shared with many tribal and caste populations.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Antropologia Física , Análise por Conglomerados , Grupos Étnicos/história , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia , Filogenia
16.
Homo ; 71(1): 73-82, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944202

RESUMO

Data regarding sexual dimorphism in children are sparse with contradictory results. Recently, geometric morphometric analysis has shown that the pubis and ilium have both sexual shape dimorphism and shape differences that increase during ontogeny, but little is known about the entire pelvic (os coxae) bone shape in very young children. The goal of this study was to show pelvic bone age-related and sex-related shape changes using 3D geometric morphometric analysis in very young children. Geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on CT scans of the pelvic bone of 96 children aged from 3 to 24 months. Eleven landmarks were defined on the left pelvic bone. Geometric morphometric analyses were carried out to identify trends in bone shape in sex-based and age-based subgroups. Age-related differences in shape were statistically significant (Goodall's F = 3.68; p < 0.001) but there were no sex-related differences in shape (Goodall's F = 1.95; p = 0.065). Overall, the superior part of the pelvic bone becomes narrower with age. This study has shown that geometric morphometric analysis of the pelvic bone is feasible in very young children and revealed changes in shape with age but not differences with sex.


Assuntos
Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Etários , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Física , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lactente , Masculino , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Evol Anthropol ; 29(1): 9-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994265

RESUMO

In 1698, a creature with a perplexing mix of human and "ape" features died in London. Brought back to England by merchants who had acquired it during a trading mission to West Africa, it attracted the attention of the Royal Society, and after the death of what we now know was a juvenile chimpanzee, Edward Tyson, a distinguished physician/anatomist, was commissioned to undertake its dissection. Tyson, who was assisted by William Cowper, prepared a detailed written and graphic description of their meticulous dissection, and this forms the major part of his 1699 publication Orang-outang sive Homo sylvestris: or The Anatomy of a Pygmie compared with that of a Monkey, an Ape, and a Man. Tyson records the many ways his "pygmie" resembled, and differed from, modern humans, including acute assessments of its brain and pelvic anatomy. Tyson's monograph is a text-book example of the comparative method. He, and it, deserve more recognition.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada/história , Antropologia Física/história , Animais , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Primatas/anatomia & histologia
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 4, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting breastfeeding is an important public health intervention, with benefits for infants and mothers. Even modest increases in prevalence and duration may yield considerable economic savings. However, despite many initiatives, compliance with recommendations is poor in most settings - particularly for exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers commonly consult health professionals for infant feeding and behavioural problems. MAIN BODY: We argue that broader consideration of lactation, incorporating evolutionary, comparative and anthropological aspects, could provide new insights into breastfeeding practices and problems, enhance research and ultimately help to develop novel approaches to improve initiation and maintenance. Our current focus on breastfeeding as a strategy to improve health outcomes must engage with the evolution of lactation as a flexible trait under selective pressure to maximise reproductive fitness. Poor understanding of the dynamic nature of breastfeeding may partly explain why some women are unwilling or unable to follow recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: We identify three key implications for health professionals, researchers and policymakers. Firstly, breastfeeding is an adaptive process during which, as in other mammals, variability allows adaptation to ecological circumstances and reflects mothers' phenotypic variability. Since these factors vary within and between humans, the likelihood that a 'one size fits all' approach will be appropriate for all mother-infant dyads is counterintuitive; flexibility is expected. From an anthropological perspective, lactation is a period of tension between mother and offspring due to genetic 'conflicts of interest'. This may underlie common breastfeeding 'problems' including perceived milk insufficiency and problematic infant crying. Understanding this - and adopting a more flexible, individualised approach - may allow a more creative approach to solving these problems. Incorporating evolutionary concepts may enhance research investigating mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding; where possible, studies should be experimental to allow identification of causal effects and mechanisms. Finally, the importance of learned behaviour, social and cultural aspects of primate (especially human) lactation may partly explain why, in cultures where breastfeeding has lost cultural primacy, promotion starting in pregnancy may be ineffective. In such settings, educating children and young adults may be important to raise awareness and provide learning opportunities that may be essential in our species, as in other primates.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Lactação/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(1): 83-88, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322644

RESUMO

Carpal coalitions, resulting from a failure of separation of the cartilaginous precursors of the carpal bones during gestation, may be osseous or non-osseous. Even though lunate-triquetral coalitions are the most common of all carpal coalitions there is only one previous palaeopathological report of such a coalition. This study presents a non-osseous lunate-triquetral coalition found amongst the mostly cremated commingled bones from a Chalcolithic pit at Perdigões (Portugal). The cremated bones show evidence of burning at varying but mostly at generally high temperatures. The perfect articulation between these right bones and pinpoint pitting in the lunate-triquetral joint were crucial for the identification of this congenital condition. Carpal coalitions are more frequent in African than European populations. Artifacts produced from ivory of African origin were found in Perdigões, however it is not possible to establish the ancestry of this individual.


Assuntos
Antropologia Física , Ossos do Carpo , Osso e Ossos , Ossos do Carpo/anatomia & histologia , Ossos do Carpo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rituais Fúnebres , Humanos , Portugal
20.
Evol Anthropol ; 29(1): 14-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580522

RESUMO

We review feeding and mandibular anatomy in a community of West African monkeys. We use field observations, food material property data, and skeletal specimens from the Ivory Coast's Taï Forest to explore the factors that shape mandibular architecture in colobines and cercopithecines. Despite excellent geographic control across our sample, the fit between bone form (as conventionally described) and functional activity (as we perceive it) is not spectacular. We present a thought experiment to assess how well we could reconstruct diet in the Taï monkeys if we only had skeletons and teeth to study. This exercise indicated that we would be correct about half the time. Our analyses reinforce the notion that diet is anything but a monolithic variable and that better success at relating mandibular form to food must incorporate information on ingestive and processing behavior, geometric and material properties of foods, and both material and structural data on jaws themselves.


Assuntos
Colobus , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária , Animais , Antropologia Física , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Colobus/anatomia & histologia , Colobus/fisiologia , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Masculino , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/fisiologia
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