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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2396-2399, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018489

RESUMO

Various computational human phantoms have been proposed in the past decades, but few of them include delicate anthropometric variations. In this study, we build a whole-body phantom library including 145 anthropometric parameters. This library is constructed by registration-based pipeline, which transfers a standard whole-body anatomy template to an anthropometry-adjustable body shape library (MakeHuman™). Therefore, internal anatomical structures are created for body shapes of different anthropometric parameters. Based on the constructed library, we can generate individualized whole-body phantoms according to given arbitrary anthropometric parameters. Moreover, the proposed phantom library can also be converted to voxel-based and tetrahedron-based model for further personalized simulation. We hope this phantom library will serve as a computational tool in research community.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
3.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(3): 108-114, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193519

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Las alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo fueron propuestas como precursoras en la génesis y perpetuación de la aterosclerosis hace ya mucho tiempo. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si existe asociación entre la presencia de aterosclerosis carotídea y la función autonómica evaluada mediante la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: A través de un estudio prospectivo de casos y controles investigamos la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca en 5 min y la presencia de aterosclerosis carotídea mediante ultrasonografía en 54 pacientes que dividimos en 2 grupos según la presencia (+) o ausencia (−) de placas ateroscleróticas en carótidas (ATE). Se analizó la variabilidad de frecuencia cardíaca en dominio de frecuencia en el espectro de alta frecuencia, baja frecuencia, cociente alta/baja frecuencia y potencia espectral total. RESULTADOS: Sobre una población de 54 individuos sin enfermedad cardiovascular establecida evaluados en forma consecutiva, se detectaron 26 individuos (48%) portadores de ATE+. Se observó una reducción en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca en el grupo ATE+ representada por el espectro de baja frecuencia (LF) (p < 0,0001). La actividad parasimpática específicamente representada por el componente espectral de alta frecuencia también resultó menor en el grupo ATE+en análisis univariado (p < 0,0001) al igual que la potencia espectral total (p < 0,0001), un índice de regulación autonómica integral. No se encontraron diferencias significativas cuando se analizó el balance autonómico de baja y alta frecuencia (LF/HF) (p = 0,1598). En un modelo de regresión logística solo la presión arterial sistólica y el poder espectral total resultaron predictores independientes de ATE+. CONCLUSIÓN: Verificamos una disminución en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca en sujetos con aterosclerosis carotídea, que se estableció tanto a través de sus componentes espectrales como de la potencia espectral total, no así a través de la valoración del balance autonómico. La potencia espectral total, en principio, sería un método correcto de evaluación autonómica en este grupo de pacientes


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Alterations of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system have been proposed as precursors of the genesis and perpetuation of atherosclerosis for a long time. The objective of this study is to determine if there is an association between the presence of carotid atherosclerosis and the reduction in heart rate variability. METHODS: Using a prospective case-control design, the heart rate variability and the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was investigated in 54 patients, divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of carotid atherosclerosis. An analysis was made of the heart rate variability variables of the frequency (spectral) domain in high frequency band, low frequency band, parasympathetic autonomic balance, and the total spectral band. RESULTS: Of the 54 individuals evaluated without previous cardiovascular disease consecutively, 26 of them (48%) presented with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis (ATE+). A reduction in heart rate variability was observed in the ATE+group represented by the low frequency (LF) spectrum (P < .0001). The parasympathetic activity specifically represented in the high frequency (HF) band was also lower in the ATE+group in the univariate analysis (P < .0001), same as the total spectral power (P < .0001), an index of integral autonomic regulation. No significant differences were found in the LF/HF analysis (P = .1598). After analysing variables with significant differences in the univariate analysis with a logistic regression model, only systolic blood preassure and the total spectral power were shown to be independent predictors of ATE+. CONCLUSION: A reduction in heart rate variability was found in subjects with carotid atherosclerosis. Some spectral components of heart rate variability, like low frequency or total spectral power, were better predictors of carotid atherosclerosis than the parasympathetic autonomic balance. In this study it seems that total spectral power is an adequate measurement for analysing autonomic function


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Modelos Logísticos , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antropometria , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipertensão/terapia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 37(3): 115-124, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193520

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: La obesidad y el síndrome metabólico (SM) continúan siendo un problema a nivel socioeconómico, causando elevada morbilidad y mortalidad en la población adulta, por lo que se debería realizar una prevención de factores de riesgo desde temprana edad. En la actualidad no existe un consenso del momento oportuno para iniciar la intervención y tratamiento con respecto al SM. El objetivo del estudio es describir el fenotipo para predecir diagnóstico temprano de SM en escolares. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, transversal y analítico en escolares de seis a 15 años, aplicado en Guayaquil. Se realizó valoración antropométrica y encuesta escrita, tras firma del consentimiento informado. Se utilizó para los cálculos de asociación la plataforma de inteligencia artificial (IA) Watson de IBM y su software Modeler Flow. RESULTADOS: Se examinó una población de 1.025 estudiantes entre seis y 15 años (media de 12 años para varones y 13 años para mujeres), de los cuales 62,3% fueron hombres y 37,7% mujeres. El 23,9% de la población presentó sobrepeso y 14% obesidad. Se observó una mayor tendencia a la alteración del peso en varones que en mujeres (51,37% vs. 47,79%), y menor perímetro de cintura en varones (85 cm vs. 87 cm, respectivamente). Los varones tuvieron mayor nivel de presión arterial sistólica (PAS), encontrándose dentro del percentil 90 (PAS media de 123 mmHg) un 61,2%, en comparación con un 38,8% de las mujeres, con una p < 0,001. El sedentarismo es similar en ambos grupos, con una media de 4,79 horas frente a la pantalla y/o videojuegos. Se demostró correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la presión arterial y el índice cintura /talla (I c/t) en el percentil 90 y percentil 95 (X2 9,075, p < 0,028, y X2 23,54, p < 0,000, respectivamente), así como relación entre el P95 de la presión arterial y el sexo (X2 11,57, p < 0,001). El sistema Modeler Flow, nos demostró que, si se observa un I c/t > 0,46, peso > 56,1 kg, talla > 1,61 m, y sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas de tiempo frente a la pantalla, hay una probabilidad de presentar SM de 82,4%. El modelado matemático del árbol de decisiones (basado en inteligencia artificial) tiene una precisión predictiva del 90% (desviación de error de 0,009). La importancia de los predictores de SM, van de un 97,57% a un 100%. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó en escolares de seis a 15 años, una prevalencia del 33,9% de SM, con puntos de corte patológicos de: I c/t ≥ 0,46, peso ≥ 56,1 kg, sedentarismo puro mayor a tres horas frente a la pantalla/videojuegos, y PAS dentro del P90 (> 123 mmHg). Con estos cuatro indicadores, podemos predecir una probabilidad de diagnóstico temprano de SM de 97% al 100%


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) continue to be a problem at a socioeconomic level, causing high morbidity and mortality in the adult population. Prevention of risk factors should be carried out from an early age. Currently, there is no consensus on the opportune moment to start an intervention or treatment, regarding metabolic syndrome. The objective of the study is to describe the phenotype to predict early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, prospective, cross-sectional and analytical study in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, conducted in Guayaquil. Anthropometric measurements and a survey were performed, obtaining signing informed consent. The IBM Watson artificial intelligence (AI) platform with its software Modeler Flow, were used for the analysis. RESULTS: A population of 1025 students between 6 and 15 years old (mean of 12 years for men and 13 years for women) was examined, of whom 62.3% were men and 37.7% women. 23.9% of the population was overweight and 14% obese. A greater tendency to weight alteration was observed in men than in women (51.37% vs 47.79%), and a lower waist circumference in men (85 cm vs 87 cm, respectively). Males had a higher level of systolic blood pressure (SBP), being within the 90th percentile (mean SBP of 123 mmHg) 61.2%, compared to 38.8% of women, with a p < 0.001. Sedentary lifestyle is similar in both groups, with an average of 4.79 hours in front of the screen and/or video games. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between SBP and the waist/height ratio (WHtR) in the 90th percentile and 95th percentile (X2 9.075, p < 0.028, and X2 23,54, p < 0,000 respectively), as well as a relationship between 95th percentile and sex (X2 11.57, p < 0.001). The Modeler Flow software showed us that if WHtR, > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg and height > 1.61 m, the probability of presenting metabolic syndrome, was of 82.4%. The statistic of this study has a predictive accuracy of 90% (error deviation of 0.009). The importance in the predictors of metabolic syndrome, range from 97.57% to 100%. CONCLUSIONS: A prevalence of 33.9% of metabolic syndrome was observed in schoolchildren from 6 to 15 years old, with pathological cut-off points of: WHtR > 0.46, weight > 56.1 kg, pure sedentary lifestyle > 3 hours in front of the screen/playing video games, and SBP within the 90th percentile (> 123 mmHg). With these four indicators, we can predict a probability of early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome of 97% to 100%


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Antropometria , Inteligência Artificial , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Relação Cintura-Quadril
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913161

RESUMO

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the degree of accuracy of age-based weight estimation methods in assessing the weight of the Nigerian child. Method: The weights of one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six (1,456) children were measured and compared with the updated Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS), Best guess, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods. Result: The updated APLS, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods underestimated the weights in younger children while overestimating in older ones. Best guess overestimated the weights across all ages. The Nelson formula had the best agreement within 10% and 20% of the measured weights among all methods. A linear regression analysis produced an equation for weight estimation: weight (W) = 2.058 Y + 9.925, where W is weight in kilogram and Y is the age in years. Conclusion: None of the weight estimation formulae assessed was entirely accurate in our study, though the Nelson method showed superior agreement.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Peso Corporal , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21574, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871873

RESUMO

The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing in China, but there are disparities between urban and rural populations, and across different regions.To examine the prevalence and risk factors of MS in the rural area of Qianjiang (Southwest China).From March 2016 to June 2018, 6 townships in the Qianjiang District of Chongqing Municipality were selected for a cross-sectional study of the residents in rural areas. Demographics and medical history were collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometry and blood pressure were obtained by physical examination. Blood lipids, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial glucose were measured.A total of 2949 (1067 males and 1882 females) were included. The mean age was 63.8 ±â€Š10.7 years. The prevalence of MS in the study population was 16.8% (496/2949). The prevalence of MS was 7.4% in men, 22.2% in women, 15.7% in Han, 18.1% in Tujia, and 14.8% in Miao. According to age, the prevalence of MS was 10.6%, 17.0%, and 18.3% in the 30-50, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years groups. The multivariable analysis showed that female sex (OR = 33.36, 95%CI: 17.0-65.53), dyslipidemia (OR = 4.71, 95%CI: 1.73-12.82), kidney diseases (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.37-3.94), waistline (OR = 1.39, 95%CI: 1.33-1.46), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.06-0.23), triglycerides (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.31-1.76), alanine aminotransferase (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.97-1.00), γ-glutamyltransferase (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01), and glycated hemoglobin (OR = 1.31, 95%CI: 1.08-1.59) were independently associated with MS.The prevalence of MS was 16.8% in Qianjiang. Female sex, kidney diseases, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase were independent risk factors for MS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , População Rural/tendências , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Antropometria , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 407-412, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The biochemical and anthropometric consequences of metabolic disorders exert an enormous effect on the functioning of people worldwide. The aim of this study is to assess relationships between biochemical and anthropometric parameters associated with metabolic syndrome, and the presence of the PPAR-γ rs1801282, the FTO rs9939609, and the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms in women aged 45-60. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 425 women, aged 45-59 years, from the general population of the West Pomeranian Province in north-west Poland. The research procedure involved a structured interview, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, biochemical analysis of serum, and genetic analysis. RESULTS: The carriers of the A/A genotype of the FTO polymorphism had higher LDL levels than their counterparts with the T/T genotype (p = 0.01). The carriers of the T/T genotype of the MC4R polymorphism had lower non-HDL levels than those with the C/C and C/T genotypes (p = 0.019). Weight was related to the C/C and the C/G + G/G genotypes of the PPAR-γ gene polymorphism (p = 0.046). The model of inheritance for the MC4R polymorphism had a significant effect on TG (p = 0.039) and non-HDL (p = 0.05) levels. CONCLUSIONS: The genotypes analyzed in the study had only a slight direct effect on the biochemical and anthropometric abnormalities typical of metabolic disorders. Nonetheless, the risk alleles (A allele of the FTO rs9939609 and the C allele of the MC4R rs17782313) were found to be related to lipid metabolism disorders in 45-60-year-old women.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Antropometria , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Polônia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/metabolismo
10.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 202-215, May-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114690

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: comparar los efectos de la implementación de un programa de ejercicio continuo de mediana intensidad vs. un programa de ejercicio interválico de alta intensidad sobre los parámetros antropométricos y de condición física en mujeres hipertensas. Materiales y método: estudio experimental con pre y post prueba, realizado en 62 mujeres hipertensas divididas en 3 grupos: el primer grupo realizó ejercicio interválico de alta intensidad, el segundo hizo ejercicio continuo de mediana intensidad y el tercero es el grupo control. La intervención se realizó durante 12 semanas con una frecuencia semanal de 3 repeticiones. En todas las mujeres hipertensas se evaluó su condición física y características antropométricas. Resultados: posterior a la intervención, se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el grupo HiiT (high intensity interval training) y el grupo control en cuanto a las variables porcentaje de grasa (p = 0,014), densidad corporal (p = 0,014) e índice de conicidad [IC] (p = 0,003). Adicionalmente, se identificaron diferencias entre los dos grupos de ejercicio y el grupo control en las variables distancia recorrida (p = 0,04), flexibilidad en miembro superior derecho (p = 0,00) y fuerza en miembros inferiores (p = 0,01). Conclusiones: el estudio demostró que el ejercicio es una herramienta efectiva para mejorar la aptitud física de mujeres hipertensas. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en la efectividad entre el entrenamiento interválico de alta intensidad y el entrenamiento continuo.


Resumo Objetivo: comparar os efeitos da implementação de um programa de exercício contínuo de média intensidade versus um programa de exercício interválico de alta intensidade nos parâmetros antropométricos e de condição física em mulheres hipertensas. Materiais e método: estudo experimental com pré e pós-teste, realizado em 62 mulheres hipertensas divididas em 3 grupos: um primeiro grupo fez exercício interválico de alta intensidade, o segundo grupo fez exercício contínuo de média intensidade e um grupo controle. A intervenção foi realizada durante 12 semanas com uma frequência semanal de 3 vezes por semana; todas as mulheres hipertensivas foram avaliadas quanto à sua condição física e características antropométricas. Resultados: foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas pós-intervenção entre o grupo HiiT (high intensity interval training) e o grupo controle nas variáveis porcentagem de gordura (p = 0,014), densidade corporal (p=0,014) e índice de conicidade (IC) (p = 0,003). Adicionalmente, foram encontradas diferenças entre os dois grupos de exercícios e o grupo controle nas variáveis distância percorrida (p=0,04), flexibilidade no membro superior direito (p=0,00) e força nos membros inferiores (p=0,01). Conclusões: este estudo mostrou que o exercício físico é uma ferramenta eficaz para melhorar a aptidão física das mulheres hipertensivas. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença na eficácia entre o treinamento em intervalos de alta intensidade e o treinamento contínuo.


Abstract Objective: To compare the effects of medium intensity continuous exercise implementation vs. a program with high intensity interval exercise on the anthropometric parameters and physical condition of hypertensive women. Materials and method: Experimental study with a pre and post-test, conducted in 62 hypertensive women who were divided into 3 groups: the first group performed high-intensity interval exercise, the second group did continuous-medium intensity exercise, and the third acted as the control group. It was a 12-week intervention, with a 3-times-per-week frequency. All hypertensive women were evaluated for physical condition and anthropo-metric characteristics. Results: After the intervention, statistically significant differences were found between the HiiT (high intensity interval training) group and the control group regarding the variables body fat percentage (p = 0.014), body density (p = 0.014), and conicity index [CI] (p = 0.003). Additionally, differences between the two exercise groups and the control group were identified for the variables distance traveled (p = 0.04), flexibility in the upper right limb (p = 0.00), and strength in lower limbs (p = 0.01). Conclusions: This study showed that exercise is an effective tool to improve the physical fitness of hypertensive women. However, no differences in terms of effectiveness were found between high intensity interval training and continuous training.


Assuntos
Feminino , Exercício Físico , Antropometria , Aptidão Física , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Hipertensão , Grupos Controle
11.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 225, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103378

RESUMO

Las medidas antropométricas resultan de utilidad para evaluar el estado nutricional, son fáciles de obtener cuando se aplican a poblaciones de ancianos ambulantes. Objetivo: evaluar antropométricamente un grupo de adultos mayores; para ello se midieron las variables: edad, peso, talla, Circunferencia de cintura (CC), perímetro de pantorrilla (PP) y se calcularon IMC, ICT, IPCC y %GC. Métodos: Se seleccionó un grupo de adultos mayores, quienes asistieron a la consulta en una clinica privada, del área metropolitana de Caracas, durante los mese de junio y octubre de 2015. Se determinaron los indicadores IMC, CC, PP, ICT, IPCC y %GC, para clasificar, según las categorías de cada uno, a los adultos, y evaluar su estado nutricional. Resultados: Los resultados indican edad 71,9±7,9 años, peso 67,1±13,9, talla 157,6±9,2 cm, CC 93,7±12,2, PP 33,7±4,1, IMC 26,9±4,7, ICT 0,60±0,08, IPCC 0,71±0,10 y %GC 40,4±7,7. Desnutrición según el PP 42,3%(M) y 15,6%(F); Sobrepeso según IMC 69,1%(M) y 62,9% (F); obesidad 30,8% (M) y 37.1%(F). Riesgo elevado y riesgo muy elevado, según la CC, 42,1% (M) y 20,6% (F), y 58,9% (M) y 77,4% (F), respectivamente. ICT revela obesidad 20,7% (M) y 62,2% (F); IPCC riesgo 78,2% (M) y 49,6% (F); %GC obesida 95,5% (M) y 98,3% (F). Correlaciones altas entre CC-ICT, Peso-IMC, Peso-CC, Peso-IPCC (r ≥ 0,80 y p<0,001). Conclusión: los indicadores son muy útiles para evaluar el estado nutricional, y disponer de varios de ellos, permite complementar la evaluación nutricional en el adulto mayor(AU)


Anthropometric measurements are useful for evaluating nutritional status, they are easy to obtain when applied to ambulatory elderly populations. Objective: to anthropometrically evaluate a group of older adults; For this, the variables: age, weight, height, waist circumference (CC), calf circumference (PP) were measured and BMI, ICT, IPCC and% GC were calculated. Methods: A group of older adults was selected, who attended the consultation in a private clinic, in the Caracas metropolitan area, during the months of June and October 2015. The indicators BMI, CC, PP, ICT, IPCC and% GC were determined. To classify, according to the categories of each, adults, and assess their nutritional status. Results: The results indicate age 71.9 ± 7.9 years, weight 67.1 ± 13.9, height 157.6 ± 9.2 cm, CC 93.7 ± 12.2, PP 33.7 ± 4.1, BMI 26.9 ± 4.7, ICT 0.60 ± 0.08, IPCC 0.71 ± 0.10 and% GC 40.4 ± 7.7. Malnutrition according to the PP 42.3% (M) and 15.6% (F); Overweight according to BMI 69.1% (M) and 62.9% (F); obesity 30.8% (M) and 37.1% (F). According to the CC, high risk and very high risk, 42.1% (M) and 20.6% (F), and 58.9% (M) and 77.4% (F), respectively. ICT reveals obesity 20.7% (M) and 62.2% (F); IPCC risk 78.2% (M) and 49.6% (F); % GC obesity 95.5% (M) and 98.3% (F). High correlations between CC-ICT, Weight-BMI, Weight-CC, Weight-IPCC (r ≥ 0.80 and p <0.001). Conclusion: the indicators are very useful to assess nutritional status, and having several of them, allows to complement the nutritional evaluation in the elderly(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Circunferência da Cintura , Composição Corporal , Antropometria
12.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 208, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103357

RESUMO

La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) representa un problema de salud pública, debido a su alta incidencia y prevalencia en el mundo. Un método para evaluar el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 es la escala Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC). La DM2 es un factor de riesgo de enfermedad arterial periférica (EAP) la cual puede ser diagnosticada mediante el índice tobillo-brazo (ITB). Objetivo: evaluar la presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica mediante ITB y relacionarlo con el riesgo de desarrollar DM2 según LA FINDRISC. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, correlacional, de corte transversal. Se evaluaron 134 personas y se les midió glicemia capilar para descartar diabetes. Posteriormente, se realizó el LA FINDRISC y el ITB. Resultados: El puntaje LA FINDRISC y la glicemia alteradas en ayunas aumentaron proporcionalmente (R2=0,5). Esta relación no se observó entre LA FINDRISC y el ITB arrojado por la población general. Sin embargo, al seleccionar los pacientes con vasos no comprimibles aparece una correlación positiva (R2=0,36) entre los dos instrumentos diagnósticos. Conclusión: LA FINDRISC y el ITB son instrumentos de diagnósticos no invasivo, sencillos y válidos para detectar riesgo de desarrollar DM2, y detectar presencia y severidad de enfermedad arterial periférica, respectivamente(AU)


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) represents a public health problem, due to its high incidence and prevalence in the world. One method to assess the risk of developing DM2 is the Latin American Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (LA FINDRISC) scale. DM2 is a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) which can be diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Objective: to evaluate the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease using ABI and to relate it to the risk of developing DM2 according to LA FINDRISC. Methods: descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study. 134 people were evaluated, and capillary glycemia was measured to rule out diabetes. Subsequently, the LA FINDRISC and the ITB were held. Results: The LA FINDRISC score and impaired fasting blood glucose increased proportionally (R2 = 0.5). This relationship was not observed between LA FINDRISC and the ITB showed by the general population. However, when selecting patients with non-compressible vessels, a positive correlation (R2 = 0.36) appears between the two diagnostic instruments. Conclusion: FINDRISC and ITB are simple and valid non-invasive diagnostic instruments to detect the risk of developing DM2, and detect the presence and severity of peripheral arterial disease, respectively(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Doença Arterial Periférica/complicações , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Antropometria , Circunferência Abdominal
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21486, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756177

RESUMO

The diameter of femoral vessels was angiographically explored in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and compared with anthropometric and demographic indexes.A total of 153 pediatric patients younger than 3 years old were recruited. The sex, age, weight, and height of patients were recorded daily, and the body surface area (BSA) was calculated with the Mosteller formula.The values of mean left-right diameters were 3.13 (0.32) mm for the femoral artery (FA) and 5.14 (0.68) mm for the femoral vein (FV). The FA diameter (FA-Dm) and FV diameter (FV-Dm) were clearly related (R = 0.84, P < .001), and the FA-Dm/FV-Dm ratio ranged from 0.61 to 0.622. The diameters of femoral vessels were significantly correlated with age, height, weight and BSA (R = 0.63 to 0.73, P < .001). The FA-Dm and FV-Dm were most closely associated with the height of patients (FA-Dm: R = 0.73, P < .001; FV-Dm: R = 0.69, P < .001).The FV-Dm and FA-Dm were consistent with the weight, height, age and BSA in the surveyed pediatric patients. The FA-Dm and FV-Dm were closely associated with the height of pediatric patients. Furthermore, the FA-Dm/FV-Dm ratio was stable in these patients. Such estimations could help clinicians select the appropriate diameter of cannulation needles and catheters for interventional therapy pediatric patients with CHD.


Assuntos
Angiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia/métodos , Antropometria , Superfície Corporal , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Valores de Referência
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21315, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that caesarean section (CS) is associated with increased risk of childhood obesity, asthma, and coeliac disease. The gut microbiota of CS-born babies differs to those born vaginally, possibly due to reduced exposure to maternal vaginal bacteria during birth. Vaginal seeding is a currently unproven practice intended to reduce such differences, so that the gut microbiota of CS-born babies is similar to that of babies born vaginally. Our pilot study, which uses oral administration as a novel form of vaginal seeding, will assess the degree of maternal strain transfer and overall efficacy of the procedure for establishing normal gut microbiota development. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Protocol for a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of a previously untested method of vaginal seeding (oral administration) in 30 CS-born babies. A sample of maternal vaginal bacteria is obtained prior to CS, and mixed with 5 ml sterile water to obtain a supernatant. Healthy babies are randomized at 1:1 to receive active treatment (3 ml supernatant) or placebo (3 ml sterile water). A reference group of 15 non-randomized vaginal-born babies are also being recruited. Babies' stool samples will undergo whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing to identify potential differences in community structure between CS babies receiving active treatment compared to those receiving placebo at age 1 month (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include differences in overall gut community between CS groups (24 hours, 3 months); similarity of CS-seeded and placebo gut profiles to vaginally-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); degree of maternal vaginal strain transfer in CS-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); anthropometry (1 and 3 months) and body composition (3 months). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval by the Northern A Health and Disability Ethics Committee (18/NTA/49). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618000339257).


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790710

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to establish maturation-, age-, and sex-specific anthropometric and physical fitness percentile reference values of young elite athletes from various sports. Anthropometric (i.e., standing and sitting body height, body mass, body mass index) and physical fitness (i.e., countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction speed [i.e., T-test], trunk muscle endurance [i.e., ventral Bourban test], dynamic lower limbs balance [i.e., Y-balance test], hand grip strength) of 703 male and female elite young athletes aged 8-18 years were collected to aggregate reference values according to maturation, age, and sex. Findings indicate that body height and mass were significantly higher (p<0.001; 0.95≤d≤1.74) in more compared to less mature young athletes as well as with increasing chronological age (p<0.05; 0.66≤d≤3.13). Furthermore, male young athletes were significantly taller and heavier compared to their female counterparts (p<0.001; 0.34≤d≤0.50). In terms of physical fitness, post-pubertal athletes showed better countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength performances (p<0.001; 1.57≤d≤8.72) compared to pubertal athletes. Further, countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength performances increased with increasing chronological age (p<0.05; 0.29≤d≤4.13). In addition, male athletes outperformed their female counterpart in the countermovement jump, drop jump, change-of-direction, and handgrip strength (p<0.05; 0.17≤d≤0.76). Significant age by sex interactions indicate that sex-specific differences were even more pronounced with increasing age. Conclusively, body height, body mass, and physical fitness increased with increasing maturational status and chronological age. Sex-specific differences appear to be larger as youth grow older. Practitioners can use the percentile values as approximate benchmarks for talent identification and development.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically evaluate the influence of acquisition settings in conjunction with raw-data based iterative image reconstruction (IR) on lung densitometry based on multi-row detector computed tomography (CT) in an anthropomorphic chest phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten porcine heart-lung explants were mounted in an ex vivo chest phantom shell, six with highly and four with low attenuating chest wall. CT (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthineers) was performed at 120kVp and 80kVp, each combined with current-time products of 120, 60, 30, and 12mAs, and was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and IR (Safire, Siemens Healthineers). Mean lung density (LD), air density (AD) and noise were measured by semi-automated region-of interest (ROI) analysis, with 120kVp/120 mAs serving as the standard of reference. RESULTS: Using IR, noise in lung parenchyma was reduced by ~ 31% at high attenuating chest wall and by ~ 22% at low attenuating chest wall compared to FBP, respectively (p<0.05). IR induced changes in the order of ±1 HU to mean absolute LD and AD compared to corresponding FBP reconstructions which were statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Densitometry is influenced by acquisition parameters and reconstruction algorithms to a degree that may be clinically negligible. However, in longitudinal studies and clinical research identical protocols and potentially other measures for calibration may be required.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Algoritmos , Animais , Antropometria , Densitometria , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Exposição à Radiação , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Suínos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790749

RESUMO

Falls pose a serious problem in elderly and clinical populations. Most often, they lead to a loss of mobility and independence. They might also be an indirect cause of death. The aim of this study was to determine an objective predictor of the fear of falling and falls in elderly subjects (ESs) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. Thirty-two ESs were examined in this study, of whom sixteen were diagnosed with PD. The testing procedures comprised force plate measurements (limit of stability test-LOS test) and clinical tests (Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test, Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti test). The Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I) was used to evaluate the fear of falling. The range of the maximum forward lean was normalized to the length from the ankle joint to the head of the first metatarsal bone and was named the functional forward stability indicator (FFSI). The FFSI, derived from the LOS test, allowed us to demonstrate the real deficit in functional stability and individual safety margins. Moreover, the FFSI was highly correlated with the FES-I score and almost all clinical test results in elderly subjects (r>0,6; p<0.05). In PD subjects, the FFSI was poorly correlated with the fear of falling, the BBS score and the FR distance; however, a high correlation with the Tinetii test (r>0,6, p<0.05) was noted. The PD subjects presented a different balance strategy when close to their stability limits, which was also reflected in the lower values of sample entropy (t = (-2.40); p<0.05; d = 0.87). The FFSI might be a good predictor of the fear of falling in the group of elderly people. Additionally, the FFSI allows us to show real balance deficits both in PD subjects and in their healthy peers without the need for a reference group and norms. In conclusion, it is postulated that the popular clinical assessments of postural balance in PD subjects should be accompanied by reliable posturography measurements.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Idoso , Antropometria , Entropia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Equilíbrio Postural , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Globally, the prevalence rate of preterm birth ranges from 47.5 to 137 per 1000 live births. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of preterm birth is 10.1%. Several anthropometric parameters, particularly, head circumference and foot length(FL) have been used as a proxy measure for gestational age(GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of newborn foot length as a screening tool to identify preterm newborns and correlation factors at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOG CSH), Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 205 newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, UOG CSH. Systematic sampling technique was employed. Optimal cutoff newborn foot length and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the power of foot length measurement to diagnosis prematurity. RESULTS: The mean foot length was 7.41±0.67 cm with a range of 5.4-8.6 cm. Gestational age had a significant strong positive correlation with foot length(r = 0.865). The regression equation derived was GA = 4.5*FL + 3.61. Foot length had strong power (AUC = 0.99) to differentiate preterm from term newborns. A threshold newborn foot length of ≤7.35 cm had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 96.3%, respectively to predict prematurity. CONCLUSION: Foot length had a high sensitivity and specificity in identifying preterm newborns, making it a reliable tool to identify preterm birth in a rural setting.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 20(3): 1-14, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193536

RESUMO

Diversas investigaciones han determinado que la implementación de programas de actividad física mejora la salud mental. Sin embargo, aún existen dudas sobre los beneficios de los programas Zumba® en la población que lo practica. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de un programa de ejercicio físico basado en Zumba®, sobre los niveles de ansiedad-rasgo y ansiedad-estado en estudiantes universitarias chilenas. Investigación cuantitativa cuasi-experimental, con una muestra de 22 estudiantes mujeres de pregrado (grupo experimental = 10 y grupo control = 12). Las variables fueron: ansiedad-rasgo (A-R) y ansiedad-estado (A-E), además de variables físicas como antropometría, consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2máx) y fuerza prensil. El análisis estadístico se realizó a través de un ANOVA mixto para todas las variables. En nivel de significancia fue de p < 0,05. Los resultados evidenciaron cambios no significativos en los distintos niveles de A-R ni A-E luego de la aplicación del programa de Zumba® (p > 0,05), tampoco hubo cambios en las otras variables de estudio (p > 0,05). Al término de la intervención, no se observaron efectos del programa de Zumba® sobre los distintos niveles de A-R y A-E, como tampoco sobre variables antropométricas, VO2máx ni fuerza prensil


Several investigations have specified that the implementation of physical activity programs improve mental health. However, there are still doubts about the benefits on the population taking part in Zumba® programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a Zumba® based working out program on the levels of anxiety-trait and anxiety-state in Chilean university students. It was a quantitative, cuasi-experimental study with a sample of 22 undergraduate female students (experimental group = 10 and control group = 12). The variables were anxiety-trait (A-T) and anxiety-state (A-S), in addition to physical variables, such as anthropometry, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and grip strength. A statistical analysis was performed through a mixed ANOVA. The level of significance for all analyses was p < 0.05. The results showed no significant changes in the different levels of A-T or A-S (p > 0.05), there were also no changes in the other variables (p > 0.05). At the end of the intervention, no effects of the Zumba® program were observed on the different levels of A-T and A-S, nor on anthropometric variables, VO2max or grip strength


Várias investigações determinaram que a implementação de programas de atividade física melhora a saúde mental. No entanto, ainda existem dúvidas sobre os benefícios dos programas Zumba® na população que pratica. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos de um programa de exercícios físicos baseado no Zumba®, sobre níveis de Ansiedade-Traço e Ansiedade-Estado em estudantes universitários chilenos. Pesquisa quantitativa quase experimental, com uma amostra de 22 estudantes do sexo feminino (grupo experimental [GE] = 10 e grupo controle [GC] = 12). As variáveis foram: Ansiedade-Traço (A-T) e Ansiedade-Estado (A-E), ambas avaliadas pelo STAI Trait State Anxiety Questionnaire, além de variáveis físicas como antropometria, consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2máx) e força pré-trilateral. A análise estatística foi realizada através de uma ANOVA mista para todas as variáveis e uma tabela de contingência por meio do Qui-Quadrado de Pearson para os diferentes níveis de A-T e A-E. O nível de significância para todas as análises foi de p <0,05. Os resultados não mostraram alterações significativas em todas as variáveis do estudo após a aplicação do programa Zumba® (p> 0,05); também não houve diferenças nos diferentes níveis de A-T ou A-E (p> 0,05). Ao final da intervenção, não foram observados efeitos do programa Zumba® sobre diferentes níveis de A-R e A-E, nem nas variáveis antropométricas, VO2máx ou força preênsil


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dança/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atividade Motora , Ansiedade/reabilitação , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Chile , Antropometria , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos de Casos e Controles
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