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1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 46, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112297

RESUMO

This article examines Kant's overlooked concept of "active play," as opposed to "free play," in connection with the influence of the Brunonian system of medicine, both of which, I propose, are central to understanding the broader significance of intoxication in Kant's post-1795 work. Beginning with a discussion of the late-18th century German reception of Brunonian theory, the idea of vital stimulus, and their importance for Kant, I assess the distinction drawn between gluttony and intoxication in The Metaphysics of Morals and Anthropology from a Practical Point of View. Both are analysed in the context of the Brunonian system of medicine, having establishing Kant's commitment to the Brunonianism system, as corroborated by Wasianski. What emerges is a novel understanding of intoxication in the work of Immanuel Kant, which brings to light a previously unexamined dynamic between imagination, intoxication, and the aesthetic.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Filosofia , Antropologia/história , Estética , Humanos , Obrigações Morais , Filosofia/história
2.
Nature ; 609(7927): 472-473, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071225
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(3): 36, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943607

RESUMO

This paper focuses on the links between Jakob von Uexküll's theoretical biology and Adolf Portmann's conception of organic life. Its main purpose is to show that Uexküll and Portmann not only share a view of the living being as an autonomous and holistically organized entity, but also base this view on the seminal idea of the subjectivity of the organism. In other words, the respective holistic principles securing the autonomy of the living being-the Bauplan, for Uexküll; the Innerlichkeit, for Portmann-share an essentially subjective character. Such principles, indeed, express themselves in a centrally directed and formative way; moreover, in organisms endowed with a central nervous system, they also extend their influence on the overt behavioral sphere and on the organism's capacity to give meaning to the surrounding reality. The conclusion of the article will show how, though starting from this common background, the two authors develop divergent positions on the issue of the anthropological difference. If Portmann emphasizes the special status of the relationship between the human animal and the world, Uexküll tends to see a substantial continuity in the biosemiotic processes through which human and non-human animals constitute their species-specific worlds of experience (Umwelten).


Assuntos
Antropologia , Biologia , Animais , Humanos
6.
Salud Colect ; 18: e3856, 2022 04 18.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896332

RESUMO

This article presents an ethical exercise related to academic and institutional trajectories in anthropological research and teaching, in a political context where ethical considerations are centered around supervisory regulations. The value of teaching practice is highlighted through the author's experience articulating participation in a seminar on ethics and human rights, a required course for the degree in Anthropology at the Universidad de la República (Montevideo, Uruguay), with experience participating in the evaluation process of the ethics committee at the Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which was charged with reviewing and approving a doctoral research project. This ethical exercise is uniquely expressed in different arenas in which our research processes unfold: in fieldwork, in particular political contexts, and in teaching practice, providing feedback throughout the research, debate, and analysis process.


Se presenta un ejercicio ético referido a recorridos académicos e institucionales en la investigación antropológica y en la enseñanza, en un contexto político donde la dimensión de lo ético se construye a partir de normativas fiscalizadoras. Se destaca el valor de la práctica docente, articulando la participación de la investigadora en un seminario de ética y derechos humanos, de carácter obligatorio, de la licenciatura en Antropología de la Universidad de la República (Montevideo, Uruguay), con su experiencia en el proceso de evaluación del comité de ética de la Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca (Río de Janeiro, Brasil), que tuvo a cargo la revisión y aprobación de un proyecto de investigación doctoral. Este ejercicio ético encuentra expresiones singulares en los diferentes lugares en los que se inscriben nuestros procesos de investigación: en el campo, en contextos políticos propios y en la práctica docente, y retroalimenta todo el proceso de investigación, debate y análisis.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Dissidências e Disputas , Brasil , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Uruguai
7.
Salud Colect ; 18: e4051, 2022 05 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901015

RESUMO

This article analyzes two general lines of research on traditional medicine used by Mexican indigenous peoples since the 15th century up to the present day. The first - pioneered by anthropologists and physicians with anthropological training - addresses traditional medicine so as to promote biomedicine among indigenous groups, with the purpose of improving their health conditions. This line of research developed between the 1930s and 1960s, reemerged in the mid-1970s with the Alma Ata Conference, and has maintained momentum into the present day, seeking to expand coverage of the health sector in marginalized areas, but while subordinating traditional medicine to biomedical programs in all aspects. The second line of research has been fostered by anthropologists, in particular from the 1960s onward, and seeks to comprehend indigenous cultures through traditional medicine, with a particular focus on healers, who express the cosmovision, identity, sense of belonging, and cultural autonomy of indigenous peoples. However, these enquiries attempt to comprehend and validate the ways in which traditional medicine encapsulates cultural identity, and in some cases to justify political, economic, and above all ideological objectives. These perspectives do not take into consideration information regarding morbility, mortality, and life expectancy, despite the fact that indigenous peoples are the social group with the highest mortality rates and lowest life expectancy.


Este trabajo analiza dos líneas básicas de estudios que se centran en la medicina tradicional utilizada por los pueblos originarios mexicanos desde el siglo XV hasta la actualidad. La primera, impulsada por antropólogos y médicos con formación antropológica, aborda la medicina tradicional para impulsar la biomedicina en los pueblos indígenas, procurando mejorar sus condiciones de salud. Esta línea se desarrolló entre las décadas de 1930 y 1960, para reaparecer a mediados de 1970 a partir de la Conferencia de Alma Ata, y se mantuvo hasta la actualidad buscando expandir la cobertura de atención del sector salud en áreas marginadas, pero supeditando la medicina tradicional, en todos los aspectos, a los programas biomédicos. La segunda línea, ha sido impulsada por antropólogos, sobre todo desde la década de 1960, buscando comprender las culturas originarias a través de la medicina tradicional y de lxs curadorxs, que expresan la cosmovisión, identidad, pertenencia y autonomía cultural de los pueblos originarios. Pero esta búsqueda la realizan tratando de comprender y revalidar el papel de identificador cultural de la medicina tradicional y, en algunas orientaciones, justificar objetivos económico-políticos y, especialmente, ideológicos. Esto lo hacen excluyendo la información sobre morbilidad, mortalidad y esperanza de vida, pese a que los pueblos originarios constituyen el sector social con mayores tasas de mortalidad y menor esperanza de vida.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Medicina Tradicional , Humanos , México
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9431, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676396

RESUMO

The excavations undertaken at the Campo de Hockey site in 2008 led to the identification of a major Neolithic necropolis in the former Island of San Fernando (Bay of Cádiz). This work presents the results of the latest studies, which indicate that the site stands as one of the oldest megalithic necropolises in the Iberian Peninsula. The main aim of this work is to present with precision the chronology of this necropolis through a Bayesian statistical model that confirms that the necropolis was in use from c. 4300 to 3800 cal BC. The presence of prestige grave goods in the earliest and most monumental graves suggest that the Megalithism phenomenon emerged in relation to maritime routes linked to the distribution of exotic products. We also aim to examine funerary practices in these early megalithic communities, and especially their way of life and the social reproduction system. As such, in addition to the chronological information and the Bayesian statistics, we provide the results of a comprehensive interdisciplinary study, including anthropological, archaeometric and genetic data.


Assuntos
Hóquei , Antropologia , Arqueologia , Teorema de Bayes , Europa (Continente) , História Antiga
9.
Nature ; 606(7916): 1035, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676354
10.
Anthropol Anz ; 79(4): 361-397, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607797

RESUMO

The paper presents an overview of the 50-year long bioanthropological research of the Hvar islanders and depicts the maternal and paternal genetic landscape of the Hvar population (mtDNA and NRY lineages) in more detail. MtDNA haplogroups were determined in 169 and NRY haplogroups in 407 autochthonous individuals from the Hvar Island. The relatively high level of diversity of mtDNA and NRY lineages has been observed, however with interesting deviations from both the maternal (F1b1 lineage) and paternal (Q2a1a lineage) perspective. Additionally, population substructuring revealed differences between Hvar communities (east-west substructuring), in line with the ethnohistoric background and observed migration patterns on the island. Genetic analysis of the Hvar islanders presents a highlight of the 50-year long anthropological research on this island and offers insight into the current genetic structure of Dalmatia, Croatia, shaped by dynamic and diverse population movements throughout history.


Assuntos
Antropologia , DNA Mitocondrial , Croácia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos
11.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 39(2): 113-114, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578765

RESUMO

Anthropology is defined as "the study of humans", while psychiatric anthropology is a subfield of cultural anthropology which uses qualitative methodologies to explore the experience of mental illness. In a field that is often dominated by quantitative research, an anthropological approach allows us to understand experiences surrounding illness and the cultural context of mental illness. The articles presented in this issue of the Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine explore individual and group perspectives within a variety of cultural and historical contexts. This compilation of articles unearths fascinating insights into the lived experiences of distinct and vulnerable groups, including young people, migrants and members of the travelling community. Harnessing these insights can help us to tailor our services to the needs of societal populations, as well as improving therapeutic relationships with the ultimate goal of better treatment outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Antropologia , Humanos
12.
Am J Hum Biol ; 34(8): e23757, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the potential risk factors and etiology of low back pain (LBP)-related disability, including structural changes of the spine (spinal scoliosis) and body composition components in a population with a high prevalence of LBP. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, two self-reported validated questionnaires were used to collect back pain and disability data in an ethnically homogeneous family-based population sample (N = 1078). The scoliosis angle of trunk rotation was measured by a scoliometer on three spinal levels while the patient was bent forward. Body composition parameters, including relative to weight (WT), fat, relative skeletal muscle mass (SMM/WT), and total body water were determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted, accounting for the familial composition of the sample. RESULTS: The mixed multiple regression analyses with several LBP-related phenotypes as dependent variables consistently showed significant independent associations with scoliosis and SMM/WT, irrespective of other covariates. The odds ratios (OR)/95% CI for scoliosis ranged between 1.40 (1.19-1.64) and 1.51 (1.27-1.80), and from 0.61(0.51-0.72), to 0.71(0.58-0.87) for SMM/WT, depending on the LBP phenotype. The genetic components of the respective correlations between the LBP-phenotypes and scoliosis or SMM/WT were negligible. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between LBP-related conditions and postured scoliosis and SMM/WT were consistent and significant and therefore may serve as markers in predicting the development of LBP-related disability. We interpret the origin of these correlations as the evolutionary event due to the imperfect spine anatomy adaptation to a vertical posture resulting from a quick transition to bipedalism from a quadrupedal ancestor.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Escoliose , Antropologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético , Escoliose/complicações , Escoliose/etiologia
13.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 94: 1-7, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35605317

RESUMO

The paper focuses on the relevance of Kant's anthropologically oriented idea of the pragmatic use of reason for specific theoretical approaches in sociology. As I show in the first part, Kant's explicit presence in 20th-century sociology does not refer much to his anthropology and specifically to its cornerstone - the pragmatic use of reason which establishes a subtle connection between the theoretical and practical functions of reason. As an instrument for gaining systematic knowledge about the social world and ourselves as beings both passively and actively involved in this process, Kant's pragmatic use of reason serves a specific form of the theoretical use of reason. At the same time, it embodies a kind of practical reasoning concerning the "general welfare" in the social sphere. Building on the key arguments in the first part, I then address the question of whether we can view Kant's pragmatic approach as a possible third way for sociology today, beyond the simplifying opposition of 'theoretical' normativity and 'realistic' empiricism, and whether this third way can help us in clearing specific sociological issues. Here, I focus on two examples, namely the use of Kant's notion of "unsocial sociability" in Ralf Dahrendorf's conflict theory and on the criticism of Kant's cosmopolitanism in Ulrich Beck's reformed sociology of cosmopolitanism.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Filosofia , Antropologia/história , Empirismo , Conhecimento , Filosofia/história , Sociologia
14.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 20(1): 26-54, ene.-abr. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365864

RESUMO

Resumen (analítico) El propósito de este artículo es describir los procesos discontinuos que atraviesan las experiencias escolares de los/as jóvenes en relación con la asistencia escolar en una escuela secundaria técnica de la ciudad de Rosario (Argentina). Problemática que ha cobrado un renovado interés público y académico a partir de la sanción de la obligatoriedad de la educación secundaria. El estudio fue realizado desde un enfoque socioantropológico que recupera la tradición etnográfica de la antropología desde una perspectiva crítica. Se advierte que los procesos discontinuos identificados pueden favorecer la interrupción de la escolarización, es decir, el alejamiento de la escuela durante un período más o menos prolongado de tiempo. Pero, aunque no es total, esa lógica de discontinuidad también atraviesa las experiencias de quienes continúan cursando.


Abstract (analytical) The purpose of this article is to describe the discontinuous processes that affect the school experiences of young people in relation to their attendance at a technical secondary school in the city of Rosario (Argentina). This problem has gained renewed public and academic interest due to the obligation of compulsory secondary education. The study was carried out using a socio-anthropological approach, drawing on the ethnographic tradition of Anthropology based on a critical perspective. The discontinuous educational processes that were identified can contribute to the interruption of schooling, specifically when students do not attend school for a prolonged period of time. This logic of discontinuity also crosses the experiences of those who continue with their studies.


Resumo (analítico) O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os processos descontínuos que atravessam as experiências escolares dos jovens em relação à frequência escolar em uma escola técnica secundária na cidade de Rosario (Argentina). Problema que assume um renovado interesse público e académico com a sanção da obrigatoriedade do ensino secundário. O estudo foi realizado a partir de uma abordagem socioantropológica que recupera a tradição etnográfica da antropologia de uma perspectiva crítica. Notase que os processos descontínuos identificados podem acabar favorecendo a interrupção da escolaridade, ou seja, a retirada da escola por um período mais ou menos prolongado. Mas, embora não seja total, notamos que essa lógica da des-continuidade também atravessa as experiências daqueles que continuam estudando.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Antropologia
16.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 93: 72-81, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354096

RESUMO

This paper analyzes debates on animal language in eighteenth-century German philosophy and science. Adopting a history of ideas approach, I explain how the study of animal language became tied to the investigation into the origin and development of language towards the end of the eighteenth century. I argue that for large parts of the eighteenth century, the question of the existence of animal languages was studied within the context of the philosophical question of whether animals possess reason. In Germany, the debate concerning animal reason was influenced by Christian Wolff and was taken up by diverse thinkers such as Winkler, Meier, and Reimarus. I argue that in the second half of the eighteenth century the study of animal language became more loosely related to the question of whether animals possess reason: animal language was studied not only in light of the debate on animal reason but also because it sheds light on the nature of animals, on the differences and similarities between animals and humans, and on the origin and development of language. This systematic study of animal language coincided with the rise of linguistics, anthropology, and biology as independent sciences.


Assuntos
Idioma , Filosofia , Animais , Antropologia , Alemanha , História do Século XVIII , Linguística , Filosofia/história
17.
Anthropol Med ; 29(1): 1-13, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331070

RESUMO

In the introduction to the special issue, Greco and Graber discuss the concept of chronicity and the ways it is used in the contributions to the special issue. Historians have shown that the concept of chronic disease has its origins in policy and has always been fluid and vague; however, the classic literature in sociology and nursing has focused on modelling the evolution of chronic disease rather than on examining the concept itself. In the introduction, chronicity is explored in the ways in which it is transformed by medical innovation. Innovations in biomedicine promise to turn terminal and acute conditions in chronic and to render chronic conditions curable. Even when such promises are not fulfilled, they change the context of the illness and the experiences of patients. In such a context a specific work is required from patients, in terms of adherence to the treatments, but also in terms of pursuing experimental treatments that could make their condition chronic. The introduction offers a critical exploration of the concept of chronicity, highlighting both its fluid definition and the changes linked to medical innovation, and the ways in which it shapes the temporalities and experiences of illness in complex ways that cannot be reduced to simplified schemas and trajectories.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Antropologia Médica , Doença Crônica , Humanos
18.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 26(4): 286-289, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35246386

RESUMO

Anthropocentrism can bias scientific conclusions. As a case study, we challenge the 40-year-old associative symmetry dogma, supposed to cognitively set apart humans from other species. Out of 37 human studies surveyed, only three truly demonstrate symmetry, of which only one (on five participants) suggests that symmetry is spontaneously formed.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Adulto , Animais , Humanos
19.
Med Anthropol Q ; 36(1): 155-172, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257413

RESUMO

The Anthropology of Mental Health Interest Group affirms that the state of mental health in Academic Anthropology needs serious attention and transformation. We respond to structural inequities in academia that exacerbate mental distress among graduate students and other anthropologists who experience oppression, by putting forward a policy statement with recommendations to create more equitable learning and working environments.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Saúde Mental , Antropologia Médica , Humanos , Políticas , Universidades
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(4): 368-374, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107578

RESUMO

The US National Academy of Sciences reports rising mortality for US adults, most steeply for White adults with a secondary education or less. The rise is largely attributable to deaths of despair (suicide and poisoning by alcohol and drugs) with strong contributions from the cardiovascular effects of rising obesity. Although the report does acknowledge a crisis, it proposes mild measures to manage it, such as strengthening programs to support recovery, prevent relapse, increase resilience, and perform more research toward clinically useful definitions of despair. The US National Academy of Sciences report notes that mortality is decreasing in a control group of 16 wealthy nations (including countries in Western Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan), but it does not ask what protects those nations from despair. It has been observed that human beings are constrained by evolutionary strategy (ie, huge brain, prolonged physical and emotional dependence, education beyond adolescence for professional skills, and extended adult learning) to require communal support at all stages of the life cycle. Without support, difficulties accumulate until there seems to be no way forward. The 16 wealthy nations provide communal assistance at every stage, thus facilitating diverse paths forward and protecting individuals and families from despair. The US could solve its health crisis by adopting the best practices of the 16-nation control group.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
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