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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210624, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254431

RESUMO

Sex is one of the first features to be diagnosed in human identification, composing, with age, ancestry and stature, the so called "big four". Aim: The present study aimed to metrically analyze the sexual dimorphism in skulls of known age and sex from Rio Grande do Sul ­ Brazil. Methods: This was a crosssectional study of metrical analysis, which used a sample comprised of 209 human skulls (106 male and 103 female) older than 22 years old at the time of death, undamaged and without signs of trauma or abnormalities. The point nasion and the most superior points on the zygomaticotemporal sutures from each side were connected forming a triangle. This area was calculated using Heron's formula, and the results were submitted for statistical analysis. Results: All measurements showed significant values for sexual dimorphism. Through the area of the triangle, it was possible to determine sex with an accuracy of 83.97% for males and 83.50% for females. Conclusion: This simple method requires only a caliper, and still can be reliable for forensic human identification. It must be diffused and tested on other samples, and can be used as a good and inexpensive tool for experts in day-to-day practice


Assuntos
Crânio , Caracteres Sexuais , Antropologia Forense , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto
2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e218796, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254745

RESUMO

Forensic physical anthropometry allows the determination of animal species and estimates sex, ancestry, age and height. Aim: To analyze the effectiveness of a cranioscopic/ morphological evaluation for sex estimation with a sample of the Brazilian mixed-race population by conducting a qualitative visual assessment without prior knowledge of sex. Methods: This is a blind cross-sectional study that evaluated 30 cranial characteristics of 192 skulls with mandible, 108 male and 84 female individuals, aged 22 to 97 years, from the Osteological and Tomographic Biobank. The qualitative characteristics were classified and compared to the actual sex information of the Biobank database. The statistical analysis was used to calculate de Cohen's kappa coefficient, total percentage of agreement, sensitivity and specificity of visual sex classification. Results: Of the 30 cranial variables analyzed, 15 presented moderate degree of agreement, achieving value of Kappa test between 0.41­0.60: Glabella (Gl), Angle and lines (At), Mental eminence (Em), Mandible size (Tm), Cranial base (Bc), Mouth depth (Pb), Nasal aperture (Anl), Supraorbital region (Rs), Orbits (Orb), Mastoid processes (Pm), Alveolar arches (Aa), Zygomatic arch (Az), Orbital edge (Bo), Supraorbital protuberances (Pts), and Supramastoid crests and rugosity (Crsm). The Facial physiognomy (Ff) presented substantial reliability (0.61-0.80) with 89.8% sensitivity for male sex and 70.2% specificity. Conclusions: Cranial morphological characteristics present sexual dimorphism; however, in this study only 15 variables showed moderate degree of agreement and can be used in sex estimation. Only one variable (Ff) 81.2% total agreement with substantial reliability. Quantitative methods can be associated for safe sex estimation


Assuntos
Crânio , Caracteres Sexuais , Antropologia Forense , Mandíbula
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502812

RESUMO

Wireless sensing can be used for human identification by mining and quantifying individual behavior effects on wireless signal propagation. This work proposes a novel device-free biometric (DFB) system, WirelessID, that explores the joint human fine-grained behavior and body physical signatures embedded in channel state information (CSI) by extracting spatiotemporal features. In addition, the signal fluctuations corresponding to different parts of the body contribute differently to the identification performance. Inspired by the success of the attention mechanism in computer vision (CV), thus, to extract more robust features, we introduce the spatiotemporal attention function into our system. To evaluate the performance, commercial WiFi devices are used for prototyping WirelessID in a real laboratory environment with an average accuracy of 93.14% and a best accuracy of 97.72% for five individuals.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos
5.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 33(2): 145-150, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247145

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, DNA evidence has become a very powerful tool in forensics, but it also has its limitations. DNA, being a very fragile molecule, can be easily damaged and contaminated. It can be very challenging to find enough DNA in an investigation to really make a breakthrough in certain types of evidence samples. For instance, about half of all rape kits do not yield sufficient genetic information to determine the perpetrator's DNA profile. This is where proteomics, the modern concept of protein analysis, steps in. By observing the amino acid sequence of protein fragments, researchers can work backward to conclude the DNA sequence used to make proteins. Proteomics methods can be used to classify and explain the circumstances that produced the biological samples. This article provides a conceptual overview on the different proteomics applications in forensics, including human identification using hair samples and fingermarks, species determination utilizing teeth and bones, and the determination of postmortem intervals.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Estupro , DNA , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021225, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimation of age, stature, sex, and ancestry contributes to the establishment of the biological profile of the deceased in forensic examinations. Assessment of the body weight aids in the approximation of the overall body size of the individual which may help in the forensic identification process. In clinical examinations, body weight assessment assumes importance in cases where body weight measurement is a challenging task due to illness and body deformity. OBJECTIVE: The present research was conducted to estimate the body weight from the percutaneous width of the bones and joints with the help of prediction equations. METHODS: The study was carried out on 344 adults (172 Females and 172 Males) aged between 18 and 25 years from the Himachal Pradesh State of North India. Eleven anthropometric measurements including height vertex, mid-arm circumference, humerus bicondylar width, transverse chest breadth, sagittal chest breadth, bi-iliac breadth, handbreadth, femur bicondylar breadth, ankle breadth, foot breadth, and body weight were taken on each individual. The sex differences were evaluated by using independent student t-test and Mann-Whitney U test and the correlation between the body weight and the anthropometric variables was investigated by using both Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient depending upon the normality of the data. Regression models for the estimation of body weight were calculated. Further, a validation study was carried out to check the accuracy and utility of the derived regression models by calculating the mean absolute percent prediction error (MAPPE). RESULTS: Significant sex differences were observed among all the anthropometric variables. The transverse chest breadth and mid-arm circumference were strongly correlated with the body weight, whereas, a good correlation was also observed in other measurements except for the ankle breadth. The SEE (Standard error of estimate) of the derived linear regression models was compared, and it was found that multiple linear regression models show better accuracy than simple linear regression models. The MAPPE was found to be less in the case of multiple linear regression models than the linear ones. CONCLUSION: The present investigation concludes that regression models can be used in the estimation of body weight from the percutaneous measurements and joint widths with reasonable accuracy in an Indian population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Antropologia Forense , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110899, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247140

RESUMO

Butterfly fractures are expected to form with the transverse portion on the tension side and the wedge portion on the compression side of a bent bone, however wedges have also been observed in the reverse orientation and are reported to be frequent in concentrated 4-point bending. To investigate how these fractures form, concentrated 4-point bending experiments were performed on nine human femora and documented using high-speed video. Videos showed the wedge portion formed as fracture initiated in tension, branched obliquely, then curved to terminate on the tension face. The transverse portion formed as a crack traveled between the curved fracture branch and the compression face. Fractography was also applied to evaluate fracture surfaces. At least one fractography feature was present in all femora and 32/35 bone fragments examined. Fracture propagation sequences interpreted using fractography matched those observed on video, demonstrating the utility of this method for evaluating complex fracture patterns.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/patologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Antropologia Forense , Fraturas Cominutivas/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110811, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229142

RESUMO

Forensic age estimation is routinely applied in investigations involving identification of individuals. Over the past century a myriad of methods have been devised for age estimation. One such method, proposed by Suchey and Brooks in 1990, groups the observed changes occurring in the pubic symphysis into six phases, each defined by a corresponding age range. The present study was piloted with the focussed question being to empirically determine the accuracy of the Suchey-Brooks method in computed tomographic age estimation by analysing morphological changes occurring in the pubic symphysis. Original articles pertaining to the use of the Suchey-Brooks method for CT based age estimation were extracted from four different databases- PubMed, CENTRAL, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect. Research papers which were answering the focussed question were selected for data analysis. After assessing the risk of bias of the selected articles, the data was subjected to Meta-analysis. Pooled analysis of correctly/accurately aged individuals/remains using the random and fixed effect models yielded a prediction percentage of 78% and 86%, respectively. Higher percentages were obtained for phase-wise and subgroup analysis, indicating that the Suchey-Brooks method is a reliable method for age estimation.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Sínfise Pubiana/diagnóstico por imagem , Sínfise Pubiana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 830-834, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226475

RESUMO

For individual identification, the principal biological element is sex determination from disfigured and amputated limbs or body fragments in forensic investigation. Diverse dimensions and proportions affect the anthropometric assessment of sex in different populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2014 to June 2016 on five hundred and four healthy individuals of age-group 22-40 years of Western India to see the degree of sexual dimorphism in limb measurements. The forearm length, whole upper limb length, tibial length and whole lower limb length of both sides were measured by the universal anthropometric criteria. Demarking points, sexual dimorphism indices and discriminant functions were developed for each measurement. The sexual dimorphism was observed in all variables and males have a higher value than females (p<0.001). The tibial length showed the highest accuracy in sex determination and the highest sexual dimorphism, followed by whole lower limb length. The range of Cross-validated sex classification precision was between 58-90% for the individual variables, 91.7% for the stepwise method and 95.4% for all measurements taken together. The established prototypes delivered effective and consistent sex estimates with high precision rates and low prediction errors.


Assuntos
Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110895, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274606

RESUMO

The thesis of this brief exposition is the absolute and immediate necessity of preserving existing osteological collections. Once lost, they can never be replaced. They are priceless, historically and culturally. Each collection is unique, in content and in scientific value. No one collection is complete, or replicates any other. These collections are separated by space and by time, by geography and by epoch. They preserve our past, as well as our understanding of human variation. They help us to better understand the human condition and contribute to the advancement of many disciplines including: anthropology, medicine, surgery, anatomy, history, and, undeniably, forensic anthropology. In spite of their uniqueness, all osteological collections face similar challenges: cultural norms and sensitivities, funding, space limitations, and competing priorities. This article provides a succinct overview of several private and public collections around the world, the challenges of preservation, and the benefits of their salvation. The skeletal collections described here are but a sample of what is, and of what may be lost. Anything more would require a book. Anything less would be an irreplaceable and tragic loss.


Assuntos
Osteologia , Antropologia Forense , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Museus , Osteologia/história , Universidades
11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(2): 239-247, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142487

RESUMO

Abstract: Individual identification based on imaging data of the skeleton of a corpse is a key technique for forensic identification. To reduce the influence of artificial factors, computer-aided semi-automatic or automatic individual identification has become one of the research directions of skeleton-based individual identification in forensic radiology. Therefore, this paper reviews and summarizes literatures related to estimation of anthropological information such as, age and sex by computer-aided forensic radiology bone characteristics and individual identification based on bone imaging characteristics, in order to provide reference on skeleton-based individual identification in forensic radiology.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense , Radiologia , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Osso e Ossos , Computadores
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110854, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The appearance of sexually dimorphic traits varies depending on the type of bone, age, environmental and genetic factors and is closely linked to skeletal maturation sequence. Subadult sex estimation currently shows inconsistent accuracy and methods do not incorporate indicators of maturation. The goal of this study is to apply the Santos et al. (2019) adult sex estimation method on virtually reconstructed subadult os coxae and account for pelvic maturation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The right os coxae of 194 female and male individuals aged 11-30 years from Marseille, France were virtually reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) scans. Santos et al.'s (2019) 11 traits were scored as female, male, or indeterminate. Maturation of 10 pelvic epiphyseal sites was scored using a four-stage system (0-3) to obtain a composite maturity score from 1 to 30. RESULTS: Three maturity groups were identified based on composite maturity scores ranging from 0 to 30. Individuals with a composite maturity score of 15 or higher showed 98 % sex estimation accuracy and a 6 % indeterminate rate. Scores of 2 for the ischiatic tuberosity or 1 for the anterior superior iliac spine can be used as proxies for a composite maturity score of 15 and application on incomplete bones. DISCUSSION: Sexual dimorphism was observed in the epiphyseal maturation sequence and the development of sexually dimorphic pelvic traits. The Santos et al. (2019) method is applicable on immature individuals who meet a maturation threshold with comparable accuracy to adults, without relying on known or estimated age.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Epífises/anatomia & histologia , Ossos Pélvicos/anatomia & histologia , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Epífises/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Ossos Pélvicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1617-1626, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180547

RESUMO

Due to their medicolegal repercussions, forensic anthropology conclusions must be reliable, consistent, and minimally compromised by bias. Yet, a synthetic analysis of the reliability and biasability of the discipline's methods has not yet been conducted. To do so, this study utilized Dror's (2016) hierarchy of expert performance (HEP), an eight-level model aimed at examining intra- and inter-expert reliability and biasability (the potential for cognitive bias) within the literature of forensic science disciplines. A systematic review of the forensic anthropology literature was conducted (1972-present), including papers published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Forensic Anthropology, Forensic Science International, and the Journal of Forensic Sciences and Anthropology Section abstracts published in the Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the AAFS which matched keywords such as "forensic anthropology," "bias," "reliability," "cognition," "cognitive," or "error." The resulting forensic anthropology HEP showcases areas that have ample research and areas where more research can be conducted. Specifically, statistically significant increases in reliability (p < 0.001) and biasability (p < 0.001) publications were found since 2009 (publication of the NAS report). Extensive research examined the reliability of forensic anthropological observations and conclusions (n = 744 publications). However, minimal research investigated the biasability of forensic anthropological observations and conclusions (n = 20 publications). Notably, while several studies demonstrated the biasing effect of extraneous information on anthropological morphological assessments, there was no research into these effects on anthropological metric assessments. The findings revealed by the forensic anthropology HEP can help to guide future research, ultimately informing the development and refinement of best-practice standards for the discipline.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense/normas , Competência Profissional , Viés , Antropologia Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1627-1636, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106474

RESUMO

Analyzing complex skeletal trauma can present a challenge for forensic practitioners to reliably determine the causes and circumstances of traumatic injury. The forensic value of skeletal fracture pattern analysis can be diminished due to obscuration and similarity between injuries associated with various impact mechanisms (e.g., vertical vs horizontal blunt force) and can provide issues when questions arise surrounding circumstances of traumatic injuries. Using the Python coding language, code was written that segments traumatized regions of interest from post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) scans, allowing the user to calculate percentage of fragmentation in the context of extreme trauma events. Using cases of known trauma which resulted in fragmentation of the femur, the objective was to assess if there were statistical differences in the fragmentation resulting from horizontal pedestrian motor vehicle impacts (PMVIs; n = 44) compared to vertical high impact falls (>3 m; n = 41). Results indicated that percentage differences between the PMVI group and high impact falls group were statistically significant. Although it was possible to develop a standardized method that records fragmentation, and results were significant in distinguishing between the two groups, the outcomes of the data follow an exponential distribution which has implications for how skeletal trauma is modeled.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Fraturas Cominutivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Software , Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pedestres , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral
15.
J Forensic Sci ; 66(5): 1602-1616, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160079

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy rates and trends in forensic anthropology casework concerning the estimation of the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, and stature). Identified cases from the Forensic Anthropology Database for Assessing Methods Accuracy (FADAMA; n = 359) were analyzed to explore the following: accuracy rates per biological profile component, case-level performance in assessing the biological profile, and factors related to inaccuracy rates. Accuracy rates for the four biological profile components ranged from 83% to 98%, with sex estimation performing the best and stature performing the poorest. While the overall sex estimation inaccuracies were the lowest of any biological profile component, we found that females are missexed approximately ten times more often than males. Inaccurate age estimates were more frequently the result of overestimation than underestimation, while the trends are reversed for stature estimation. Regarding ancestry estimation performance, African American/Black and White decedents had the lowest inaccuracy rates, while Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander decedents demonstrated greater inaccuracy rates. When examining accuracy rates for each case, 81% of cases had no inaccurate biological profile estimates, while 17% and 2% inaccurately estimated one and two biological profile components, respectively. The demographic trends of identified forensic anthropology cases reflect the national unidentified decedent demographics. Biological profile accuracy rates were generally comparable to previous studies. The findings highlight the current status of forensic anthropologists' casework performance, with a greater amount of case-level inaccuracy rates than previously thought, and demonstrate the potential methodological and sampling strategies that could improve accuracy rates.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense/normas , Competência Profissional , Adolescente , Adulto , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Criança , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Antropologia Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação do Sexo pelo Esqueleto , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 1(39): 45-52, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057157

RESUMO

Change is the universal law of nature, and human bodies after death cannot be an exception for a long time. In forensic science, the tissue from the hardest part of the human body is the only hope to establish the identity, and maternity/paternity of unidentified dead bodies. In this case, a foreign national on a tourist visa to one of the Himalayan states went missing when passing through a dense forest. His relatives could not trace him despite the best efforts of the search team, because of inaccessible hilly terrain. Later on, shepherds while grazing their livestock in the forest area accidentally came across the fragmented remains of a human skeleton. They informed the villagers, and then the police. Teeth collected during the autopsy and blood samples of the putative son, and wife of the missing foreign national on FTA (Flinders Technology Associates) cards were sent to DNA Division, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Junga, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh to establish the identity. DNA profiles obtained from the blood samples of the putative son, wife of missing foreign national, and teeth showed a complete, and concordant match, which established the identity of the skeleton. Moreover, the probability of paternity (>99.99%) between unidentified deceased person and the putative son also assessed the identity of the deceased. Hence, human teeth from unidentified dead bodies can establish the identity of unidentified deceased persons.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense , Dente , Autopsia , DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pós , Gravidez
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 324: 110816, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030001

RESUMO

In forensic anthropology, saw mark analysis plays an important role in cases of criminal dismemberment. Autopsy saw is not used by the perpetrator in cases of dismemberment, but the forensic pathologist may accidentally create false starts with this saw during an autopsy, especially while sampling bones for further analysis, and these autopsy false starts can be confused with false starts produced by the offender. In this study, the characteristics of 20 false starts were compared using stereomicroscopy (SM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These bone false starts were selected at random from a previous study of 100 false starts created by an electrical oscillating autopsy saw on human femoral bones. That study had enabled the categorization of the lesions into two groups ("superficial group" and "deep group") with a 0.52 mm depth cut off, based on the dramatic differences in lesion characteristics between these two groups. In the current study, SEM confirmed the characteristics of the false starts (walls and profile shapes, striae, bone islands and bone debris were studied), and above all explained the mechanism whereby oval bone islands in deep lesions are formed. Bone islands are due to the horizontal and vertical movement of the oscillating autopsy blade.


Assuntos
Desmembramento de Cadáver , Fêmur/lesões , Fêmur/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Humanos
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 324: 110791, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030002

RESUMO

During and after World War II, around 2.4 million Japanese died overseas. The bodies of nearly half of them are still missing as they remain in the field where they fell and have never been repatriated. The tasks of recovering and repatriating the remains of Japanese war dead started in 1953 by the former Ministry of Health and Welfare, and are now carried out by the Social Welfare and War Victims' Relief Bureau of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). In 2016, the "Act on Promoting the Recovery of the Remains of Japanese War Dead (Act No. 12 of 2016)" was enacted. The Act designates Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 (from April 2016 to March 2017) to FY 2024 as the period of intensive implementation and stipulates that the state shall establish a process to promote the identification of the war dead. In line with this Act, physical anthropologists were employed as full-time experts by the MHLW to conduct scientific analysis on the remains in the field, and since then, they have accompanied all overseas delegations for repatriation. The authors of this paper have been sent to the sites in the partner countries overseas such as the former Soviet Union, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands, and nationally to Ioto (Iwo Jima) to analyze the minimum number of individuals (MNI), ancestry, age at death, and sex of the remains. Along with the morphological investigations, DNA analyses of mitochondrial polymorphism and Y-chromosomal/autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) have been applied for estimation of the ancestry and identification of the individual. By narrowing down the possible candidates based on the historical records such as name list of the missing, if individual identification of the remains is achieved, the remains are returned to the bereaved families, and if not, they are placed in the Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery in Tokyo to rest in peace. Also, the implementation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses with next generation sequencing (NGS) for ancestry is under discussion. This paper provides an overview of the process of recovery and identification of the missing bodies from World War II in Japan.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Militares , Cremação , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Antropologia Forense/legislação & jurisprudência , História do Século XX , Humanos , Japão , Repetições de Microssatélites , Militares/história , II Guerra Mundial
19.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(5): 1993-2001, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890165

RESUMO

The anatomical uniqueness of the frontal sinus morphology has been widely used for comparative forensic identification using various techniques, mostly including 2D X-rays or one fixed slice of an axial computed tomography (CT) scan image. However, computer-aided 3D automatic graphical comparison techniques can provide accurate comparisons between two 3D models that allow users to comply with even the strictest deviation standards, avoiding error-prone identification of frontal sinuses with similar morphologies. The study proposes the use of a computer-aided comparative paradigm based on the 3D-3D frontal sinus model superimposition process and further assesses the anatomical uniqueness of frontal sinuses using a large Chinese Han sample. Three hundred thirty-six patients older than 20 years with two multi-slice CT scans were collected. Frontal sinus 3D models were semi-automatically segmented through Dolphin Imaging software. Automatic pairwise comparisons of 336 matched pairs from the same person and 340 mismatched pairs from different individuals with an analysis of average root mean square (RMS) point-to-point distance were performed using Geomagic Studio Qualify software. RMS ranged between 0.005 and 1.032 (mean RMS 0.390 ± 0.25 mm) in the group of matches and between 1.107 and 19.363 (mean RMS 4.49 ± 2.69 mm) in the group of mismatches. On average, the RMS value was over ten-fold greater in mismatches than in matches. Statistically significant differences in RMS between the group of matches and mismatches were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). This study supports the value of the frontal sinus with a 3D computer-aided superimposition method for human identification with large samples when DNA, fingerprints, and dental materials are not accessible.


Assuntos
Antropologia Forense/métodos , Seio Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Seio Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Amostra , Software
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918302

RESUMO

Age-at-death estimation constitutes one of the key parameters for identification of human remains in forensic investigations. However, for applications in forensic anthropology, many current methods are not sufficiently accurate for adult individuals, leading to chronological age estimates erring by ±10 years. Based on recent trends in aging studies, DNA methylation has great potential as a solution to this problem. However, there are only a few studies that have been published utilizing DNA methylation to determine age from human remains. The aim of the present study was to expand the range of this work by analyzing DNA methylation in dental pulp from adult individuals. Healthy erupted third molars were extracted from individuals aged 22-70. DNA from pulp was isolated and bisulfite converted. Pyrosequencing was the chosen technique to assess DNA methylation. As noted in previous studies, we found that ELOVL2 and FHL2 CpGs played a role in age estimation. In addition, three new markers were evaluated-NPTX2, KLF14, and SCGN. A set of CpGs from these five loci was used in four different multivariate regression models, providing a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) between predicted and chronological age of 1.5-2.13 years. The findings from this research can improve age estimation, increasing the accuracy of identification in forensic anthropology.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Antropologia Forense/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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