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2.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(2): 141-157, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689211

RESUMO

Among mammals, humans are exquisitely sensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an environmentally pervasive bacterial cell membrane component. Very small doses of LPS trigger powerful immune responses in humans and can even initiate symptoms of sepsis. Close evolutionary relatives such as African and Asian monkeys require doses that are an order of magnitude higher to do the same. Why humans have evolved such an energetically expensive antimicrobial strategy is a question that biological anthropologists are positioned to help address. Here we compare LPS sensitivity in primate/mammalian models and propose that human high sensitivity to LPS is adaptive, linked to multiple immune tactics against pathogens, and part of multi-faceted anti-microbial strategy that strongly overlaps with that of other mammals. We support a notion that LPS sensitivity in humans has been driven by microorganisms that constitutively live on us, and has been informed by human behavioral changes over our species' evolution (e.g., meat eating, agricultural practices, and smoking).


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Imunidade Inata , Lipopolissacarídeos , Sepse , Animais , Antropologia , Humanos , Primatas
3.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(2): 128-140, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580579

RESUMO

Anthropogenic disruptions to animal sensory ecology are as old as our species. But what about the effect on human sensory ecology? Human sensory dysfunction is increasing globally at great economic and health costs (mental, physical, and social). Contemporary sensory problems are directly tied to human behavioral changes and activity as well as anthropogenic pollution. The evolutionary sensory ecology and anthropogenic disruptions to three human senses (vision, audition, olfaction) are examined along with the economic and health costs of functionally reduced senses and demographic risk factors contributing to impairment. The primary goals of the paper are (a) to sew an evolutionary and ecological thread through clinical narratives on sensory dysfunction that highlights the impact of the built environment on the senses, and (b) to highlight structural, demographic, and environmental injustices that create sensory inequities in risk and that promote health disparities.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Sensação/fisiologia , Órgãos dos Sentidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Antropologia , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , História Antiga , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Órgãos dos Sentidos/anatomia & histologia , Órgãos dos Sentidos/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414467

RESUMO

Rapid environmental change is a catalyst for human evolution, driving dietary innovations, habitat diversification, and dispersal. However, there is a dearth of information to assess hominin adaptions to changing physiography during key evolutionary stages such as the early Pleistocene. Here we report a multiproxy dataset from Ewass Oldupa, in the Western Plio-Pleistocene rift basin of Olduvai Gorge (now Oldupai), Tanzania, to address this lacuna and offer an ecological perspective on human adaptability two million years ago. Oldupai's earliest hominins sequentially inhabited the floodplains of sinuous channels, then river-influenced contexts, which now comprises the oldest palaeolake setting documented regionally. Early Oldowan tools reveal a homogenous technology to utilise diverse, rapidly changing environments that ranged from fern meadows to woodland mosaics, naturally burned landscapes, to lakeside woodland/palm groves as well as hyper-xeric steppes. Hominins periodically used emerging landscapes and disturbance biomes multiple times over 235,000 years, thus predating by more than 180,000 years the earliest known hominins and Oldowan industries from the Eastern side of the basin.


Assuntos
Antropologia , Meio Ambiente , Hominidae , Paleontologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Arqueologia , Biomarcadores , Carvão Vegetal , Dieta/história , Ecossistema , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Plantas , Pólen , Tanzânia , Tecnologia
7.
Pap. psicol ; 41(3): 174-183, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197404

RESUMO

Se introduce la noción de embrollo como instrumento crítico. Si por un lado sirve para la identificación de un estado confuso de las cosas, por otro invita a su clarificación y salida. Dos embrollos se identifican en la psicoterapia. El primero es el enigma de cómo diferentes psicoterapias tienen, sin embargo, una eficacia similar. Se aclara de acuerdo con tres niveles de análisis: ontológico (distinguiendo entidades naturales versus interactivas), antropológico (factores comunes de las psicoterapias) y psicológico (ciertos efectos sanadores inherentes a toda práctica curativa). El segundo es el problema de la demarcación entre ciencia y pseudociencia. Siendo importante, el problema de la demarcación encubre otros problemas todavía más importantes que tienen que ver con la concepción de ciencia al uso. Porque la demarcación es subsidiaria de una concepción positivista de ciencia, ella misma problemática cuando se aplica en clínica. Estos otros problemas se han identificado como mala ciencia, cientificismo e integracionismo. Aun cuando estos embrollos se han clarificado, la salida pasa por plantear la cuestión ontológica de base acerca de qué es un trastorno psicológico, sin asumir la concepción estándar como «avería» en mecanismos internos. Se elabora una idea de trastorno que tiene su base en los problemas de la vida


The notion of imbroglio is introduced as a critical instrument. If on the one hand it serves to identify a confused state of affairs, on the other it invites its clarification and a way out. Two imbroglios are identified in psychotherapy. The first is the puzzle of how different psychotherapies, surprisingly, have similar efficacy. This is clarified according to three levels of analysis: ontological (distinguishing natural versus interactive entities), anthropological (common factors of psychotherapies), and psychological (certain healing effects inherent in all healing practices). The second imbroglio is the problem of the demarcation between science and pseudoscience. Although important, the problem of demarcation conceals other even more important problems that have to do with the current conception of science. This is because the demarcation is subsidiary to a positivist conception of science, itself problematic when applied in the clinic. These other problems have been identified as bad science, scientism, and integrationism. Even when these imbroglios have been clarified, the way out is to pose the basic ontological question about what is a psychological disorder, without assuming the standard conception as a «failure» in internal mechanisms. An idea of the disorder is raised that is based on life's problems


Assuntos
Humanos , Teoria Psicológica , Psicoterapia , Ciência , Prática Profissional , Bases de Conhecimento , Antropologia , Má Conduta Científica
8.
Asclepio ; 72(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199292

RESUMO

La formación de colecciones de restos humanos de distintas "razas", hacia fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, se asoció con la elaboración de un corpus documental que permitiese acreditar la autenticidad de los especímenes. En estos archivos constan datos individuales, como la procedencia, sexo, edad y el nombre, pero también sobre el colector o donante. A partir de las prácticas materiales y textuales efectuadas sobre una joven indígena Aché por el antropólogo alemán Robert Lehmann-Nitsche (1872-1938), jefe de la Sección Antropológica del Museo de La Plata (Argentina), este trabajo analiza las distintas estrategias para otorgar valor epistemológico al cuerpo indígena y la autoridad científica del propio investigador. Se discute además cómo algunas prácticas estuvieron inspiradas en instrucciones escritas o no escritas, pero a veces las motivaciones personales condujeron a interrumpir los procedimientos de producción de objetos de estudio, dejando "silencios" que solo recientemente pueden ser interpretados a la luz de los cuestionamientos que existen sobre los museos que albergan restos humanos


The organization of collections of human remains of different "races", during the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century, was associated with archival work that enabled to certificate the authenticity of the specimens. These files contain individual data, such as the origin, sex, age and name, but also data about the collector or donor. This study analyses the different material and textual strategies carried out on a young Aché indigenous woman by the German anthropologist Robert Lehmann-Nitsche (1872-1938), responsible of the Sección Antropológica of the Museo de La Plata (Argentina); strategies through which the anthropologist built the epistemological value of the indigenous body and his own scientific authority. We also discuss how certain practices were inspired in written and non-written instructions, but sometimes personal motivations interrupted procedures for elaborate scientific objects, leaving "silences" that can only recently be interpreted in light of the claims existing over museums that house human remains


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Exposições Científicas , Restos Mortais , Antropologia , Museus , Argentina
9.
J Anthropol Sci ; 98: 99-140, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341757

RESUMO

The cultural dynamics that led to the appearance of the Aurignacian have intrigued archaeologists since the start of Paleolithic research. However, cultural reconstructions have often focused on a restricted region of Europe, namely the northern Aquitaine Basin. The Mediterranean Basin, though, is also a region worthy of consideration when testing if the Protoaurignacian was followed by the Early Aurignacian adaptive system. Fumane Cave is a pivotal site for tackling this issue because it contains evidence of repeated human occupations during the time span of the European Aurignacian. Here we investigate the diachronic variability of the lithic assemblages from five cultural units at Fumane Cave using a combination of reduction sequence and attribute analyses. This paper also reassesses the presence and stratigraphic reliability of the organic artifacts recovered at Fumane Cave. Our results show that the features of the Protoaurignacian techno-typology are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence, and by extension, to the onset of Heinrich Event 4. Additionally, the appearance of split-based points in the youngest phase is evidence of extensive networks that allowed this technological innovation to spread across different Aurignacian regions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Tecnologia/história , Antropologia , Arqueologia , Cavernas , Europa (Continente) , História Antiga , Humanos
11.
Vínculo ; 17(2): 94-117, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1157019

RESUMO

A etnopsicologia é um referencial que congrega conhecimentos da Psicologia, da Antropologia e da Psicanálise, sendo largamente empregada nas investigações que possuem como cenário as comunidades religiosas de matriz africana. A pesquisa etnopsicológica, fiel às áreas que a constituem, tem sido desenvolvida dentro de uma gama multifacetada que comporta diversos métodos, formas de registros e possibilidades interpretativas combinadas. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir alguns aspectos ético-metodológicos que permeiam as pesquisas em comunidades religiosas, sobretudo no contexto brasileiro, a partir do referencial da etnopsicologia. Em termos do percurso deste estudo teórico, foram abordados alguns procedimentos que podem orientar o trabalho nessas comunidades, iniciando pelo desenvolvimento da escuta, passando pela construção e análise do corpus analítico e, por fim, o momento da devolutiva com a comunidade de referência. O referencial etnopsicológico deve ser assumido pelo pesquisador desde a escolha do objeto de estudo que, muitas vezes, acaba sendo delimitado em função da escuta do próprio campo. A devolutiva, nesse sentido, não pode ser considerada a entrega de um resultado aos participantes, como nas perspectivas positivistas, mas como mais uma possibilidade de escuta que é potente na contínua interpretação do campo e na construção dos sujeitos-pesquisadores.


Ethnopsychology is a reference that brings together knowledge of Psychology, Anthropology and Psychoanalysis, being widely used in the investigations that have as scenery the religious communities of African matrix. Ethnopsychological research, faithful to the areas that constitute it, has been developed within a multifaceted range that includes several methods, forms of records and interpretative possibilities combined. The objective of this study is to present and discuss some ethical-methodological aspects that permeate research in religious communities, especially in the Brazilian context, based on ethnopsychology. In terms of the course of this theoretical study, some procedures were approached that can guide the work in these communities, beginning with the development of listening, passing through the construction and analysis of the analytical corpus and, finally, the moment of devolution with the reference community. The ethnopsychological reference must be assumed by the researcher since the choice of the object of study that, many times, ends up being delimited due to the listening of the field itself. The devolution, in this sense, cannot be considered as the delivery of a result, as in the positivist perspectives, but as a possibility of listening that is potent in the continuous interpretation of the field and in the construction of the subjects-researchers.


La etnopsicología es un referencial que congrega conocimientos de la Psicología, de la Antropología y del Psicoanálisis, siendo ampliamente empleada en las investigaciones que poseen como escenario las comunidades religiosas de matriz africana. La investigación etnopsicológica, fiel a las áreas que la constituyen, ha sido desarrollada dentro de una gama multifacética que comporta diversos métodos, Scorsolini-Comin, F. formas de registros y posibilidades interpretativas combinadas. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir algunos aspectos ético-metodológicos que permean las investigaciones en comunidades religiosas, sobre todo en el contexto brasileño, a partir del referencial de la etnopsicología. En términos del recorrido de este estudio teórico, se abordaron algunos procedimientos que pueden orientar el trabajo en esas comunidades, iniciando por el desarrollo de la escucha, pasando por la construcción y análisis del corpus analítico y, por fin, el momento de la devolución con la comunidad de referencia. El referencial etnopsicológico debe ser asumido por el investigador desde la elección del objeto de estudio que, muchas veces, termina siendo delimitado en función de la escucha del propio campo. La devolución, en ese sentido, no puede ser considerada como la entrega de un resultado, como en las perspectivas positivistas, sino como una posibilidad de escucha que es potente en la continua interpretación del campo y en la construcción de los sujetos-investigadores.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Psicologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Pesquisa , Etnopsicologia , Assunção da Sexualidade , Antropologia
13.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 31(1): 85-96, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: By threatening our lives, death becomes a medical as well as an institutional issue. To remedy the quest of sense, Man develops a culture amongst which the symbols will be the basis of rites. Recent studies have shown a high rate of burnout syndromes and suicide within the medical community. With a qualitative approach, we aimed to answer the following question: do doctor possess symbolic means of personal defence in front of the dissolvent action of death? METHODS: We built up a questionnaire from key points raised by anthropology and sociology of death. It was addressed to residents of Saint Louis Hospital (Paris, France) during winter 2016-2017. RESULTS: Twenty comprehensive answers were obtained. Young physicians were between 25 and 33 years old (55% haematologists, 35% oncologists, others general practitioners & internal medicine physicians). We show that, to remedy the quest of sense in presence of death, young physicians reckon having repetitive gestures with corpses, thus elaborating the beginning of a personal rite. We also demonstrate the role of empathy and palliative medicine in diminishing the pain of seeing agony and death. Finally, we weave a tie between the lack of collective catharsis at hospital and the high rate of suicide and depressions within the medical community. CONCLUSION: In the West, we are out of effective symbolism due to the shift of rituals on less metaphysical symbols. This shift of symbolism also affects hospital which failed to develop or protect means to transcend death in a collective scale.


Assuntos
Morte , Médicos , Adulto , Antropologia , França , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Acta bioeth ; 26(2): 165-177, oct. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141922

RESUMO

Abstract Social implementation of post-humanism could affect the biological evolution of living beings and especially that of humans. This paper addresses the issue from the biological and anthropological-philosophical perspectives. From the biological perspective, reference is made first to the evolution of hominids until the emergence of Homo sapiens, and secondly, to the theories of evolution with special reference to their scientific foundation and the theory of extended heredity. In the anthropological-philosophical part, the paradigm is presented according to which human consciousness, in its emancipatory zeal against biological nature, must "appropriate" the roots of its physis to transcend the human and move towards a more "perfect" entity; we also assess the theory that refers this will to the awakening of the cosmic consciousness in our conscious matter. Finally, it assesses whether this post-humanist emancipatory paradigm implies true evolution or, instead, an involution to the primitive state of nature.


Resumen La implementación social del poshumanismo podría afectar la evolución biológica de los seres vivos y, especialmente, la de los humanos. Este artículo aborda el tema desde las perspectivas biológica y antropológico-filosófica. Desde la perspectiva biológica, se hace referencia, en primer lugar, a la evolución de los homínidos hasta la aparición del Homo sapiens, y en segundo lugar a las teorías de la evolución, con especial referencia a su fundamento científico y a la teoría de la herencia extendida. En la parte antropológico-filosófica se presenta el paradigma según el cual la conciencia humana, en su afán emancipador frente a la naturaleza biológica, debe "apropiarse" de las raíces de su physis para trascender lo humano y avanzar hacia una entidad más "perfecta"; evaluamos también la teoría que refiere esta voluntad al despertar de la conciencia cósmica en nuestra materia consciente. Finalmente, evalúa si este paradigma emancipatorio poshumanista implica una verdadera evolución o, en cambio, una involución al primitivo estado de naturaleza.


Resumo A implementação social do pós-humanismo pode afetar a evolução biológica dos seres vivos e especialmente dos humanos. Esse artigo aborda o problema de perspectivas biológicas e antropológico-filosófica. Desde uma perspectiva biológica, é feito referencia primeiro à evolução de hominídeos até a emergência do Homo sapiens e, em seguida, às teorias da evolução, com especial referencia ao seu fundamento científico e à teoria da hereditariedade estendida. Na parte antropológico-filosófica, o paradigma é apresentado de acordo com o qual a consciência humana, em seu zelo emancipatório da natureza biológica, deve "apropriar" as raízes da sua natureza para transcender o humano e se mover em direção a uma entidade mais "perfeita": nós também avaliamos a teoria que refere este desejo ao despertar da consciência cósmica em nossa matéria consciente. Finalmente, ele avalia se este paradigma emancipatório pós-humanista implica evolução verdadeira ou, contrariamente, uma involução para o estado primitivo da natureza.


Assuntos
Humanos , Consciência , Natureza , Evolução Biológica , Humanismo , Antropologia
16.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 415-428, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195279

RESUMO

In order to explain the evolutionary process of ancient human populations that inhabited a specific geographical region from quantitative skull traits, it is advisable to know the evolutionary potential of metric characters. For this reason, the proportion of the maximum genetic variance or maximum heritability (h2m) of the variables studied was estimated. In addition, it was evaluated whether h2m changes between regions of the skull (face, base and vault) and the degree of association between the phenotypic variance and the maximum genetic variance. Twenty-one symmetrical variables on the left and right sides of the skull were measured in 245 skulls from five prehistoric samples from northwestern Argentina. The upper limit of heritability was estimated using the repeated measurement method. To test whether there are differences between the h2m of each group, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The maximum genetic values of each variable were obtained through a regression analysis (right measure on left measure). The relationship between phenotypic and maxi-mum genetic values was evaluated by correlation analysis. Significant bilateral difference is demon-strated in six of 21 characters. The average h2m is 0.77 and ranges between 0.58 and 0.93. The aver-age correlation between phenotypic values and maximum genotypic values was 0.8 (R2=0.65), suggesting that it is possible to make inferences of the genetic structure of the population from phenotypic information. The high proportion of maximum observed genetic variance indicates an important evolutionary potential of the craniofacial complex in ancient populations of northwestern Argentina


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História Medieval , História do Século XV , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Variação Anatômica , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Argentina , Antropologia/métodos , Variação Biológica da População/genética
17.
Science ; 369(6505): 863-866, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792402

RESUMO

Early plant use is seldom described in the archaeological record because of poor preservation. We report the discovery of grass bedding used to create comfortable areas for sleeping and working by people who lived in Border Cave at least 200,000 years ago. Sheaves of grass belonging to the broad-leafed Panicoideae subfamily were placed near the back of the cave on ash layers that were often remnants of bedding burned for site maintenance. This strategy is one forerunner of more-complex behavior that is archaeologically discernible from ~100,000 years ago.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Fogo/história , Horticultura/história , Poaceae , Antropologia , Arqueologia , História Antiga , Humanos , África do Sul
18.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 279-296, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767897

RESUMO

Bayesian methods have been adopted by anthropologists for their utility in resolving complex questions about human history based on genetic data. The main advantages of Bayesian methods include simple model comparison, presenting results as a summary of probability distributions, and the explicit inclusion of prior information into analyses. In the field of anthropological genetics, for example, implementing Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation is becoming ubiquitous as means to analyze genetic data for the purpose of demographic or historic inference. Correspondingly, there is a critical need for better understanding of the underlying assumptions, proper applications, and limitations of these two methods by the larger anthropological community. Here we review Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation as applied to human demography and provide examples of the application of these methods to anthropological research questions. We also review the two core components of Bayesian demographic analysis: the coalescent and Bayesian inference. Our goal is to describe their basic mechanics in an attempt to demystify them.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Demografia/história , Genética Populacional/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , História Antiga , Humanos , Linhagem , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Probabilidade
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(4): e379-e383, agosto 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1118507

RESUMO

En este artículo, se propone situar la crianza infantil como un proceso social y cultural que, lejos de presentar características universales e invariables, muestra una enorme diversidad, ligada, en gran medida, a particularidades culturales de las familias y comunidades que la llevan a cabo. Se considera que la perspectiva de la antropología puede contribuir a comprender esa multiplicidad de formas de criar a los niños que suele emerger en el consultorio del pediatra y que pone en juego diferentes concepciones de niñez, sujeto, cuerpo, maternidad, paternidad, entre otras. A su vez, se advierte acerca de los riesgos de limitar el abordaje de la crianza a un relativismo cultural ingenuo que esencialice el papel de la cultura, y se señala, por el contrario, la necesidad de considerar el modo en que las particularidades culturales se entrelazan con las desigualdades sociales a la hora de interpretar esa diversidad


This article proposes to define child rearing as a social and cultural process that, far from depicting universal and invariable characteristics, shows a huge diversity, mostly linked to the cultural features of families and communities in charge of such process. It has been considered that the anthropological perspective may contribute to understanding such multiple forms of bringing up children that are usually seen at the pediatrician's office and that involve different concepts in relation to childhood, individual, body, motherhood, fatherhood, among others. In turn, this article warns about the risks of restricting the approach to child rearing to a naive cultural relativism that reduces the role of culture to essentials and, on the contrary, points out the need to consider how cultural features intertwine with social inequalities when interpreting such diversity.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Educação Infantil , Diversidade Cultural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Família , Iniquidade Social , Antropologia
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