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1.
J Card Surg ; 37(11): 3922-3924, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047411

RESUMO

A 77-year-old woman underwent mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty for severe mitral stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation with pulmonary hypertension. Two months later, the patient was readmitted because of marked edema. A new harsh pansystolic murmur was auscultated, and echocardiography revealed a jet from the left ventricle to the right atrium but no paravalvular leakage was detected at the mitral valve position. At operation, an 6 mm defect adjacent to the tricuspid annulus in the interatrial septum and detachment of the anterior edge of the tricuspid ring were detected. The defect was closed using a pericardial patch. An inadequate stitch at the anteroseptal commissure in the previous operation led to left ventricular-right atrial communication.


Assuntos
Comunicação Interventricular , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Idoso , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Comunicação Interventricular/complicações , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
3.
J Biomech ; 142: 111226, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963102

RESUMO

Barlow's Disease affects the entire mitral valve apparatus causing mitral regurgitation. Standard annuloplasty procedures lead to an average of 55% annular area reduction of the end diastolic pre-operative annular area in Barlow's diseased valves. Following annular reduction, mitral valvuloplasty may be needed, usually with special focus on the posterior leaflet. An in silico pipeline to perform annuloplasty by utilizing the pre- and -postoperative 3D echocardiographic recordings was developed. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that annuloplasty ring sizes based on a percentage (10%-25%) decrease of the pre-operative annular area at end diastole can result in sufficient coaptation area for the selected Barlow's diseased patient. The patient specific mitral valve geometry and finite element model were created from echocardiography recordings. The post-operative echocardiography was used to obtain the artificial ring geometry and displacements, and the motion of the papillary muscles after surgery. These were used as boundary conditions in our annuloplasty finite element analyses. Then, the segmented annuloplasty ring was scaled up to represent a 10%, 20% and 25% reduction of the pre-operative end diastolic annular area and implanted to the end diastolic pre-operative finite element model. The pre-operative contact area decrease was shown to be dependent on the annular dilation at late systole. Constraining the mitral valve from dilating excessively can be sufficient to achieve proper coaptation throughout systole. The finite element analyses show that the selected Barlow's diseased patient may benefit from an annuloplasty ring with moderate annular reduction alone.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/anatomia & histologia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/instrumentação , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 63(4): 529-535, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engineering of the Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PR-I) and Physio II (PR-II) rings (Edwards Lifesciences Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) combines flexibility with remodeling. PR-II is considered an improvement of PR-I, as it boasts of an improved shape, a double saddle, and a sewing cuff that reduces tension on sutures. Beyond the superior effect of the PR-II on the annular physiology, it has not been proven to be clinically better than the PR-I. This study compares the long-term clinical outcomes of MV repair for degenerative disease with these rings. METHODS: From 2004 to 2020, MV repair with Physio ring annuloplasty (group PR-I) was performed in 231 patients, and with Physio-II ring annuloplasty (group PR-II) in 255 patients. A propensity score-matching analysis was used to pair 104 in each group. Primary outcome was recurrent MR≥3 and secondary outcomes were long-term survival, cardiac death, and MV-related events (MVREs). The 15-year follow-up data were complete in 97.3% of patients. RESULTS: There were no differences in 15-year freedom from recurrent MR (P=0.721), survival and cardiac death between the matched groups (P=0.693 and P=0.135, respectively). MVREs, including cardiac death, pacemaker implantation, thromboembolism, bleeding, and reoperation were also similar between the matched groups (P=0.603). However, 5-year recurrent MR was significantly higher in PR-I than in PR-II (P=0.010). Multivariate analysis showed Barlow's disease and preoperative MR≥3 as risk factors for late MR recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Type of annuloplasty rings did not influence long-term clinical outcomes. Better annular dynamics seen in PR-II annuloplasty does not translate into superior freedom from recurrent MR.


Assuntos
Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Morte , Humanos , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 63(5): 624-631, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical effects of concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty (TA) in patients with mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation at the time of mitral valve surgery (MVS) remains indefinite. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis to determine the long-term clinical and echocardiographic effects of concomitant TA in patients undergoing MVS. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through January 2022 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies with adjusted outcomes that investigated outcomes of concomitant TA versus conservative management for mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in patients undergoing MVS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Two RCT and 11 observational studies included in the meta-analysis with a total of 3,953 patients underwent MVS with (N.=1837) or without (N.=2166) concomitant TA. Mean follow-up period ranged from 24 to 115.5 months. MVS with concomitant TA was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-1.55; P=0.34, I2=0%) compared with MVS alone. Similarly, heart failure events (HR 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.20; P=0.22, I2=0%) as well as rates of tricuspid reoperation (HR 0.55; 95% CI: 0.27-1.10; P=0.09, I2=1%) were comparable between the groups. However, MVS with concomitant TA was associated with a significant reduction in TR progression (HR 0.30; 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; P<0.00001, I2=11%). CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant TA for patients undergoing MVS was associated with similar long-term clinical outcomes compared to MVS alone. However, concomitant TA was associated with a significant reduction in TR progression. Longer follow-up is necessary to assess the effect on further clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487637

RESUMO

A woman with a history of congenital heart disease status post multiple valve operations including mitral valve repair presented with 2 months of low back pain and general malaise. Blood cultures returned positive for Gram-positive cocci. While transthoracic echocardiography did not identify vegetations, transoesophageal echocardiography visualised vegetations on the patient's mitral valve, which had previously undergone repair with annuloplasty. The patient was found to have infectious endocarditis (IE), caused by Gemella morbillorum The patient was treated with over 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Cases of Gemella-associated IE are rare and largely relegated to case reports. This report aims to contribute to the literature regarding this subject, and to further characterise the presentation and treatment of Gemella-associated IE. Additionally, this report emphasises the importance of maintaining a high suspicion of IE in a patient with non-specific malaise in the setting of prior cardiac valve operation.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Gemella , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/complicações , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos
7.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 70(9): 761-769, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to elucidate the mid-term outcomes and risk factors for recurrent mitral regurgitation after mitral valve (MV) surgery for atrial functional mitral regurgitation (AFMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 50 consecutive patients (median age 74 years; 29 men) who underwent mitral valve surgery for AFMR between January 2001 and January 2019. Mean atrial fibrillation duration was 12 years. During the follow-up period of 4.6 ± 4.4 years, 5 cardiac-related deaths were identified. Five- and 10-year freedom from cardiac-related death rate for all patients was 88.4% and 78.6%. In total, 42 patients underwent MV repair with mitral annuloplasty and 8 underwent MV replacement. Five- and 10-year freedom from cardiac-related death rate in patients who underwent MV repair was 93.1% and 82.7%, which was better than MV replacement (log rank p = 0.04). During the follow-up period, MR recurrence rate was 16.8% at 5 and 10 years for the patients who underwent MV repair. Univariate analysis showed that partial band annuloplasty and preoperative elevated left ventricular end-systolic volume index were risk factors for recurrent MR after MV repair. Multivariate analysis identified partial band annuloplasty as the independent predictor for recurrent MR during long-term follow-up after MV repair for AFMR. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent MV repair for AFMR could have an acceptable mid-term outcome. However, MVR might not improve the mid-term outcome in patients with AFMR. The use of partial bands for mitral annuloplasty would not be recommended in terms of recurrent MR mid-term.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 70(9): 793-803, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349037

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the long-term outcomes of the loop technique with ring annuloplasty for mitral regurgitation from our > 10-year experience. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 362 patients who underwent the loop technique with ring annuloplasty via median sternotomy or right mini-thoracotomy for mitral regurgitation. The median follow-up duration was 4.1 years (interquartile range 2.3-5.8 years). RESULTS: This study involved 147 women and 215 men (median age, 66.5 years). Mitral regurgitation was caused by Barlow's disease in 27 patients. Seven patients required reoperations (recurrent regurgitation caused by technical issues, n = 3; progression of degenerative disease, n = 4). The 5- and 10-year cumulative incidences of reoperation considering death as the competing event were 1.4% and 5.4%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year postoperative cumulative incidences of moderate-to-severe recurrent mitral regurgitation were 4.7% and 13.0%, respectively. Residual regurgitation ≥ mild (hazard ratio, 6.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.520-32.12; P = .012) was an independent risk factor for reoperation. The independent risk factors for moderate-to-severe recurrent regurgitation were residual regurgitation ≥ mild (hazard ratio, 9.60; 95% confidence interval, 3.042-30.31; P < .001) and the loop-in-loop technique (hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.058-10.90; P = .040). The median mean pressure gradient was sustained at almost 3.5 mmHg for > 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: The loop technique with ring annuloplasty provided excellent results with good hemodynamics beyond the mid-term. Residual regurgitation ≥ mild and the loop-in-loop technique may not be preferable for durable outcomes.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Idoso , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Card Surg ; 37(7): 1827-1834, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: After repair of degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR), the focus is on functional mitral stenosis (FMS) when there is a decline of mitral hemodynamics. Yet, the clinical impacts and a standardized definition are still undecided. Since common mitral hemodynamic parameters are influenced by transmitral flow, the aim of this study is to seek the impact of flow adjusted transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) by left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) on the midterm outcomes. METHODS: Three hundred one patients who had undergone isolated mitral valve repair for degenerative lesions with annuloplasty prosthesis between October 2012 and June 2019 were included. Postoperative adverse events occurred in 20 patients (6.6%). Flow adjusted TMPG was defined as TMPG/LVSV. RESULTS: Common mitral hemodynamic parameters were not associated with adverse events. By multivariable analysis, patients' age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mean TMPG/LVSV were isolated as independent predictors (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.05, 0.95, and 1.16; p = .037, .005, and .035). Flow adjusted TMPG was significantly higher in the full ring group compared to the partial band group (0.051 mmHg/ml, [0.038-0.068] vs. 0.041 mmHg/ml, [0.031-0.056]; p < .001) and had a significantly negative correlation with the size of the annuloplasty prosthesis (r = -0.37, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Conventional mitral hemodynamic parameters were not associated with adverse cardiac events after repair for DMR. Adjustment by flow has a potential to advance pressure gradient to a more sensitive indicator of FMS associated with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Estenose da Valva Mitral , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35234902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transapical Neochordae implantation (NC) allows beating heart mitral valve repair in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation. The aim of this single-centre, retrospective study was to compare outcomes of NC versus conventional surgical (CS) mitral valve repair. METHODS: Data of patients who underwent isolated mitral valve repair with NC or CS from January 2010 to December 2018 were collected. A propensity score matching analysis was performed to reduce confounding due to baseline differences between groups. The primary end point was overall all-cause mortality; secondary end points were freedom from reoperation, freedom from moderate (2+) and from severe (3+) mitral regurgitation (MR) and New York Heart Association functional class in the overall population and in patients with isolated P2 prolapse (type A anatomy). RESULTS: Propensity analysis selected 88 matched pairs. There was no 30-day mortality in the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed similar 5-year survival in the 2 groups. Patients undergoing NC showed worse freedom from moderate MR (≥2+) (57.6% vs 84.6%; P < 0.001) and from severe MR (3+) at 5-year follow-up: 78.1% vs 89.7% (P = 0.032). In patients with type A anatomy, freedom from moderate MR and from severe MR was similar between groups (moderate: 63.9% vs 74.6%; P = 0.21; severe: 79.3% vs 79%; P = 0.77 in NC and FS, respectively). Freedom from reoperation was lower in the NC group: 78.9% vs 92% (P = 0.022) but, in type A patients, it was similar: 79.7% and 85% (P = 0.75) in the NC and CS group, respectively. More than 90% of patients of both groups were in New York Heart Association class I and II at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Transapical beating-heart mitral chordae implantation can be considered as an alternative treatment to CS, especially in patients with isolated P2 prolapse.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Prolapso da Valva Mitral , Cordas Tendinosas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 23(3): 88, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345255

RESUMO

Until recently, conventional mitral valve surgery has been the treatment of choice even in secondary mitral regurgitation. Recent evidence, however, advocates the use of transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TEER) of the mitral valve. This has been reflected by the change in guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. We reviewed the literature to shed light on the risks and benefits of all interventions, surgical, transcatheter and guideline-directed medical therapy. Secondary mitral regurgitation occurs due to an imbalance between closing forces and tethering forces. Given the pathology extends beyond the valve alone, treatment should be directed at restoring the geometrical shape of the left ventricle alongside the valve. Myocardial revascularization plays a pivotal role in preventing recurrence. The role of papillary muscle approximation in addition to restrictive mitral annuloplasty should be considered in a select group of patients. We also reviewed the current literature on TEERs from the COAPT and Mitra-FR trials while highlighting the concept of proportionate/disproportionate MR which may help identify which patients benefit from mitral valve restoration. Treatment of this condition will require robust randomized trials alongside the use of state-of-the-art imaging technologies available with the full complement of the multidisciplinary team to ensure the best outcomes for each patient.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(6): 1839-1847, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare indirect mitral annuloplasty using the Carillon Mitral Contour System and edge-to-edge repair via MitraClip in atrial functional mitral regurgitation (aFMR). BACKGROUND: In patients with left ventricular dilation, both edge-to-edge repair and indirect mitral annuloplasty are effective in reducing mitral regurgitation, while no clinical trial has compared both interventional methods in aFMR. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center analysis, 41 patients with aFMR underwent either edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (MitraClip group, n = 20) or indirect annuloplasty (Carillon group, n = 21). RESULTS: Both treatment groups showed high procedural success (100%) and low complication rates. Both treatment groups showed a comparable reduction of New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification postimplantation, after 3- and 12-months follow-up. Quantitative reduction in echocardiographic FMR parameters was significantly pronounced in the MitraClip group (reduction in vena contracta MitraClip vs. Carillon: postimplantation -74.6 ± 25.8 vs. -29.1 ± 17.8%, 3-months follow-up -65.8 ± 31.2 vs. -33.9 ± 17.5%, 12-months follow-up -50.8 ± 27.9 vs. -23.9 ± 17.0%, p < 0.05). Qualitative mitral valve assessment showed improved FMR class postimplantation, at 3-and 12-months follow-up in both treatment groups. Edge-to-edge repair revealed better results with lower average FMR classification compared to indirect coronary sinus-based annuloplasty. After 12-months left atrial (LA) volume was significantly reduced in the Carillon group, while in the MitraClip group no LA remodeling was found (reduction in LA volume MitraClip vs. Carillon at 12 months: +9.6 ± 25.1% vs. -12.3 ± 12.7%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both indirect mitral valve annuloplasty and edge-to-edge repair are feasible and safe in patients with aFMR, while the reduction in FMR was pronounced in the edge-to-edge repair group.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 62(1)2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mitral regurgitation (MR) due to commissural prolapse or flail represents a pattern of valve dysfunction that can be treated, among other techniques, by suturing the margins of the anterior and posterior leaflets in the commissural area (commissural closure). The very long-term results of this technique have not been reported so far and represent the objective of this study. METHODS: A retrospective review of our institutional database was carried on querying for patients who underwent commissural closure and ring annuloplasty within the time frame 1997-2007 to provide a robust long-term assessment. Cumulative incidence function (CIF) using death as a competitive outcome was used to estimate cardiac death and reoperation for mitral valve replacement. To describe the time course of MR, we performed a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimating equations with a random intercept for correlated data. RESULTS: A total of 125 patients were included. At 15 years, the CIF for cardiac death, with non-cardiac death as a competitive event, was 8.0 ± 2.57% (95% confidence interval [3.88-13.93]). At 15 years, the CIF for reintervention for a mitral valve replacement with death as a competitive event was 5.0 ± 1.98%, 95% confidence interval [2.04-9.89]. No significant predictors of reintervention for mitral valve replacement were identified. At 5 years, the predicted rate of MR ≥3+ recurrence was 2.53% while it was 8.22% at 15 years. In no case a more than mild mitral stenosis was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Severe MR due to commissural prolapse/flail can be effectively treated with commissural closure and ring annuloplasty. In our series, the rate of reoperation in the very long term was extremely low. Similarly, longitudinal analysis demonstrated a very low rate of MR ≥3+ recurrence.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Prolapso da Valva Mitral , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 73, 2022 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35219298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral annuloplasty rings restore annular dimensions to increase leaflet coaptation, serving a fundamental component in mitral valve repair. However, biomechanical evaluations of annuloplasty rings are lacking. We aim to biomechanically analyze flexible and rigid annuloplasty rings using an ex vivo mitral annular dilation model. METHODS: Juvenile porcine mitral valves (n = 4) with intercommissural distance of 28 mm were dilated to intercommissural distances of 40 mm using a 3D-printed dilator and were sewn to an elastic mount. Fiber bragg grating sensors were anchored to native chordae to measure chordal forces. The valves were repaired using size 28 rigid and flexible annuloplasty rings in a random order. Hemodynamic data, echocardiography, and chordal force measurements were collected. RESULTS: Mitral annular dilation resulted in decreased leaflet coaptation height and increased mitral regurgitation fraction. Both the flexible and rigid annuloplasty rings effectively increased leaflet coaptation height compared to that post dilation. Rigid ring annuloplasty repair significantly decreased the mitral regurgitation fraction. Flexible annuloplasty ring repair reduced the chordal rate of change of force (7.1 ± 4.4 N/s versus 8.6 ± 5.9 N/s, p = 0.02) and peak force (0.6 ± 0.5 N versus 0.7 ± 0.6 N, p = 0.01) compared to that from post dilation. Rigid annuloplasty ring repair was associated with higher chordal rate of change of force (9.8 ± 5.8 N/s, p = 0.0001) and peak force (0.7 ± 0.5 N, p = 0.01) compared to that after flexible ring annuloplasty repair. CONCLUSIONS: Both rigid and flexible annuloplasty rings are effective in increasing mitral leaflet coaptation height. Although the rigid annuloplasty ring was associated with slightly higher chordal stress compared to that of the flexible annuloplasty ring, it was more effective in mitral regurgitation reduction. This study may help direct the design of an optimal annuloplasty ring to further improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Animais , Dilatação , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese , Suínos
15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 114(1): 84-90, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in degenerative mitral morphology may contribute to suboptimal repair rates. This study evaluates outcomes of a standardized mitral repair technique. METHODS: An institutional clinical registry was used to identify 1036 consecutive patients undergoing robotic mitral surgery between 2005 and 2020: 87% (n = 902) had degenerative disease. Calcification, failed transcatheter repair, and endocarditis were excluded, leaving 582 (68%) patients with isolated posterior leaflet and 268 (32%) with anterior or bileaflet prolapse. Standardized repair comprised triangular resection and true-sized flexible band in posterior leaflet prolapse. Freedom from greater than 2+ moderate mitral regurgitation stratified by prolapse location was assessed using competing risk analysis with death as a competing event. Median follow-up was 5.5 (range 0-15) years. RESULTS: Of patients with isolated posterior leaflet prolapse, 87% (n = 506) had standardized repairs and 13% (n = 76) had additional or nonresectional techniques vs 24% (n = 65) and 76% (n = 203), respectively, for anterior or bileaflet prolapse (P < .001). Adjunctive techniques in the isolated posterior leaflet group included chordal reconstruction (8.6%, n = 50) and commissural sutures (3.4%, n = 20). Overall, median clamp time was 80 (interquartile range, 68-98) minutes, 17 patients required intraoperative re-repair, and 6 required mitral replacement. Freedom from greater than 2+ regurgitation or reintervention at 10 years was 92% for posterior prolapse (vs 83% for anterior or bileaflet prolapse). Anterior or bileaflet prolapse was associated with late greater than 2+ regurgitation (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-7.0). CONCLUSIONS: Posterior leaflet prolapse may be repaired in greater than 99% of patients using triangular resection and band annuloplasty, with satisfactory long-term durability. Increased risk of complex repairs and inferior durability highlights the value of identifying anterior and bileaflet prolapse preoperatively.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Prolapso da Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Prolapso , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(2): 512-516, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089830

RESUMO

The edge-to-edge mitral valve repair technique, invented by Alfieri and colleagues, introduced valve repair as a treatment option for patients with complex diseases where standard annuloplasty and related repair techniques are insufficient, due to annular calcification and patient frailty. We retrospectively evaluated the results of a transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (Alfieri stitch) in high-risk patients who were undergoing aortic valve replacement. From February, 2012 to December, 2017, 43 patients underwent transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with concomitant aortic valve replacement at a single institution. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiograms were compared. Home telephone follow up was conducted and postoperative morbidity was examined, including the need for reoperation, stroke and cardiac arrhythmia. 30-day and long-term survival rates were also determined. Mitral regurgitation (MR) was graded semi-quantitatively as 0 (trace and/or none), mild (1), moderate (2) or moderate to severe (3-4). The patients were 74 ± 7.8 years old. 65% of the patients were male. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 115 ± 37 minutes and mean cross-clamp time was 71 ± 23 minutes. There was a significant improvement in preoperative vs postoperative median MR grade (2 (IQR 2-3) vs 0 (IQR 0-1); P = 0.05). Follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms in 29 patients obtained at a median of 9 months' (range 3 - 19 months') and in 16 patients at a median of 34 months' postoperatively (range 21 - 53 months') showed mild (1 (IQR 1-2)) grade of mitral regurgitation. 30-day survival was 98%. Long term survival at 12 and 24 months' were 88% and 81% respectively. Mitral valve reoperation was conducted in 1 patient (2%), who was suffering of endocarditis. Stroke occurred in 2 patients (7%). Cardiac arrhythmia was observed in 15 patients (35%). 8 patients (19%) suffered from atrial fibrillation and 7 patients (16%) displayed atrioventricular blockage. 10 patients (23%) could be treated conservatively and 5 patients (12%) needed implantation of a pacemaker. Transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair can be safely performed during aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients and improves even long-term MR grade. Postoperative cardiac arrhythmia occurs frequently. 66% of them could be treated successfully by conservative procedures.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 63(1): 99-105, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral valve repair with papillary muscle approximation (MVr-PMA) for severe secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) decreases MR recurrence compared with MVr alone. This study assessed the effects of MVr-PMA on left ventricular (LV) remodeling and shape, systolic function and strain mechanics. METHODS: Forty-eight patients who underwent MVr-PMA for severe secondary MR and had follow-up echocardiograms available for review were identified. Student's t-test, linear regression modeling, and receiver-operating characteristic curves were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 14.9 months. MVr-PMA was associated with significant LV reverse remodeling with a smaller LV end-diastolic diameter, Systolic Sphericity Index, and interpapillary muscle distance at follow-up. Nine patients (18.8%) experienced moderate recurrent MR. When compared to recurrent MR patients at follow-up, those with durable MVr-PMA had a greater LV ejection fraction (32.8 vs. 22.0%, P=0.03), a smaller end-diastolic diameter (59.6 vs. 67.3 mm, P=0.03), Systolic Sphericity Index (0.35 vs. 0.47, P=0.03), and end-systolic interpapillary muscle distance (16.3 vs. 21.1 mm, P=0.03). A durable MVr-PMA also resulted in stable global longitudinal strain when compared with pre-operative values, while the recurrent MR group experienced a further decline (no recurrent MR: -8.4 vs. -7.5%; recurrent MR: -8.2 vs. -5.4%; P<0.05). A pre-operative LV end-diastolic diameter ≥ 64 mm was a discriminative predictor of MR recurrence (sensitivity=100%, specificity=51%, AUC=0.756, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: A durable MVr-PMA confers improved LV geometry and function, and stable LV mechanics. The extent of baseline LV remodeling identifies patients at risk for recurrent MR.


Assuntos
Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Músculos Papilares/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Músculos Papilares/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Papilares/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(2): 607-622.e14, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is in evolution, as percutaneous procedures and complex surgical repair have been recently investigated in randomized clinical trials and matched studies. This study aims to review and compare the current treatment options for IMR. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases. The primary outcome was all-cause long-term mortality. The secondary outcomes were perioperative mortality, unplanned rehospitalization, reoperation, and composite end points as defined in the original articles. RESULTS: A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final meta-analysis. The MitraClip procedure did not confer a significant benefit in mortality and repeated hospitalization compared with medical therapy alone. In patients with moderate IMR, the adjunct of mitral procedure over coronary artery bypass graft is not associated with clinical improvements. When evaluating mitral valve (MV) replacement versus repair, hospital mortality was greater among patients undergoing replacement (odds ratio [OR], 1.91; P = .009), but both reoperation and readmission rates were lower (OR, 0.60, P = .05; and OR, 0.45, P < .02, respectively). Comparing restrictive annuloplasty alone with adjunctive subvalvular repair, subvalvular procedures resulted in fewer readmissions (OR, 0.50; P = .06) and adverse composite end points (P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: MitraClip procedure is not associated with improved outcomes compared with medical therapy. MV replacement is associated with increased early mortality but reduced reoperation rate and readmission rate compared with MV repair using annuloplasty in moderate-to-severe IMR. Despite no significant benefit in isolated outcomes comparing annular and adjunct subvalvular procedures, the adjunct of subvalvular procedures reduces the risk of major postoperative adverse events.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/terapia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/instrumentação , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 163(2): 591-602.e1, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For degenerative mitral disease, repair is superior to replacement; however, the best operative strategy for rheumatic mitral disease remains unclear. We evaluated the association between decision-making in choosing repair versus replacement and outcomes across 2 decades of rheumatic mitral surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing isolated, first-time rheumatic mitral surgery were identified. Era 1 (1997-2008) and Era 2 (2009-2018) were distinguished by intraoperative assessment of anterior leaflet mobility/calcification (Era 2) in deciding between mitral repair versus replacement. Primary outcome was a composite of death, reoperation, and severe valve dysfunction. RESULTS: Among 180 patients, age was 59 ± 14 years, and ejection fraction was 58% ± 10%. A higher proportion in Era 1 (n = 56) compared with Era 2 (n = 124) had preoperative atrial fibrillation (68% vs 46%; P = .006); the groups were otherwise similar. Primary indication was mitral stenosis in 69% (124 out of 180; pure = 35, mixed = 89) and did not differ by era (P = .67). During Era 1, 70% (39 out of 56) underwent repair, compared with 33% (41 out of 124) during Era 2 (P < .001). Freedom from death, reoperation, or severe valve dysfunction at 5 years was higher in Era 2 (72% ± 9%) than Era 1 (54% ± 13%; P = .04). Five-year survival was higher in Era 2 than Era 1, but did not differ between repair versus replacement. Five-year cumulative incidence of reoperation with death as a competing risk did not differ by era, but was higher after repair than replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Careful assessment of anterior leaflet mobility/calcification to determine mitral repair or replacement was associated with improved outcomes. This decision-making strategy may alter the threshold for rheumatic mitral replacement in the current valve-in-valve era.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Cardiopatia Reumática/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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