Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.349
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1229-1236, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913161

RESUMO

Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the degree of accuracy of age-based weight estimation methods in assessing the weight of the Nigerian child. Method: The weights of one thousand, four hundred and fifty-six (1,456) children were measured and compared with the updated Advanced Paediatric Life Support (APLS), Best guess, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods. Result: The updated APLS, Nelson and Luscombe & Owen methods underestimated the weights in younger children while overestimating in older ones. Best guess overestimated the weights across all ages. The Nelson formula had the best agreement within 10% and 20% of the measured weights among all methods. A linear regression analysis produced an equation for weight estimation: weight (W) = 2.058 Y + 9.925, where W is weight in kilogram and Y is the age in years. Conclusion: None of the weight estimation formulae assessed was entirely accurate in our study, though the Nelson method showed superior agreement.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Peso Corporal , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21315, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that caesarean section (CS) is associated with increased risk of childhood obesity, asthma, and coeliac disease. The gut microbiota of CS-born babies differs to those born vaginally, possibly due to reduced exposure to maternal vaginal bacteria during birth. Vaginal seeding is a currently unproven practice intended to reduce such differences, so that the gut microbiota of CS-born babies is similar to that of babies born vaginally. Our pilot study, which uses oral administration as a novel form of vaginal seeding, will assess the degree of maternal strain transfer and overall efficacy of the procedure for establishing normal gut microbiota development. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Protocol for a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of a previously untested method of vaginal seeding (oral administration) in 30 CS-born babies. A sample of maternal vaginal bacteria is obtained prior to CS, and mixed with 5 ml sterile water to obtain a supernatant. Healthy babies are randomized at 1:1 to receive active treatment (3 ml supernatant) or placebo (3 ml sterile water). A reference group of 15 non-randomized vaginal-born babies are also being recruited. Babies' stool samples will undergo whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing to identify potential differences in community structure between CS babies receiving active treatment compared to those receiving placebo at age 1 month (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include differences in overall gut community between CS groups (24 hours, 3 months); similarity of CS-seeded and placebo gut profiles to vaginally-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); degree of maternal vaginal strain transfer in CS-born babies (24 hours, 1 and 3 months); anthropometry (1 and 3 months) and body composition (3 months). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval by the Northern A Health and Disability Ethics Committee (18/NTA/49). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618000339257).


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853237

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Globally, the prevalence rate of preterm birth ranges from 47.5 to 137 per 1000 live births. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of preterm birth is 10.1%. Several anthropometric parameters, particularly, head circumference and foot length(FL) have been used as a proxy measure for gestational age(GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of newborn foot length as a screening tool to identify preterm newborns and correlation factors at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital (UOG CSH), Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 205 newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit, UOG CSH. Systematic sampling technique was employed. Optimal cutoff newborn foot length and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to assess the power of foot length measurement to diagnosis prematurity. RESULTS: The mean foot length was 7.41±0.67 cm with a range of 5.4-8.6 cm. Gestational age had a significant strong positive correlation with foot length(r = 0.865). The regression equation derived was GA = 4.5*FL + 3.61. Foot length had strong power (AUC = 0.99) to differentiate preterm from term newborns. A threshold newborn foot length of ≤7.35 cm had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.5% and 96.3%, respectively to predict prematurity. CONCLUSION: Foot length had a high sensitivity and specificity in identifying preterm newborns, making it a reliable tool to identify preterm birth in a rural setting.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Etiópia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1187, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernourished people have an increased risk of premature mortality from both infectious and non-communicable diseases. Aside from screening purposes, assessment of nutritional status is a useful tool in management and evaluation of various chronic diseases. Body-Mass-Index (BMI) is today the most commonly used marker of nutritional status however, this method presents a challenge in many low resource settings and immobile patients. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is another anthropometric measure that requires minimal equipment and little training. So far, MUAC cutoffs for undernutrition are well established in children < 5 years but there is still no consensus for a specific cutoff in adults. The objective of this study was to compare MUAC with BMI and suggest a MUAC cut-off corresponding to a BMI of 18.5 kg/m2 to identify underweight in adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two urban public hospitals in Nepal. The following variables where collected: MUAC, weight, height, sex, age and self-reported medical history. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: < 19 years of age, pregnancy and oedema. Sensitivity and specificity for a MUAC value corresponding to BMI < 18.5 was calculated. ROC analysis was performed for male and female as well as Pearson's correlation of MUAC and BMI. RESULTS: A total of 302 people between 18 and 86 years of age, 197 women and 105 men, were included. Of these, 90 people suffered from rheumatic heart disease. MUAC was highly correlated with BMI in both women r = 0.889 and men r = 0.846. Best statistically derived MUAC cutoff corresponding to a BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was 24.5 cm (Youdens Index = 0.75; sensitivity 92.86; specificity 82.48), with high predictive value (AUROCC> 0.9). The setting based optimal MUAC cutoff was also 24.5 cm. No considerable variation was found in sex- and disease specific subgroups. CONCLUSION: MUAC is strongly correlated with BMI in adults in Nepal. For simplicity, a MUAC of 24.5 cm is the optimal statistically and setting based cutoff in both women and men to identify underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2).


Assuntos
Braço , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria/métodos , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Athletes and military personnel are both at risk of disabling injuries due to extreme physical activity. A method to predict which individuals might be more susceptible to injury would be valuable, especially in the military where basic recruits may be discharged from service due to injury. We postulate that certain body characteristics may be used to predict risk of injury with physical activity. METHODS: US Army basic training recruits between the ages of 17 and 21 (N = 17,680, 28% female) were scanned for uniform fitting using the 3D body imaging scanner, Human Solutions of North America at Fort Jackson, SC. From the 3D body imaging scans, a database consisting of 161 anthropometric measurements per basic training recruit was used to predict the probability of discharge from the US Army due to injury. Predictions were made using logistic regression, random forest, and artificial neural network (ANN) models. Model comparison was done using the area under the curve (AUC) of a ROC curve. RESULTS: The ANN model outperformed two other models, (ANN, AUC = 0.70, [0.68,0.72], logistic regression AUC = 0.67, [0.62,0.72], random forest AUC = 0.65, [0.61,0.70]). CONCLUSIONS: Body shape profiles generated from a three-dimensional body scanning imaging in military personnel predicted dischargeable physical injury. The ANN model can be programmed into the scanner to deliver instantaneous predictions of risk, which may provide an opportunity to intervene to prevent injury.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Aprendizado de Máquina , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/educação , Modelos Estatísticos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 534-542, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193861

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad que afecta en gran medida a la región de las Américas. Esta condición implica un aumento de la morbimortalidad y el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas, como las enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes tipo 2 y algunos tipos de cáncer. La prevalencia de exceso de peso en Costa Rica fue del 59,7 % y del 77,3 % en mujeres de 20 a 44 años y de 45 a 65 años, respectivamente, y del 62,4 % en hombres de 20-65 años en el periodo 2008-2009; sin embargo, se desconoce cómo ha evolucionado esta condición en la última década. OBJETIVO: describir el perfil antropométrico y la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en la población urbana costarricense según características sociodemográficas y nivel de actividad física. MÉTODOS: entre noviembre de 2014 y mayo de 2015 se seleccionó una muestra representativa de la población urbana, conformada por 677 personas entre 20 y 65 años de edad. Se realizaron mediciones de talla, peso, circunferencia de cintura y cuello y se determinó la prevalencia de obesidad y la obesidad abdominal y cervical, según los puntos de corte establecidos para los respectivos indicadores. RESULTADOS: se encontró una prevalencia de exceso de peso (sobrepeso y obesidad) del 68,5 % en la población urbana costarricense, mayor en las mujeres que en los hombres (73,8 %), y en las personas mayores de 35 años (82,2 %). Además, el 70,3 % de la población presentó obesidad abdominal y el 46,8 % presentó una circunferencia de cuello aumentada. CONCLUSIONES: en Costa Rica, la prevalencia de obesidad encontrada es notablemente superior respecto a otras regiones del mundo y se ha incrementado en relación a la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 2008-2009, por lo que su abordaje se hace prioritario con el fin de prevenir la incidencia y prevalencia de enfermedades cardiovasculares y metabólicas y así disminuir su impacto, tanto para la salud del individuo como en los costes implicados en su atención


INTRODUCTION: obesity is a disease that greatly affects the region of the Americas. This condition implies an increase risk of developing serious health outcomes such as cardiometabolic disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. The prevalence of excess weight in Costa Rica was 59.7 % and 77.3 % in women aged 20 to 44 years old and 45 to 65 years old respectively, and 62,4 % in men aged 20-65 years old, in the period of 2008-2009, however, it is unknown how this condition was evolved. OBJECTIVE: to describe the anthropometric profile and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Costa Rican urban population according to sociodemographic characteristics and level of physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a representative sample of the urban population was selected between November 2014 and May 2015, comprising 677 people between 20 and 65 years old. Measures of height, weight, and waist and neck circumference were measured and the prevalence of obesity, abdominal and cervical obesity was determined, according to the cut-off points established for each indicator. RESULTS: the prevalence of excess weight (overweight and obesity) was 68.5 % among urban Costa Rican population, being higher for women (73.8 %), and for those participants over 35 years old (82.2 %). A 70.3 % of the population presented abdominal obesity and 46,8 % cervical obesity. CONCLUSIONS: in Costa Rica, the prevalence of obesity found is high compared to other regions of the world and has increased in relation to the National Nutrition Survey 2008-2009. The approach to obesity must be prioritized in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and thus reduce the impact of these diseases on the health of the individual and the economic costs of health care


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Antropometria/métodos , População Urbana , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Costa Rica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We propose a new method to calculate proptosis by using the simple Heron's formula and analyze its feasibility. METHOD: It was a none-inferiority trial. The registration number was ChiCTR1900026490. The absolute value of proptosis in 120 eyes, 60 patients without eye injury or diseases, was measured by computed tomography (CT) and simple Heron's formula. We did regression analysis and analyzed the differences between the two methods with Medcalc software version 19.0.4. The result was showed by Passing-Bablok regression analysis diagram and Bland and Altman plot. RESULTS: The Passing-Bablok showed that the result of proptosis measured by CT and simple Heron's formula showed good positive correlation. A 95% limit of agreement in proptosis between CT and Heron's formula method was -0.46 to 0.54 mm in right eye and -0.45 to 0.46 mm in left eye. 1.66% (1/60) point was outside 95% LoA in both eyes. Moreover, a 95% limit of agreement between CT and Heron's formula method was -0.42 to 0.56 mm in difference of both eyes. 3.33% (2/60) points were outside 95% LoA. The points in all Bland and Altman plots were lower than 5%. It means that the results of comparison between the two methods had a good consistency in the measurement of proptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Heron's formula could be applied to calculate proptosis and has a good consistency compared with computed tomography (CT). This method is practical in proptosis assessment because of its accuracy, reliability and simplicity.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Exoftalmia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antropometria/instrumentação , Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent overweight and obesity is a global public health problem, associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Recently, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) has been suggested as a screening tool to identify overweight and obesity among school-age children and early adolescents (5-14 years). However, little is known about the potential use of MUAC in the late adolescence period (15-19 years). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the performance of MUAC to identify overweight (including obesity) in the late adolescence period in Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 851 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We collected anthropometric data including MUAC, weight and height with the help of trained field workers. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to examine the validity of MUAC compared to BMI Z score in identifying adolescents with overweight or obesity. Furthermore, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), proportion of correctly classified, positive, and negative likelihood ratio for the proposed optimal cut-offs. RESULTS: MUAC was strongly correlated with BMI Z score with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.81 (95% CI; 0.79-0.84). The optimal MUAC cut-off for identifying adolescents with overweight or obesity was 27.7 cm for males and 27.9 cm for females. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.96 (95% CI; 0.93-0.98) for males and 0.96 (95% CI; 0.94-0.98) for females. The accuracy level of MUAC to identify adolescents with overweight (including obesity) was high for both sexes (overall a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 90.3%). CONCLUSIONS: MUAC has relatively equivalent accuracy with BMI Z score to identify overweight and obesity in adolescents. Hence, MUAC could be used as an alternative tool for surveillance and screening of overweight in adolescents aged 15-19 years.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Antropometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 665-669, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098304

RESUMO

Lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass is a key body composition trait related to health and performance. Considering the relevance of lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass in soccer players, the assessment and monitoring of this variable with a low-cost tool would be of great value in order to improve performance through training and nutritional interventions. This study aimed to develop a multiple regression model in order to validate, through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, a novel equation to predict lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass in young soccer players using anthropometric variables. Forty-two soccer players of the Chilean National Team (age, 17.1±1.3 years; body mass, 70.0±6.8 kg; height, 175.0±6.6 cm) underwent anthropometrically and body composition assessments. Forward stepwise linear regression was used to develop the equation to estimate the lower-limb appendicular muscle mass. The estimated results were compared with measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The best predictor model to estimate lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass was (kg): (-21.268 + (0.087*height) - (0.853*middle thigh circumference) - (0.329*middle thigh skinfold) + (1.136*corrected middle thigh circumference) + (0.306*calf circumference)) (R2= 0.83). The lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass estimated by the equation and measured by DXA were similar (14.71±1.72 kg vs 14.76±1.89 kg, respectively), and have a good concordance according to Bland-Altman method (mean difference: 0.049 kg; 95 % IC: -1.481 to 1.578 kg) and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (0.91; 95 % CI: 0.85 - 0.96) methods. In conclusion, the predictive equation is a valid, easy to calculate, and a low-cost tool to predict lower-limbs appendicular muscle mass in young soccer players.


La masa muscular de los miembros inferiores es un factor antropométrico clave relacionado a la salud y el rendimiento deportivo. Considerando la relevancia de este factor en jugadores de fútbol, la medición y monitoreo de esta variable a través de herramientas prácticas de bajo costo puede ser de gran utilidad para lograr objetivos relacionados a mejorar el rendimiento a través del entrenamiento e intervenciones nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue desarrollar un modelo de regresión lineal con el objetivo de validar una nueva ecuación predictiva de la masa muscular de miembros inferiores en jugadores jóvenes de fútbol. Cuarenta y dos jugadores jóvenes de fútbol pertenecientes a la Selección Nacional Chilena (17,1±1,3 años; 70,0±6,8 kg; 175,0±6,6 cm) fueron sometidos a evaluaciones antropométricas y de composición corporal. La regresión lineal de pasos hacia adelante fue utilizada para desarrollar la ecuación para estimar la masa muscular de miembros inferiores. Los resultados estimados fueron comparados con medición de absorciometría de rayos X de doble energía (DEXA). El mejor modelo predictor de masa muscular de miembros inferiores (kg) fue: (-21,268 + (0,087*talla) - (0,853*circunferencia de muslo medio) - (0,329*pliegue de muslo medio) + (1,136*circunferencia de muslo medio corregida) + (0,306*circunferencia de pantorrilla)) (R2= 0,83). La masa muscular estimada por la ecuación y la medida por DEXA fue similar (14,71±1,72 kg vs 14,76±1,89 kg, respectivamente), y tuvo una buena concordancia acorde al método Bland-Altman (diferencia promedio: 0,049 kg; 95 % IC: -1,481 to 1,578 kg) y el coeficiente de correlación de concordancia de Lin (0,91; 95 % CI: 0,85 - 0,96). En conclusión, la ecuación predictiva desarrollada en este estudio es una herramienta válida, fácil de calcular y de bajo costo que permite estimar la masa muscular de miembros inferiores en futbolistas jóvenes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Futebol , Antropometria/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Inferior/anatomia & histologia , Composição Corporal , Modelos Lineares , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
11.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(3): 257-268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of bioimpedance (BIA) and skinfolds thickness (SF) in body fat percentage measuring (%BF) compared to the reference method dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Brazilian reproductive age women, as well as to estimate of inter- and intra-observer precision for SF. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 170 women aged 18-37 years with BMI between 18 and 39.9 kg/m2 were selected for this cross-sectional study. Body density was evaluated through equations proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (1980) (EqJPW) and Petroski (1995) (EqPET), and %BF was estimated by BIA, DXA and Siri's formula (1961). The SF were measured by two separate observers: A and B (to determine inter-observer variability), who measured the folds at three times with 10-minute interval between them (to determine intra-observer variability - we used only observer A). RESULTS: The %BF by DXA was higher than those measured by SF and BIA (p<0.01, for all) of 90 volunteers. The Lin coefficient of agreement was considered satisfactory for %BF values obtained by EqJPW and BIA (0.55) and moderate (0.76) for sum of SF (ΣSF) values obtained by EqJPW and EqPET. No agreement was observed for the values obtained by SF (EqJPW and EqPET), BIA and DXA. Analysis of inter- and intra-observer of 59 volunteers showed that different measures of SF thickness met acceptability standards, as well as the % BF. CONCLUSION: BIA and SF measurements may underestimate %BF compared with DXA. In addition, BIA and SF measurements are not interchangeable with DXA. However, our results suggest the equation proposed by Jackson, Pollock and Ward (three skinfolds) compared to BIA are interchangeable to quantify the %BF in Brazilian women in reproductive age. Furthermore, our results show acceptable accuracy for intra- and inter-observer skinfold measurements. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):257-68.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Pregas Cutâneas , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(4): 540-547, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476102

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish an extended morphometric dataset regarding the stapedius muscle for anatomists and otologists. The tympanic cavity of ten cadavers (five females, five males) aged with 75.70 ± 13.75 years was bilaterally dissected. Morphometric properties of the stapedius muscle (i.e., its muscular belly and tendon) and its relationship with the neighborhood structures including the facial nerve was evaluated. The length of the entire stapedius muscle was found as 4.80 ± 1.13 mm. The depth between the entrance of the external auditory canal and stapedius muscle was measured as 18.23 ± 2.30 mm. The incudostapedial joint and stapedial tendon were found to be 1.66 ± 0.25 mm and 1.18 ± 0.19 mm away from the facial nerve, respectively. The stapedial tendon length was standardized as five types: Type 1, extremely short tendon (under 0.5 mm), 5% of cases; Type 2, short tendon (between 0.5 and 1 mm), 30% of cases; Type 3, normal tendon (between 1 and 2 mm), 55% of cases; Type 4, long tendon (between 2 and 2.5 mm), 10% of cases; and Type 5, extremely long tendon (above 2.5 mm), no cases. Our findings showed that the stapedius tendon size in adults was quite similar to fetuses. Therefore, probably entire muscle dimension does not alter after birth. Considering the concordance between direct anatomic (our findings) and radiologic measurements (literature findings) of the stapedius muscle, preoperative radiological evaluation may be important for otologists in terms of the choice of surgical tools such as diamond burr sizes. Due to the lack of standardization regarding the evaluation of the stapedius tendon size (i.e., extremely short or extremely long), we defined the tendons below 0.5 mm as extremely short (Type 1) and above 2.5 mm as extremely long (Type 5).


Assuntos
Estapédio/anatomia & histologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria/métodos , Cadáver , Orelha Média/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tendões/anatomia & histologia
13.
Clin Orthop Surg ; 12(2): 158-165, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489536

RESUMO

Background: This study was done to study the anthropometry of nonarthritic Asian knees; to determine the differences in morphology between knees of different ethnicities and to compare the knee anthropometry values with sizes of available knee implants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 100 nonarthritic Indian knees were analyzed. Anteroposterior (AP) length, mediolateral (ML) length, and aspect ratio of the distal femur and proximal tibia, patellar length, and patellar tendon length were measured. These values were compared with values of other ethnicities from literature. The values were also compared with sizes of available knee implants and evaluated for mismatch. Results: All the parameters of female knees were significantly smaller than those of male knees (p < 0.05). The distal femur of Indian knees resembled that of Chinese knees with similar AP and ML lengths and aspect ratio. The distal femur of Indian knees had a significantly smaller AP, ML, and aspect ratio than those of Hispanic knees did. In comparison to Caucasian distal femur, Indian knees had smaller AP and ML lengths and larger aspect ratio. In terms of the proximal tibia, the Indian knees were smaller than Chinese (only ML), Caucasian (AP and ML) and Hispanic (AP and ML) knees. On comparison with implant sizes, there was a mismatch between the distal femur morphology and the dimensions of all implants. For a given AP length, the ML dimensions of all implants were smaller than the measured ML length of the knee. However, the tibial components of all the studied implants correlated well with the tibial morphology. Conclusions: Distinct anthropometric differences exist between knees of different ethnicities. The knees of females were smaller than the knees of males. In Indian knees, the ML-AP aspect ratio of the distal femur was higher than that of the currently available femoral components. These results suggest the need for race-specific knee implants.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Articulação do Joelho/anatomia & histologia , Prótese do Joelho , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tape measurement is a commonly used method in the clinical assessment of lymphedema. However, few studies have assessed the precision and reliability of tape measurement in assessing head and neck lymphedema. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and precision of using tape measurement, performed by different evaluators, for the assessment of head and neck lymphedema. METHODS: This study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer hospital. Between January and December 2019, 50 patients with head and neck cancers and 50 normal subjects were enrolled. Each subject was examined using tape measurements for 7 point-to-point distances of facial landmarks, 3 circumferences of the neck (upper, middle, and lower), and 2 circumferences of the face (vertical and oblique) by 3 random examiners. Test precision and reliability were assessed with the within-subject standard deviation (Sw) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. RESULTS: Overall, the standard deviation of the tape measurements varied in the range of 4.6 mm to 18.3 mm. The measurement of distance between the tragus and mouth angle (Sw: 4.6 mm) yielded the highest precision, but the reliability (ICC: 0.66) was moderate. The reliabilities of neck circumference measurements (ICC: 0.90-0.95) were good to excellent, but the precisions (Sw: 8.3-12.3 mm) were lower than those of point-to-point facial measurements (Sw: 4.6-8.8 mm). CONCLUSIONS: The different methods of tape measurements varied in precision and reliability. Thus, clinicians should not rely on a single measurement when evaluating head and neck lymphedema.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Linfedema/patologia , Adulto , Antropometria/instrumentação , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/instrumentação , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/normas , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Feminino , Cabeça/patologia , Humanos , Linfedema/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço/patologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Picky eating is common, yet little is known about trajectories of picky eating in childhood. Our objectives were to examine trajectories of child picky eating in low-income US children from ages 4 to 9 years and associations of those trajectories with participant characteristics, including child BMI z score (BMIz) and maternal feeding-behavior trajectories. METHODS: Mother-child dyads (N = 317) provided anthropometry and reported on picky eating and maternal feeding behaviors via questionnaires at child ages 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 years. At baseline, mothers reported on demographics and child emotional regulation. Trajectories of picky eating and maternal feeding behaviors were identified by using latent class analysis. Bivariate analyses examined associations of picky-eating trajectory membership with baseline characteristics and maternal feeding-behavior trajectory memberships. A linear mixed model was used to examine the association of BMIz with picky-eating trajectories. RESULTS: Three trajectories of picky eating emerged: persistently low (n = 92; 29%), persistently medium (n = 181; 57%), and persistently high (n = 44; 14%). Membership in the high picky-eating trajectory was associated with higher child emotional lability and lower child emotional regulation. Picky eating was associated with restriction (P = .01) and demandingness (P < .001) trajectory memberships, such that low picky eating was associated with low restriction and high picky eating was associated with high demandingness. Medium and high picky-eating trajectories were associated with lower BMIz. CONCLUSIONS: Picky eating appears to be traitlike in childhood and may be protective against higher BMIz.


Assuntos
Seletividade Alimentar , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/tendências , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide including Bangladesh. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of general and abdominal obesity in rural and urban women in Bangladesh. METHODS: A total of 450 adult women aged ≥ 18 years were recruited from rural (n = 210) and urban (n = 240) areas of four administrative regions (Chattagram, Dhaka and Rajshahi and Sylhet) of Bangladesh. Both socio-demographic and anthropometric data were recorded in this study. WHO proposed cut-off values were used for the Asian population for defining general and abdominal obesity. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of general and abdominal obesity for Bangladeshi women. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was 28% and 49%, respectively. Urban women had a significantly higher prevalence of both general and abdominal obesity (30.9% and 58.6%, respectively) than in the rural women (26.6% and 38.1%, respectively) (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). As region comparison, the prevalence of general obesity was higher in the Dhaka region (39.3%) compared to the Chattragram (23.3%), Rajshahi (23.9%) and Sylhet (3.5%) regions. On the other hand, abdominal obesity was more frequent among participants in Sylhet (72.4%) and Dhaka regions (61.5%), compared to the Chattagram (27.4%) and Rajshahi (37.3%) regions. A wide variation has been observed on the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in the different age groups of the four regions. In regression analysis, a high socioeconomic status (ref: low socioeconomic level), low education level (ref: higher education), low physical activity (ref: adequate physical activity) and middle age (ref: ≥ 30 years of age) were significant risk factors for general and abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity was higher among participants living in urban areas. Physical inactivity, middle age, high socioeconomic status and low education level were associated with the increased prevalence of general and abdominal obesity. Such a high prevalence of general and abdominal obesity is a health concern for Bangladeshi women; therefore, public awareness and effective health intervention strategies are needed to address these conditions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
17.
Am Heart J ; 224: 85-97, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with congenital heart disease are at risk for growth failure due to inadequate nutrient intake and increased metabolic demands. We examined the relationship between anthropometric indices of nutrition (height-for-age z-score [HAZ], weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], weight-for-height z-score [WHZ]) and outcomes in a large sample of children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. METHODS: Patients in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database having index cardiac surgery at age 1 month to 10 years were included. Indices were calculated by comparing patients' weight and height to population norms from the World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outcomes included operative mortality, composite mortality or major complication, major postoperative infection, and postoperative length of stay. For each outcome and index, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (for mortality, composite outcome, and infection) and adjusted relative change in median (for postoperative length of stay) for a 1-unit decrease in index were estimated using mixed-effects logistic and log-linear regression models. RESULTS: Every unit decrease in HAZ was associated with 1.40 aOR of mortality (95% CI 1.32-1.48), and every unit decrease in WAZ was associated with 1.33 aOR for mortality (95% CI 1.25-1.41). The relationship between WHZ and outcome was nonlinear, with aOR of mortality of 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.93) for 1-unit decrease when WHZ ≥ 0 and a nonsignificant association for WHZ < 0. Trends for other outcomes were similar. Overall, the incidence of low nutritional indices was similar for 1-ventricle and 2-ventricle patients. Children between the age of 1 month and 1 year and those with lesions associated with pulmonary overcirculation had the highest incidence of low nutritional indices. CONCLUSIONS: Lower HAZ and WAZ, suggestive of malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in infants and young children. Higher WHZ over zero, suggestive of obesity, is also associated with adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Estado Nutricional , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003126, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal growth in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is directly linked to maternal glycaemic control; however, this relationship may be altered by oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Unlike insulin, such drugs cross the placenta and may thus have independent effects on fetal or placental tissues. We investigated the association between GDM treatment and fetal, neonatal, and childhood growth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PubMed, Ovid Embase, Medline, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched (inception to 12 February 2020). Outcomes of GDM-affected pregnancies randomised to treatment with metformin, glyburide, or insulin were included. Studies including preexisting diabetes or nondiabetic women were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed eligibility and risk of bias, with conflicts resolved by a third reviewer. Maternal outcome measures were glycaemic control, weight gain, and treatment failure. Offspring anthropometric parameters included fetal, neonatal, and childhood weight and body composition data. Thirty-three studies (n = 4,944), from geographical locations including Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, and the United States/Latin America, met eligibility criteria. Twenty-two studies (n = 2,801) randomised women to metformin versus insulin, 8 studies (n = 1,722) to glyburide versus insulin, and 3 studies (n = 421) to metformin versus glyburide. Eleven studies (n = 2,204) reported maternal outcomes. No differences in fasting blood glucose (FBS), random blood glucose (RBS), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were reported. No studies reported fetal growth parameters. Thirty-three studies (n = 4,733) reported birth weight. Glyburide-exposed neonates were heavier at birth (58.20 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.10-106.31, p = 0.02) with increased risk of macrosomia (odds ratio [OR] 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.89, p = 0.04) versus neonates of insulin-treated mothers. Metformin-exposed neonates were born lighter (-73.92 g, 95% CI -114.79 to -33.06 g, p < 0.001) with reduced risk of macrosomia (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79, p < 0.001) than insulin-exposed neonates. Metformin-exposed neonates were born lighter (-191.73 g, 95% CI -288.01 to -94.74, p < 0.001) with a nonsignificant reduction in macrosomia risk (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.08-1.19, I2 = 0%, p = 0.09) versus glyburide-exposed neonates. Glyburide-exposed neonates had a nonsignificant increase in total fat mass (103.2 g, 95% CI -3.91 to 210.31, p = 0.06) and increased abdominal (0.90 cm, 95% CI 0.03-1.77, p = 0.04) and chest circumferences (0.80 cm, 95% CI 0.07-1.53, p = 0.03) versus insulin-exposed neonates. Metformin-exposed neonates had decreased ponderal index (-0.13 kg/m3, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.00, p = 0.04) and reduced head (-0.21, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.03, p = 0.03) and chest circumferences (-0.34 cm, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.05, p = 0.02) versus the insulin-treated group. Metformin-exposed neonates had decreased ponderal index (-0.09 kg/m3, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.01, p = 0.03) versus glyburide-exposed neonates. Study limitations include heterogeneity in dosing, heterogeneity in GDM diagnostic criteria, and few studies reporting longitudinal growth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal randomisation to glyburide resulted in heavier neonates with a propensity to increased adiposity versus insulin- or metformin-exposed groups. Metformin-exposed neonates were lighter with reduced lean mass versus insulin- or glyburide-exposed groups, independent of maternal glycaemic control. Oral anti-hyperglycaemics cross the placenta, so effects on fetal anthropometry could result from direct actions on the fetus and/or placenta. We highlight a need for further studies examining the effects of intrauterine exposure to antidiabetic agents on longitudinal growth, and the importance of monitoring fetal growth and maternal glycaemic control when treating GDM. This review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42019134664/CRD42018117503).


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Macrossomia Fetal/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Antropometria/métodos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Glibureto/efeitos adversos , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
19.
Am Heart J ; 224: 192-200, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growth abnormalities in single-ventricle survivors may reduce quality of life (QoL) and exercise capacity. METHODS: This multicenter, longitudinal analysis evaluated changes in height and body mass index (BMI) compared to population norms and their relationship to mortality, ventricular morphology, QoL, and exercise capacity in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan studies. RESULTS: Fontan 1 (F1) included 546 participants (12 ±â€¯3.4 years); Fontan 2 (F2), 427 (19 ±â€¯3.4 years); and Fontan 3 (F3), 362 (21 ±â€¯3.5 years), with ~60% male at each time point. Height z-score was -0.67 ±â€¯-1.27, -0.60 ±â€¯1.34, and- 0.43 ±â€¯1.14 at F1-F3, lower compared to norms at all time points (P ≤ .001). BMI z-score was similar to population norms. Compared to survivors, participants who died had lower height z-score (P ≤ .001). Participants with dominant right ventricle (n = 112) had lower height z-score (P ≤ .004) compared to dominant left (n = 186) or mixed (n = 64) ventricular morphologies. Higher height z-score was associated with higher Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for the total score (slope = 2.82 ±â€¯0.52; P ≤ .001). Increase in height z-score (F1 to F3) was associated with increased oxygen consumption (slope = 2.61 ±â€¯1.08; P = .02), whereas, for participants >20 years old, an increase in BMI (F1 to F3) was associated with a decrease in oxygen consumption (slope = -1.25 ±â€¯0.33; P ≤ .001). CONCLUSIONS: Fontan survivors, especially those with right ventricular morphology, are shorter when compared to the normal population but have similar BMI. Shorter stature was associated with worse survival. An increase in height z-score over the course of the study was associated with better QoL and exercise capacity; an increase in BMI was associated with worse exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Técnica de Fontan/métodos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 511, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) are both commonly used as acute malnutrition screening criteria. However, there exists disparity between the groups identified as malnourished by them. Thus, here we aim to investigate the clinical features and linkage with chronicity of the acute malnutrition cases identified by either WHZ or MUAC. Besides, there exists evidence indicating that fat restoration is disproportionately rapid compared to that of muscle gain in hospitalized malnourished children but related research at community level is lacking. In this study we suggest proxy measure to inspect body composition restoration responding to malnutrition management among the malnourished children. METHODS: The data of this study is from World Vision South Sudan's emergency nutrition program from 2006 to 2012 (4443 children) and the nutrition survey conducted in 2014 (3367 children). The study investigated clinical presentations of each type of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) by WHZ (SAM-WHZ) or MUAC (SAM-MUAC), and analysed correlation between each malnutrition and chronic malnutrition. Furthermore, we explored the pattern of body composition restoration during the recovery phase by comparing the relative velocity of MUAC3 with that of weight gain. RESULTS: As acutely malnourished children identified by MUAC more often share clinical features related to chronic malnutrition and minimal overlapping with malnourished children by WHZ, Therefore, MUAC only screening in the nutrition program would result in delayed identification of the malnourished children. CONCLUSIONS: The relative velocity of MUAC3 gain was suggested as a proxy measure for volume increase, and it was more prominent than that of weight gain among the children with SAM by WHZ and MUAC over all the restoring period. Based on this we made a conjecture about dominant fat mass gain over the period of CMAM program. Also, considering initial weight gain could be ascribed to fat mass increase, the current discharge criteria would leave the malnourished children at risk of mortality even after treatment due to limited restoration of muscle mass. Given this, further research should be followed including assessment of body composition for evidence to recapitulate and reconsider the current admission and discharge criteria for CMAM program.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sudão do Sul , Síndrome de Emaciação/diagnóstico , Ganho de Peso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA