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1.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 49-67, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021754

RESUMO

Introdução:A Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica tem apresentado alta mortalidade em todo o mundo, associada a fatores de risco cardiovascular como o excesso de peso e a obesidade abdominal.Objetivo:Avaliar os índices antropométricos e pressão arterial em adolescentes e adultos jovens do município de Santa Cruz-RN.Método:Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, do tipo transversal, realizado com 86 indivíduos com idade média de 19,0 ± 0,97 anos. Foram avaliados o Índice deMassa Corporal (IMC), Relação Cintura Estatura (RCE), Relação Cintura Quadril (RCQ), Índice de Conicidade (IC) e Pressão Arterial (PA). Os dados foram analisados no programa SPSS versão 23.0, apresentados em percentual, média e desvio padrão. O teste T deStudentfoi aplicado para avaliar a diferença entre as médias, a correlação entre medidas antropométricas e a pressão arterial pela correlação de Pearson.Resultados:A prevalência maior foi do sexo feminino, 81,4%. A obesidade esteve mais presente nos meninos adolescentes do que nas meninas, 33,3 e 13,9% respectivamente, bem como nos adultos jovens 28,6% em homens e 11,8% em mulheres. A RCE se mostrou mais elevada nas meninas e mulheres adultas (0,46 ± 0,07, 0,50 ± 0,08). Em contrapartida, a RCQ e IC se mostraram maiores nos meninos(0,79 ± 0,06; 1,12 ± 0,74) e nos homens adultos(0,82 ± 0,09; 1,15 ± 0,12) respectivamente. Em ambos os grupos houve correlação positiva moderada entre o IMC e a RCE com a PA (p<0,05).Conclusão:Os índices antropométricosapresentaram correlação positiva com a elevação da pressão arterial, destacando-se o IMC e a RCE nos adolescentes e adultos jovens (AU).


Introduction:Systemic arterial hypertension has presented high mortality worldwide, associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and abdominal obesity.Objective:To evaluate the anthropometric indexes and blood pressure in adolescents and young adults in the municipality of Santa Cruz-RN.Methods:This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of 86 individuals with a mean age of 19.0 ± 0.97 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist Stature Ratio (WSR), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Conicity Index (CI) and Blood Pressure (BP) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0, presented in percentage, mean and standard deviation. The T test was applied to evaluate the difference between the means, the correlation between anthropometric measures and blood pressure by the Pearson correlation.Results:The highest prevalence was female, 81.4%. Obesity was more present in adolescent boys than in girls, 33.3 and 13.9% respectively, as well as in young adults, 28.6% in men and 11.8% in women. The WSR was higher in girls and adult women (0.46 ± 0.07, 0.50 ± 0.08). On the other hand, WHR and CI were higher in boys(0.79 ± 0.06, 1.12 ± 0.74)and in adult males (0.82 ± 0.09, 1.15 ± 0.12) respectively. In both groups there was a moderate positive correlation between BMI and WSR with BP (p <0.05).Conclusion:The anthropometric indices showed a positive correlation with the elevation of blood pressure, especially BMI, WSR in adolescents and young adults (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Antropometria/métodos , Adolescente , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 14(9): 1159-1169, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575820

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the volume of available literature focusing on marathon running and the prediction of performance, no single prediction equations exists that is accurate for all runners of varying experiences and abilities. Indeed the relative merits and utility of the existing equations remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to collate, characterize, compare, and contrast all available marathon prediction equations. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify observational research studies outlining any kind of prediction algorithm for marathon performance. RESULTS: Thirty-six studies with 114 equations were identified. Sixty-one equations were based on training and anthropometric variables, whereas 53 equations included variables that required laboratory tests and equipment. The accuracy of these equations was denoted via a variety of metrics; r2 values were provided for 68 equations (r2 = .10-.99), and an SEE was provided for 19 equations (SEE 0.27-27.4 min). CONCLUSION: Heterogeneity of the data precludes the identification of a single "best" equation. Important variables such as course gradient, sex, and expected weather conditions were often not included, and some widely used equations did not report the r2 value. Runners should therefore be wary of relying on a single equation to predict their performance.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Corrida , Antropometria , Atletas , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Condicionamento Físico Humano
3.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(2): 409-418, maio/ago 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016699

RESUMO

This study evaluated the relationships between anthropometric, dietary, motivational, and psychosocial variables among children and adolescents with overweight and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated 45 participants (6-17 years) in anthropometric terms, nutritional consumption, motivation for treatment, and family psychosocial risk by using statistical analyses (Student's t-Test or Chi-Square). It was detected that 37.8% of the families had a high psychosocial risk, 82.2% were obese, 33.3% with NAFLD, high motivation (93.3%), but low adherence to treatment (2.4%). Participants with NAFLD presented higher psychosocial risk, significantly greater obesity severity, waist and neck circumference, and Body Mass Index. They reported lower adherence to treatment, high carbohydrate consumption, ultra-processed products, high energy density, and low fiber, with poor nutritional quality. Interventions should consider the motivation for treatment and psychosocial risks, especially in cases with NAFLD.


Este estudo analisou as relações entre variáveis antropométricas, dietéticas, motivacionais e psicossociais em crianças e adolescentes com excesso de peso e esteatose hepática não alcoólica (EHNA). Avaliou-se 45 pacientes (6-17 anos) em termos antropométricos, de consumo nutricional, motivação para o tratamento e risco psicossocial familiar, com análises estatísticas (Teste t de Student ou Qui-Quadrado). Observou-se que 37,8% das famílias tinham alto risco psicossocial, 82,2% da amostra estavam obesos, 33,3% com EHNA, alta motivação (93,3%), mas uma baixa adesão ao tratamento (2,4%). Os participantes com EHNA apresentaram maior risco psicossocial, significativamente maior gravidade da obesidade, circunferência da cintura e pescoço, e Índice de Massa Corporal. Eles relataram menor adesão ao tratamento, alto consumo de carboidratos, produtos ultraprocessados, de alta densidade energética e com baixa quantidade de fibras, com pior qualidade nutricional. As intervenções devem considerar a motivação para o tratamento e os riscos psicossociais, especialmente nos casos com EHNA.


Assuntos
Criança , Adolescente , Consumo de Alimentos , Antropometria , Fatores de Risco , Fígado Gorduroso , Obesidade Pediátrica
4.
Saude e pesqui. (Impr.) ; 12(2): 241-251, maio/ago 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015615

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a efetividade de uma estratégia nutricional em mulheres obesas com Síndrome Metabólica (SM). Estudo longitudinal caso-controle estruturado com dois grupos, sendo mulheres obesas com diagnóstico clínico de SM (Grupo Caso) e mulheres obesas sem diagnóstico de SM (Grupo Controle), em acompanhamento nutricional na Clínica Escola de Nutrição da Unicentro. A coleta de dados ocorreu em duas etapas, com intervalos de um mês, sendo realizadas medidas antropométricas, análise do consumo alimentar e exames bioquímicos. A estratégia nutricional utilizada foram orientações nutricionais e plano alimentar individualizado. Foram avaliadas 20 mulheres, cada grupo com número equivalente. Pacientes com SM apresentaram valores de CC e glicemia em jejum superiores ao grupo controle (p<0,005), ingestão de ácidos graxos acima do recomendado. A intervenção nutricional foi efetiva em pacientes com SM, demonstrando em curto prazo melhora da qualidade da alimentação e do perfil sérico glicêmico e lipídico, redução de medidas antropométricas.


The efficaciousness of nutritional strategy in obese females with metabolic syndrome (MS) is evaluated. Current case-controlled longitudinal study was structured on two groups, with obese women with a clinical diagnosis of MS (Case Group) and obese females without MS (Control Group), within the context of nutritional follow-up in the Clinical Nutritional School of the Unicentro. Data were collected in two stages, at a month´s interval, with anthropometric measurements, analysis of food consumption and biochemical tests. Nutritional strategy comprised nutritional supervision and personal food planning. Twenty females were assessed for each group. MS patients had CC and glycaemia rates higher than those of control group (p<0.005) and ingestion of fatty acids above that recommended. Nutritional intervention was effective in patients with MS and revealed that in a short time there was an improvement in food quality, in glycemic and lipid serum and in anthropometric measurements.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Antropometria , Dislipidemias , Nutrição em Saúde Pública , Obesidade , Síndrome Metabólica
5.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(3): 327-330, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seborrheic dermatitis is a common disease characterized by the erythematous plaques with oily-yellow desquamation. Increased sebaceous gland activity by androgenic hormones has played a role in the etiology of the disease. The second-to-fourth digit (2D:4D) ratio is thought to be a marker of prenatal androgen exposure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between 2D:4D ratios and seborrheic dermatitis in a male population. METHODS: Healthy male controls and patients with seborrheic dermatitis were included in this study. One hundred seborrheic dermatitis patients and 120 healthy controls, aged 17-59, were enrolled. A digital Vernier caliper was used to measure the finger lengths. Seborrheic dermatitis severity was assessed using the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area and Severity Index (SDASI). RESULTS: The 2D:4D ratios of the patients (x = 0.977) were significantly lower than those of the controls (x = 1.050) for right hands (t = 6.948; p = 0.000; > 0.05). No similar relationship was found between the 2D:4D ratio for left hands (t = 0.901; p = 0.368; > 0.05). Seborrheic dermatitis severity was negatively correlated with 2D:4D ratios of right hands (r = -0.391; p = 0.000-0.05). STUDY LIMITATIONS: One of the main limitations of this study was the small sample, which got a head of us from acquiring certain findings about the 2D:4D ratio and seborrheic dermatitis. The other limitation is that the patient selection did not reflect the general population, as a single clinic was studied. CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study examining the relationship between 2D:4D ratios and seborrheic dermatitis. The result of this study may indicate a line of investigation and can support the theory of prenatal androgen exposure.


Assuntos
Dermatite Seborreica/diagnóstico , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Androgênios/metabolismo , Antropometria , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Mãos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16722, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393379

RESUMO

In the Emergency Department (ED) actual body weight (ABW) is essential for accurate drug dosing. Frequently, the ABW is unknown and direct measurement troublesome. A method using the mid-arm circumference (MAC) to estimate ABW has been developed and validated in the United States of America (USA). This study aimed to validate the MAC-formula for estimating ABW in the Dutch population and compare its performance within the American population.Data were obtained from the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and extracted from the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets. We included all subjects' ≥70 years whose MAC and weight were recorded and obtained additional anthropometric data. We used the equation: kg = 4 × MAC-50 to estimate the ABW of all subjects and compared results.We retrieved 723 and 972 subjects from the Dutch and American dataset, respectively. The MAC is better correlated with ABW in the American dataset when compared with the Dutch dataset (Pearson r = 0.84 and 0.68, respectively). Bland-Altman bias was -7.49 kg (Limits-of-Agreement [LOA] -27.5 to 12.27 kg) and -0.50 kg (LOA -20.99 to 19.99 kg) in the Dutch and American datasets, respectively.The MAC based formula to estimate ABW is a promising tool for the elderly American population. However it is not accurate within the Dutch elderly ED population. Consequently, it is not applicable to Dutch EDs. This study highlights that the results of anthropometric studies performed within the USA are not per se generalizable to the European population.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Braço , Peso Corporal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
7.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46663

RESUMO

O ENANI é uma pesquisa científica domiciliar com crianças menores de cinco anos que tem como objetivo estimar e avaliar parâmetros relacionados às práticas de aleitamento materno, ao consumo alimentar, ao estado nutricional antropométrico e à epidemiologia das deficiências de micronutrientes, segundo macrorregiões do país, zonas rural e urbana, faixa etária e sexo.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Nutrição do Lactente , Políticas Públicas de Saúde , Aleitamento Materno , Antropometria , Gravidez , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Visita Domiciliar , Brasil
8.
BMJ ; 366: l4293, 2019 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a prediction model for fat mass in children aged 4-15 years using routinely available risk factors of height, weight, and demographic information without the need for more complex forms of assessment. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. SETTING: Four population based cross sectional studies and a fifth study for external validation, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: A pooled derivation dataset (four studies) of 2375 children and an external validation dataset of 176 children with complete data on anthropometric measurements and deuterium dilution assessments of fat mass. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Multivariable linear regression analysis, using backwards selection for inclusion of predictor variables and allowing non-linear relations, was used to develop a prediction model for fat-free mass (and subsequently fat mass by subtracting resulting estimates from weight) based on the four studies. Internal validation and then internal-external cross validation were used to examine overfitting and generalisability of the model's predictive performance within the four development studies; external validation followed using the fifth dataset. RESULTS: Model derivation was based on a multi-ethnic population of 2375 children (47.8% boys, n=1136) aged 4-15 years. The final model containing predictor variables of height, weight, age, sex, and ethnicity had extremely high predictive ability (optimism adjusted R2: 94.8%, 95% confidence interval 94.4% to 95.2%) with excellent calibration of observed and predicted values. The internal validation showed minimal overfitting and good model generalisability, with excellent calibration and predictive performance. External validation in 176 children aged 11-12 years showed promising generalisability of the model (R2: 90.0%, 95% confidence interval 87.2% to 92.8%) with good calibration of observed and predicted fat mass (slope: 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.07). The mean difference between observed and predicted fat mass was -1.29 kg (95% confidence interval -1.62 to -0.96 kg). CONCLUSION: The developed model accurately predicted levels of fat mass in children aged 4-15 years. The prediction model is based on simple anthropometric measures without the need for more complex forms of assessment and could improve the accuracy of assessments for body fatness in children (compared with those provided by body mass index) for effective surveillance, prevention, and management of clinical and public health obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Antropometria/métodos , Obesidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
9.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 29-35, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study changes of diaphragm and esophageal-diaphragmatic junction depending on age and constitutional features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied changes of diaphragm and esophageal-diaphragmatic junction depending on age and constitutional features by using of 40 cadaveric specimens (people aged 19-75 years). RESULTS: Esophageal-aortic ligament is observed rarer with age. This ligament is poorly developed in brachiomorphic body type while diaphragmatic-cardiac ligament is generally absent as a rule. This is a predisposing factor for weakening this area. It was revealed that reduced strength and elasticity (especially esophageal-aortic and esophageal-diaphragmatic ligaments) is one of the key factors in the development of hiatal hernia. It is especially relevant for brachiomorphic body type, the 2nd mature and elderly age. The 2nd mature period is associated with reduced diameter and kinking of great arteries, that leads to 1.5-2 times decrease of arterial capacity of the diaphragm. Therefore, hiatal hernia repair using own tissues may be insufficient and accompanied by recurrence in persons with brachiomorphic body type in the 2nd mature period. CONCLUSION: Analysis of biomechanical data and anatomical features of the diaphragm may be useful to predict recurrent hiatal hernia.


Assuntos
Diafragma/patologia , Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/fisiopatologia , Hérnia Hiatal/patologia , Hérnia Hiatal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Antropometria , Cadáver , Hérnia Hiatal/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
10.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(8): 782-790, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347334

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands are considered a standard treatment for severe obesity, their use remains controversial. We evaluated rates of band explantation and the incidences of complications leading to and following band explantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review was performed on patients that underwent adjustable gastric band explantation. For each of the three groups of patients that underwent explantation, we compared demographic and anthropometric data, band duration in situ, operative approach, and morbidities. RESULTS: Between January 2009 and October 2018, a total of 267 patients underwent primary laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery. Of these 267 patients, 99 (37.1%) underwent band explantation. Numbers (%) of patients in the slippage (SL), band erosion (BE), and intolerance (IT) groups were 13 (13.1%), 39 (39.4), and 47 (47.5%), respectively. Mean %EBMIL values at explantation in these groups were 74.6±45.5, 79.7±40.3, and 36.1±46.0, respectively (p<0.001), and mean times for maintaining bands in situ were 45.1±28.0, 39.4±24.3, and 51.2±22.7 months, respectively. Isolated band removal was performed for slippage (SLi, n=12), band erosion (BEi, n=39), and intolerance (ITi, n=31). The numbers (%) of patients in the SLi, BEi, and ITi groups that experienced a surgical complication (Clavien-Dindo class ≥1) were 0 (0.0%), 24 (61.5%), and 3 (9.7%), respectively (p<0.001). In the BEi group, four patients (4/39, 10.3%) underwent reoperation after AGB removal. CONCLUSION: During our 10 years of experience, 37.1% of adjustable gastric band had to be removed. Intra-abdominal abscess and intragastric bleeding were rare but serious complications after explantation. Potential candidates for adjustable gastric band should be informed of the high long-term risk of band explantation and its associated morbidities.


Assuntos
Gastroplastia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Gastroplastia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 504-508, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002251

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to determine a regression equation for estimation of stature from sitting height measurements. This research was carried out on 1623 subjects (830 male and 793 female) among the population of Kosovan adolescents. The stature and sitting height measurements were taken according to the ISAK protocol, and the data were analyzed statistically; the relationships between stature and sitting height measurements were derived using simple correlation. A comparison of the means of sitting height measurements between sexes was performed using a t-test, while a linear regression analysis was employedto examine the extent to which sitting height measurements can reliably predict stature. The results of this research study confirmed that sitting height reliably predicts stature in both genders of Kosovan adolescents and revealed a very useful finding for physical anthropologists and experts from related fields.


El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar una ecuación de regresión para la estimación de la estatura a partir de las medidas de altura sentada. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en 1623 sujetos (830 hombres y 793 mujeres) en la población de adolescentes Kosovares. Las medidas de estatura y altura sentada se tomaron de acuerdo con el protocolo ISAK, y los datos se analizaron estadísticamente; las relaciones entre la estatura y las medidas de la altura sentada se derivaron utilizando una correlación simple. Se realizó una comparación de las medias de las mediciones de la altura al sentarse entre los sexos utilizando una prueba t, mientras que se empleó un análisis de regresión lineal para examinar hasta que punto las mediciones de la altura sentada pueden predecir la estatura de manera confiable. Los resultados de este estudio de investigación confirmaron que la altura sentada predice de forma confiable la estatura en ambos sexos de adolescentes Kosovares y reveló un hallazgo muy útil para antropólogos físicos y expertos de campos relacionados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Estatura , Postura , Modelos Lineares , Antropometria , Probabilidade , Kosovo
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 135-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the main part of the total body energy expenditure. The value of BMR is individual and depends on a lot of factors. The goal of the research was to discover the influence of anthropometric parameters, age and gender, on changes of the BMR values. METHODS: A total of 177 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin from South Moravia (BMI 27.3 ± 7.88 kg/m2) aged 18-55 (117 women, 60 men) were included in the study. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured using a stadiometer (SECA 213) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (Inbody 230). BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry (Cortex Metalyzer 3B). The measured values were statistically evaluated by the regression analysis and least square method (LSM). RESULTS: From the following results that the factors that influence the BMR value statistically significantly (p < 0.05) are: age, gender, body mass index, total body water, and percent of body fat. CONCLUSION: Body fat and age have both an indirect impact on the basal metabolic rate of the Czech population in working age. However, BMI and the total body water were discovered to have a direct influence on the BMR.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Calorimetria Indireta , República Tcheca , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 764, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition is a global health concern. Many studies have focused on the association of childhood undernutrition indicators with their predictors. A few studies have looked at relationship between the undernutrition indicators. This study aimed at investigating the possible association structures of childhood undernutrition indicators. METHODS: A log-linear model of cell counts of a three way table of stunting, wasting, and underweight was fitted based on the 2016 Ethiopia demographic health survey data. The variables of interest were generated based on the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards as: stunted, wasted and underweight if z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for age are below-2, respectively; otherwise not stunted, wasted and underweight. RESULTS: This study showed that 36.34, 12.09 and 24.87% were stunted, wasted and underweight out of sampled children respectively and the prevalence of total undernutrition in children was about 45.96%.The fitted log-linear model showed that underweight was associated with both stunting (P-value< 0.001), and wasting (P-value< 0.001). There was no association between stunting and wasting (P-value = 0.999). Furthermore, the model showed that there is no a three way interaction among stunting, wasting, and underweight (P-value = 1.000). CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that there is lack of three way association of stunting, wasting, and underweight. This confirms that the three anthropometric indicators of children have multi-dimensional nature. Thus, the concerned body should consider the three undernutrition indicators simultaneously to estimate the actual burden of childhood undernourishment as they are not redundant of each other.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(5): 669-677, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies with dietary variables are complex methodologically, being the researcher responsible for anticipating, controlling, reducing and preventing methodological errors. Obesity accounts for almost one-third of the world's population and has consequences for childhood and adolescence. Multifactorial disorder must be faced in several aspects, being food and physical activity, modifiable risk factors. The EBANS aims to perform a diagnosis of the nutritional status of the Brazilian population from 15 to 65 years old, from all regions, and the parameters associated with obesity, with several possibilities of correlating data. METHODOLOGICAL PROCESS: Part of the ELANS study (n = 9218), the EBANS (n = 2000) has a weighted sample and data collection that allows: to evaluate the socioeconomic level of the population; perform a diagnosis of nutritional status (through anthropometric variables); to evaluate food intake (R24h and FFQ for beverages); and evaluate physical activity practice (IPAQ-long and accelerometer). METHODOLOGICAL OPPORTUNITIES: With national coverage, EBANS has the potential to compose regional analyzes, portray the current nutritional epidemiological condition, food consumption and physical activity pattern of the Brazilian population, at different life stages, and may have their data analyzed together or stratified, offering useful subsidies for the formulation of public policies. METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES: Each methodological step was designed to reduce errors and biases related to methodological challenges. CAAE REGISTRATION: 31670314.8.0000.5567. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Of great potential for future data analysis, EBANS tries to contribute to the generation of knowledge to foment policies and actions capable of changing the current obesity scenario.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais/normas , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Antropometria , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(5): 731-738, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between depression, anthropometric parameters and body image in adults through a systematic review of the literature. METHOD: Medline, Lilacs and PsycInfo databases were searched by two independent reviewers up to August 2018, without language restriction, including cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies in adults (18-65 years), of both genders. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale instrument. The PRISMA standards were adopted for the conduct of this review, whose protocol is registered in PROSPERO, number CRD42018105248. RESULTS: The search resulted in 1,770 articles; however, a total of 5 articles were included in this review, whose designs were transversal. Quality scores ranged from 8 to 9 points. The association between depression, anthropometric parameters, and body image was found in all included studies, regardless of the different statistical methods employed. Women perceived their body larger than it really was by idealizing a lean body, whereas in men the perception of being underweight or dissatisfaction was observed by idealizing a larger body, both conditions were associated with the presence of depression or depressive symptoms and body mass index in the same time. CONCLUSION: Depression, anthropometric parameters and body image were associated. It is necessary to conduct other studies, especially longitudinal studies to elucidate the relationship among depression, weight, body image, and other associated factors.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 253-260, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002220

RESUMO

Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Thus, it is essential to apply reliable indicators to assess the nutritional status of these individuals. Objective: To evaluate the thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle (APM) in patients with HF as an indicator of somatic protein status and correlate the obtained values with conventionally used parameters and electrical bioimpedance (EBI) markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with patients with HF undergoing regular outpatient treatment. APM thickness was measured in the dominant arm, and the values obtained were classified according to gender and age. The anthropometric parameters assessed included the body mass index (BMI) and specific parameters to assess the muscle (arm muscle circumference [AMC] and arm muscle area [AMA]). Values of phase angle (PA), standard PA (SPA), and lean mass were obtained by EBI. Statistical analyses were performed with the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 19, using unpaired Student's t, Mann-Whitney, or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for comparisons between groups, as appropriate. The correlation between variables of interest was performed using Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficient, as adequate. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: About 70% of the 74 patients evaluated were classified as malnourished according to the APM thickness. Values of AMC, AMA, and lean mass correlated positively with APM thickness (p < 0.005). The APM thickness also correlated positively with PA and SPA (r = 0.49, p < 0.001 and r = 0.31, p = 0.008, respectively). Conclusion: Patients with HF presented a high frequency of protein malnutrition when APM thickness was used as an indicator of nutritional status. APM thickness values correlated with conventional measures of somatic protein evaluation and may be related to the prognosis of these patients, since they correlated positively with PA and SPA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Avaliação Nutricional , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Polegar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Antropometria , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Análise Estatística , Análise de Variância , Fatores Etários , Inflamação
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 269-273, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002229

RESUMO

Ischemic heart failure is a chronic and degenerative disease with high morbidity and mortality in the world. Coronary artery bypass grafting is indicated as elective treatment and may cause a catabolic state that depletes energy reserves. Data on body composition evaluation in the postoperative period of major cardiac surgery are limited. Objective: To evaluate the influence of elective coronary artery bypass grafting on body composition on the seventh postoperative day of patients with ischemic heart failure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which eighteen volunteers with New York Heart Association Class II and III heart failure underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The energy and protein reserves of the participants were evaluated by anthropometry in the preoperative and on the seventh postoperative day. Paired t-Test or Mann-Whitney test was used if applicable. A significance level was considered at p value < 0.05. Results: A significant loss of muscle mass was observed through the reduction of arm muscle circumference after surgery (4.2%, p 0.007). Major surgery causes hypermetabolic state and systemic inflammatory stimulus, due to the release of hormones and cytokines that may justify the observed loss of muscle mass. Conclusion: Coronary artery bypass grafting had an impact on muscle mass reduction seven days after surgery in patients with ischemic heart failure


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Período Pós-Operatório , Composição Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Antropometria/métodos , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Análise Estatística , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência Abdominal , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Obesidade
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223401

RESUMO

Introduction: Anaemia and malnutrition are common health problems in developing countries with children being the most vulnerable. They have negative impacts on human performance, growth and development, in children, both as cause and consequences of disease. Although annual mass deworming and nutrition supplement strategies have been implemented in the Tiko Health District (THD), no study has been carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition. The aim of this study was therefore designed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition among primary school children aged 5-15 years in the Tiko Health District. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 10 randomly selected schools in the THD and a total of 400 school children were enrolled in the study. Body weight and height were measured using an electronic weighing scale and stadiometer respectively. Anthropometric indices: Height-for-Age Z scores (HAZ), Weight-for-Age Z scores (WAZ) and Body Mass Index-for-Age Z scores (BMIAZ) were analyzed and compared with WHO Growth Reference Standards using WHO Anthroplus software. Hemoglobin levels were determined using Urit-12 Haemoglobinometer and anaemia defined as Hemoglobin (Hb) < 11g/dl. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software. Results: The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.25%, prevalence of stunting 7.5% with 0.8% being severely stunted. The prevalence of wasting was 1% and underweight 0.7%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 5%. Parents occupation and the absence of toilet were statistically associated with anaemia (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003). Age, floor type, absence of toilet and BMI were significantly associated with malnutrition (P = 0.00, P = 0.01, P = 0.02 and P = 0.003). Conclusion: This study revealed a low prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia which could be attributed to the deworming and nutrition supplement strategies which have been implemented.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 592-599, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002263

RESUMO

En la actualidad la obesidad es considerada como una pandemia, además de los cambios metabólicos ya sabidos, se producen alteraciones estructurales como las generadas en el sistema ventilatorio. Sin embargo, se ha observado que dependiendo de la forma de categorización de esta condición, puede o no existir alteración sobre este sistema generando así una complicación al momento de la elección de esta herramienta. Por lo tanto el objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar parámetros de la función pulmonar en individuos obesos (O) y normo-peso (Np) según índice de masa corporal (IMC) y porcentaje de grasa corporal (PGC). Se midió la función ventilatoria en 57 participantes, posteriormente estas variables se contrastaron entre los sujetos normo-peso (Np) y obesos (O) según IMC y PGC. Se observó un aumento significativo en el valor de la capacidad inspiratoria (CI) de O versus Np y del volumen de reserva espiratoria (VRE) y capacidad residual funcional (CRF) de Np en relación a O, tanto para la división por IMC como por PGC, en el grupo dividido por IMC las variables de resistencia especifica de las vías aéreas (sRaw) y presión inspiratoria máxima (PImáx) fueron significativamente mayor en los participantes O, asimismo, la conductancia específica de las vías aéreas (sGaw) fue significativamente mayor en sujetos Np. En conclusión, el IMC mostró mayor versatilidad como predictor de la función ventilatoria, sin embargo, se necesitan mayores estudios de los efectos mecánicos de este indicador y del PGC sobre las vías aéreas.


Currently, obesity is considered a pandemic, in addition to the known metabolic changes, structural alterations such as those generated in the ventilatory system occur. However, it has been observed that depending on the form of categorization of this condition, there may or may not be alteration on this system, thus generating a complication when choosing this tool. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare parameters of lung function in obese individuals and normo-weight according to body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BFP). The ventilatory function was measured in 57 participants, later these variables were contrasted between the subjects normal weight (Nw) and obese (O) according to BMI and BFP. A significant increase in the inspiratory capacity (IC) value of O versus Nw was observed and of the expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and functional residual capacity (FRC) of Nw in relation to O, both for the division by BMI and by BFP. In the group divided by BMI, the variables of specific resistance of the airways (sRaw) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were significantly higher in the participants O. In addition, specific airway conductance (sGaw) was significantly higher in subjects Nw. In conclusion, the BMI showed greater versatility as a predictor of ventilatory function, however, more studies are needed on the mechanical effects of this indicator and the BFP on the airways.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tecido Adiposo , Pulmão/fisiologia , Obesidade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 612-619, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002266

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to define every subsample with precision, to give an overview of the importance of the differences between different team players, as well as to point to the closeness along with the remoteness between them, and finally, to determine latent anthropologic characteristics which, when in interaction, contribute to significant differences and better comprehension of the specifics of every mentioned sport. Sixty-seven males were enrolled in the study, divided into four groups: twenty-five soccer players, fifteen handball players, thirteen basketball players and fourteen volleyball players. All subjects were assessed for the anthropometric measures required for the calculation of body composition variables, using the standardized procedures recommended by the established literature. Data was analysed using SPSS and the descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD) for each variable, while the ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to detect the effects of each type of sport, distinct features that have been identified by calculating the discrimination coefficient have determined the specifics of the subsamples, and their grouping was demonstrated by calculating Mahalanobis distance. The results showed that a significant difference was found for body height, body weight, muscle contents of body, fat contents of body, residue mass, ideal body mass and lean body mass. There is no significant difference in the body mass index and bone contents of body. It was confirmed that there is a clearly defined line between the players in different sports and it is possible to determine the characteristics of players of each sport. The results also indicate that the least amount of differences appears between volleyball and basketball, and that the sports that are most apart are volleyball and handball. Therefore, these findings may give coaches from the region a more precise top soccer, handball, basketball and volleyball player profile, and suggest them to follow recent selection process methods and be more careful during talent identification.


El propósito de este estudio fue definir cada submuestra con precisión, para presentar una visión general de la importancia de las diferencias entre los distintos jugadores, así como para señalar la cercanía y la distancia entre ellos y, finalmente, para determinar la antropología latente. Estas características cuando están en interacción, contribuyen a encontrar diferencias significativas y mejorar la comprensión de las características específicas de cada deporte mencionado. Sesenta y siete hombres se inscribieron en el estudio, divididos en cuatro grupos: 25 jugadores de fútbol, 15 jugadores de balonmano, 13 jugadores de baloncesto y 14 jugadores de voleibol. Se evaluaron las medidas antropométricas de todos los sujetos para calcular las variables de composición corporal, utilizando los procedimientos estandarizados recomendados por la literatura establecida. Los datos se analizaron mediante SPSS y las estadísticas descriptivas se expresaron como una media (DE) para cada variable, mientras que las pruebas ANOVA y LSD Post Hoc se realizaron para detectar los efectos de cada tipo de deporte. Distintas características se han identificado mediante el cálculo del coeficiente de discriminación, determinando los detalles de las submuestras, y su agrupación se demostró al calcular la distancia de Mahalanobis. Los resultados mostraron que se encontró una diferencia significativa en la altura del cuerpo, el peso corporal, el contenido muscular del cuerpo, la grasa corporal, la masa residual, la masa corporal ideal y la masa corporal magra. No se observó una diferencia significativa en el índice de masa corporal y el contenido óseo del cuerpo. Se confirmó que existe una línea claramente definida entre los jugadores en diferentes deportes y es posible determinar las características de los jugadores de cada deporte. Los resultados también indicaron que la menor cantidad de diferencias aparece entre el voleibol y el baloncesto, y que los deportes que más se distinguen son el voleibol y el balonmano. Por lo tanto, estos hallazgos pueden darles a los entrenadores de la región, un perfil más preciso de los jugadores de fútbol, balonmano, baloncesto y voleibol, y sugerir que sigan métodos de selección recientes y considerar con mayor atención la identificación del talento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Esportes , Composição Corporal , Antropometria , Futebol , Basquetebol , Voleibol , Sérvia
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