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1.
Eur. j. anat ; 24(5): 415-428, sept. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195279

RESUMO

In order to explain the evolutionary process of ancient human populations that inhabited a specific geographical region from quantitative skull traits, it is advisable to know the evolutionary potential of metric characters. For this reason, the proportion of the maximum genetic variance or maximum heritability (h2m) of the variables studied was estimated. In addition, it was evaluated whether h2m changes between regions of the skull (face, base and vault) and the degree of association between the phenotypic variance and the maximum genetic variance. Twenty-one symmetrical variables on the left and right sides of the skull were measured in 245 skulls from five prehistoric samples from northwestern Argentina. The upper limit of heritability was estimated using the repeated measurement method. To test whether there are differences between the h2m of each group, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The maximum genetic values of each variable were obtained through a regression analysis (right measure on left measure). The relationship between phenotypic and maxi-mum genetic values was evaluated by correlation analysis. Significant bilateral difference is demon-strated in six of 21 characters. The average h2m is 0.77 and ranges between 0.58 and 0.93. The aver-age correlation between phenotypic values and maximum genotypic values was 0.8 (R2=0.65), suggesting that it is possible to make inferences of the genetic structure of the population from phenotypic information. The high proportion of maximum observed genetic variance indicates an important evolutionary potential of the craniofacial complex in ancient populations of northwestern Argentina


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Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História Medieval , História do Século XV , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cefalometria , Variação Anatômica , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Argentina , Antropologia/métodos , Variação Biológica da População/genética
3.
Hum Biol ; 91(4): 279-296, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767897

RESUMO

Bayesian methods have been adopted by anthropologists for their utility in resolving complex questions about human history based on genetic data. The main advantages of Bayesian methods include simple model comparison, presenting results as a summary of probability distributions, and the explicit inclusion of prior information into analyses. In the field of anthropological genetics, for example, implementing Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation is becoming ubiquitous as means to analyze genetic data for the purpose of demographic or historic inference. Correspondingly, there is a critical need for better understanding of the underlying assumptions, proper applications, and limitations of these two methods by the larger anthropological community. Here we review Bayesian skyline plots and approximate Bayesian computation as applied to human demography and provide examples of the application of these methods to anthropological research questions. We also review the two core components of Bayesian demographic analysis: the coalescent and Bayesian inference. Our goal is to describe their basic mechanics in an attempt to demystify them.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Demografia/história , Genética Populacional/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , História Antiga , Humanos , Linhagem , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional/história , Probabilidade
6.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 17(1): 65-67, mayo 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196306

RESUMO

En la siguiente recesión se presenta un artículo del antropólogo Gregory Bateson, que pretende mostrar cuán importante es tanto la modalidad del tratamiento como la capacidad de comunicación del profesional para incidir de manera positiva en el cambio intrínseco de la persona. A través de su lectura se pueden extraer otras reflexiones como son la identidad de la profesión, el nacimiento de la misma y su contexto, los paradigmas a lo largo de su historia, todos los cambios acontecido y sus causas y sobre todo el momento en el que estamos y hacia donde queremos dirigirnos sin perder la esencia de la terapia ocupacional, lo que nos diferencia del resto de profesionales, en vez de acercarnos cada vez más a ellos


In the following critical review, an opinion article by anthropologist Gregory Bateson, which aims to show how important is both the treatment modality and the professional's ability to communicate in a positive way in the intrinsic change of the person. Through its reading, other reflections can be detected, such as the identity of the profession, the birth of the profession and its context, the paradigms throughout its history, all the changes that have occurred and its causes and, above all, the moment in which that we are and where we are heading without losing the essence of occupational therapy, which differentiates us from other professionals, instead of getting closer and closer to them


Assuntos
Humanos , Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Antropologia/métodos , Saúde Mental
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultra close-range digital photogrammetry (UCR-DP) is emerging as a robust technique for 3D model generation and represents a convenient and low-cost solution for rapid data acquisition in virtual anthropology. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to analyse applications, technical implementation, and performance of UCR-DP in skeletal anthropology. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were applied to the study. The bibliographic search was performed on March 1st, 2019 using Scopus and MEDLINE databases to retrieve peer-reviewed studies accessible in English full-text. The authors worked independently to select the articles meeting inclusion criteria, upon discussion. Studies underwent to quantitative and qualitative syntheses. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were selected. The majority appeared in 2016 or after and were focused on methodological aspects; the applications mainly dealt with the documentation of skeletal findings and the identification or comparison of anatomical features and trauma. Most authors used commercial software packages, and an offline approach. Research is still quite heterogeneous concerning methods, terminology and quality of results, and proper validation is still lacking. CONCLUSIONS: UCR-DP has great potential in skeletal anthropology, with many significant advantages: versatility in terms of application range and technical implementation, scalability, and photorealistic restitution. Validation of the technique, and the application of the cloud-based approach, with its reduced requirements relating to hardware, labour, time, and cost, could further facilitate the sharing of large collections for research and communication purposes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotogrametria/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , MEDLINE
8.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124954, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726583

RESUMO

The authors have observed that the function linking health outcomes with exposure to particulate-matter (PM) follows a biphasic pattern. It peaks around levels of PM10≤100 µg/m3, then weakens and rises again at PM10 levels in the range of hundreds. This could be due to a different nature of PM, the first peak reflecting a stronger anthropogenic and the second - weaker non-anthropogenic particles' effect. The current analysis is focused at the biphasic pattern on the association between PM levels with BG and asthma exacerbations. Pollutants were assessed by local monitoring stations and a satellitebased model. Local weekends/holidays were used to define nonanthropogenic levels of pollutants featured by lower Nitrogen Dioxide, the proxy for anthropogeneity. The association of PM10 with health outcomes within 24-48h lag was explored using spline functions of generalized additive models. Analysis of 546,420 BG tests (43,569 subjects) showed an almost linear association of PM10 with asthma with BG during the days with anthropogenic activity and no trend on other days. Analysis of asthmatic exacerbations within 1576 children showed no heterogeneity in association with PM10 by anthropogeneity levels, possibly indicating a mechanical impact on alveolar as the main trigger for exacerbations rather than PM10 chemical composition.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Atividades Humanas , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Antropologia/métodos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 170(4): 551-564, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Riparian or gallery forests are critical habitats for numerous plants and animals today. Paleoanthropologically, reliance on such habitats informs behavioral and ecological reconstructions; for example, gallery forest habitats likely played a critical role in the transition from ape to hominin in the early Pliocene and may represent a preferred habitat for the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans. Direct indicators for gallery forest habitats preference are lacking. The objective of this article is to assess whether strontium isotope ratios are a reliable indicator of habitat preference for fauna living in and around gallery forests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report bioavailable strontium isotope ratios from the Mugiri River, its tributaries, and its gallery forest (Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, southwestern Uganda), and compare them to surrounding savanna-grassland values. We compare these environmental values to strontium isotopes ratios in faunal tooth enamel to determine if habitat preferences are accurately reflected. RESULTS: Gallery forest and savanna-grassland vegetations have significantly different strontium isotope ratio profiles. We trace these isotopic differences to the influence of the Mugiri tributaries, which originate on Paleoproterozoic gneiss deposits on top of the surrounding escarpments. These isotopic differences in vegetation are mirrored in the tissues of fauna with habitat preferences for either the gallery forest or the surrounding grasslands. DISCUSSION: This research demonstrates the potential of strontium isotope ratios to identify habitat preferences in modern or fossil fauna under proper geologic variability. It provides a methodological model for future studies seeking to reconstruct habitat preferences in early hominins.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Antropologia/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Florestas , Pradaria , Pan troglodytes , Isótopos de Estrôncio/análise , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Osso e Ossos/química , Humanos , Mamíferos , Plantas/química , Rios/química , Isótopos de Estrôncio/metabolismo , Uganda
10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0219279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498793

RESUMO

In July 2011, renovations to Yale-New Haven Hospital inadvertently exposed the cemetery of Christ Church, New Haven, Connecticut's first Catholic cemetery. While this cemetery was active between 1833 and 1851, both the church and its cemetery disappeared from public records, making the discovery serendipitous. Four relatively well-preserved adult skeletons were recovered with few artifacts. All four individuals show indicators of manual labor, health and disease stressors, and dental health issues. Two show indicators of trauma, with the possibility of judicial hanging in one individual. Musculoskeletal markings are consistent with physical stress, and two individuals have arthritic indicators of repetitive movement/specialized activities. Radiographic analyses show osteopenia, healed trauma, and other pathologies in several individuals. Dental calculus analysis did not identify any tuberculosis indicators, despite osteological markers. Isotopic analyses of teeth indicate that all four were likely recent immigrants to the Northeastern United States. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA were recovered from three individuals, and these analyses identified ancestry, hair/eye color, and relatedness. Genetic and isotopic results upended our initial ancestry assessment based on burial context alone. These individuals provide biocultural evidence of New Haven's Industrial Revolution and the plasticity of ethnic and religious identity in the immigrant experience. Their recovery and the multifaceted analyses described here illuminate a previously undescribed part of the city's rich history. The collective expertise of biological, geochemical, archaeological, and historical researchers interprets socioeconomic and cultural identity better than any one could alone. Our combined efforts changed our initial assumptions of a poor urban Catholic cemetery's membership, and provide a template for future discoveries and analyses.


Assuntos
Cemitérios/história , Linhagem , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos/história , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Connecticut , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Cálculos Dentários/história , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esqueleto/lesões , Dente/anatomia & histologia
11.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389353

RESUMO

The history of the racial classification of the people of India can be looked at in three temporal phases: (1) at the national level, the initial studies of racial classification attempted along with the Census of India; (2) at the regional level, studies by anthropologists and statisticians following systematic sampling and statistical procedures were conducted after the initial national-level studies and (3) population-specific studies in different regions across the country including micro-evolutionary studies of individual populations followed the regional studies. Initially the racial classification was part of the Census survey conducted by British anthropologists in some parts of the country among castes and tribes and was based on a few physical traits. This was followed by a systematic anthropometric survey in particulars regions (e.g., UP, Bengal, etc.) by anthropologists and statisticians. This was followed by population specific micro-evolutionary studies across different regions by numerous anthropologists investigating the role of selection, drift, migration and admixture and other population structure variables among endogamous castes and tribes.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Idioma/história , Antropometria/métodos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Linguística/métodos , Masculino , Classe Social/história
12.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389357

RESUMO

The Indo-European debate has been going on for a century and a half. Initially confined to linguistics, race-based anthropology and comparative mythology, it soon extended to archaeology, especially with the discovery of the Harappan civilization, and peripheral disciplines such as agriculture, archaeometallurgy or archaeoastronomy. The latest entrant in the field, archaeogenetics, is currently all but claiming that it has finally laid to rest the whole issue of a hypothetical migration of Indo-Aryan speakers to the Indian subcontinent in the second millennium BCE. This paper questions the finality of this claim by pointing to inherent limitations, methodological issues and occasional biases in current studies as well as in the interpretation of archaeological evidence.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Migração Humana/tendências , Idioma/história , Linguística/métodos , Agricultura/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Astronomia/história , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Metalurgia/história
13.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389359

RESUMO

To reconstruct and explain patterns of genetic diversity of modern humans, understanding their past and present genetic profile is crucial. While genomes of contemporary people can provide information about present day population structure, analysis of ancient genomes may provide unprecedented insights about the past demographic events that have shaped the contemporary gene pool. Population genetics has recently witnessed an explosion in studies on ancient human population histories, primarily from Europe and America. South Asia has no representation in the ancient genomics literature, despite the wealth of archaeological richness in the form of human skeletal remains that exist in collections all over the country. Representing one-fifth of present day humanity calls for understanding the demographic history of south Asia not merely as a prerequisite but as an urgent need to understand its genetic variations on a global scale. Although the overall picture is taking form, new archaeological and genetic information from the region has started to reveal a more complex scenario of ancient human migrations and admixtures than was ever known before. In this article, we discuss a meaningful insight on the current status of ancient DNA (aDNA) research in India. We have also summarized a few but important aDNA studies, which have been successfully carried out in India. Furthermore, we have highlighted the potential opportunity of aDNA research in the Indian subcontinent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Idioma/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Evolução Biológica , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Seleção Genética
14.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389361

RESUMO

The South Asian populations have a mosaic of ancestries likely due to the interactions of long-term populations of the landmass and those of East andWest Eurasia. Apart from prehistoric dispersals, there are some known population movements to India. In this study,we focussed on the migration of Jewish and Parsi populations on temporal and spatial scales. The existence of Jewish and Parsi communities in India are recorded since ancient times. However, due to the lack of high-resolution genetic data, their origin and affiliation with other Indian and non-Indian populations remains shrouded in legends. Earlier genetic studies on populations of Indian Jews have found evidence for a minor shared ancestry of Indian Jews with Middle Eastern (Jews) populations, whereas for Parsis, the Iranian link was proposed. Recently, in our high-resolution study, we were able to quantify the admixture dynamics of these groups, which has suggested a male-biased admixture. Here, we added the newly available ancient samples and revisited the interplay of genes and cultures. Thus, in this study we reconstructed a broad genetic profile of Indian Jews and Parsis to paint a fine-grained picture of these ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Judeus/história , Aculturação , Antropologia/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , História Antiga , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Irã (Geográfico)/etnologia , Judeus/genética , Masculino
15.
J Biosci ; 44(3)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389363

RESUMO

Due to its unique geographical position, juxtaposed in the middle of south-central Asia, east Asia and Southeast Asia, the South Asian Region (SAS) has repeatedly come into contact with people from adjacent regions throughout history and prehistory. The antiquity of the populations and the intricate history of admixture have shaped SAS as one of the most genetically diverse regions in the world. In this article we review our current understanding of the peopling and populations structure of SAS. We do not attempt to be exhaustive but summarize the salient conclusions that have been reached using genetic data and evaluate their robustness. We also identify the unanswered questions and suggest possible approaches that may lead to their answers.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/história , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Genética Populacional , Migração Humana/tendências , Idioma/história , Antropologia/métodos , Arqueologia/métodos , Ásia/etnologia , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , História Antiga , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética
16.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(6): 303-320, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418959

RESUMO

To understand how our brain evolved and what it is for, we are in urgent need of knowledge about the cognitive skills of a large variety of animal species and individuals, and their relationships to rapidly disappearing social and ecological conditions. But how do we obtain this knowledge? Studying cognition in the wild is a challenge. Field researchers (and their study subjects) face many factors that can easily interfere with their variables of interest. Although field studies of cognition present unique challenges, they are still invaluable for understanding the evolutionary drivers of cognition. In this review, I discuss the advantages and urgency of field-based studies on animal cognition and introduce a novel observational approach for field research that is guided by three questions: (a) what do animals fail to find?, (b) what do they not do?, and (c) what do they only do when certain conditions are met? My goal is to provide guidance to future field researchers examining primate cognition.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006821, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039147

RESUMO

Human populations show rich cultural diversity. Underpinning this diversity of tools, rituals, and cultural norms are complex interactions between cultural evolutionary and demographic processes. Most models of cultural change assume that individuals use the same learning modes and methods throughout their lives. However, empirical data on 'learning life histories'-the balance of dominant modes of learning (for example, learning from parents, peers, or unrelated elders) throughout an individual's lifetime-suggest that age structure may play a crucial role in determining learning modes and cultural evolutionary trajectories. Thus, studied in isolation, demographic and cultural evolutionary models show only part of the picture. This paper describes a mathematical and computational framework that combines demographic and cultural evolutionary methods. Using this general framework, we examine interactions between the ways in which culture is spread throughout an individual's lifetime and cultural change across generations. We show that including demographic structure alongside cultural dynamics can help to explain domain-specific patterns of cultural evolution that are a persistent feature of cultural data, and can shed new light on rare but significant demographic events.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Evolução Cultural , Demografia/métodos , Agricultura , Antropologia/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos
19.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(4): 311-320, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917104

RESUMO

Most of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and rare endocrine-metabolic diseases (REMD) are rare diseases. According to the European Commission on Public Health, a rare disease is defined, based on its prevalence, as one affecting one in 2000 people. Many IEMs affect body stature, cause craniofacial abnormalities, and disturb the developmental process. Therefore, body proportion, dysmorphic characteristics, and morphological parameters must be assessed and closely monitored. This can be achieved only with the help of an anthropologist who has adequate tools. This is why the role of an anthropologist in collaboration with the physician in the diagnostic process is not to be underestimated. Clinical anthropologists contribute to assessing physical development and improve our understanding of the natural history of rare metabolic diseases. This paper presents anthropometric techniques and methods, such as analysis of demographic data, anthropometric parameters at birth, percentile charts, growth patterns, bioimpedance, somatometric profiles, craniofacial profiles, body proportion indices, and mathematical models of growth curves used in certain rare diseases. Contemporary anthropological methods play an important role in the diagnostic process of rare genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Antropologia/métodos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Humanos
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