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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 145444, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636781

RESUMO

A developmental toxicity testing design was evaluated for larval and post-metamorphic Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) raised in outdoor enclosures. Larvae were chronically exposed to 17ß-estradiol (0.0-2.3 µg/L E2) from free swimming (Gosner stage 26) until metamorphosis. Juvenile frogs were allowed to mature within the enclosures for 60 days to assess effects of larval exposure on development, including body mass, snout-vent length (SVL), sex ratio, gonad size, and gonadal histopathology. Forty-eight percent of the initial 600 animals were recovered at the end of the study. Recovery was not influenced by E2 exposure, but larval losses were negatively impacted by unusually high spring rain events that flooded some larval tanks, and heat-related mortality of late stage larvae during summer. All surviving larvae completed metamorphosis within an average of 47 days. Overall, E2 exposure did not influence sex ratio, or the body mass, SVL, or gonad size of either males or females. Development of testes was not influenced by E2 exposure, but oviduct development in males was 4.5-fold greater in the highest treatment. Oviduct and ovary development in females exposed to the two highest E2 treatments were half that of control females. Although not treatment related and despite ad-lib feeding, variation in terminal body mass and SVL within enclosures was pronounced, with minimum - maximum differences ranging from 207 to 1442 mg for body mass and 1 mm to 15 mm for SVL. This design allowed us to assess the effects of larval exposure to a contaminant on post-metamorphic development of a native amphibian in a semirealistic field environment. With modifications to decrease flooding or overheating, this enclosure design and species is a good test system for assessing contaminant effects on development of an amphibian from early larval stages through reproductive maturity.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Animais , Anuros , Feminino , Gônadas , Larva , Masculino , Metamorfose Biológica
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 143: 101-108, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570043

RESUMO

Wildlife disease is a major cause of global biodiversity loss. Amongst the most devastating is the disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). This disease has contributed to declines and extinctions in hundreds of amphibian species, but not all species are affected equally. Some amphibian hosts are capable of carrying high levels of Bd infection without population declines, acting as reservoir species for the pathogen and driving population declines in sympatric species. In Australia, several species have been proposed as reservoir species; however, our understanding of Bd is derived from studies that are highly geographically and taxonomically biased, and our ability to extrapolate from these systems is unknown. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Bd infection in 3 frog species in a previously unstudied host-pathogen system in temperate eastern Australia: the Blue Mountains tree frog Litoria citropa, a poorly-known species predicted to be susceptible to Bd infection; and the common eastern froglet Crinia signifera and the stony creek frog L. lesueuri, which have both been identified as reservoir species in other regions. We found that L. citropa and L. lesueuri were infected with Bd at a high prevalence and often high intensity, while the reverse was true for C. signifera. All species were detected at moderate abundance and there was no evidence of morbidity and mortality. Our findings do not support C. signifera and L. lesueuri being reservoir species in this system, highlighting the importance of region-specific studies to inform conservation management.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Animais , Anuros , Austrália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária
3.
Oecologia ; 195(1): 145-153, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386461

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity in growth and development is commonly examined, but morphology can exhibit plasticity as well. Leg length plasticity is important, because it impacts mobility, which affects predator avoidance, prey capture, and seasonal movements. Differences in relative (i.e., body size adjusted) hind leg lengths > 5% in anurans affect jumping abilities, and resource levels and predation can generate these differences. Leaf litter input can alter larval growth and development and likely morphology as well. I show that relative leg length [leg length/snout-to-vent length (SVL) × 100%] can be quite variable, ranging from 44% of SVL to 120% of SVL across the following species: Hyla versicolor, Lithobates sylvaticus, L. sphenocephalus, and Anaxyrus americanus. Within species variability was highest in L. sylvaticus and almost as great as across species. I measured relative leg length for metamorphs from aquatic mesocosm studies examining the effects of plant litter type and quality. I also examined the relative importance of different environmental variables, including water quality, predation, resource level, and temperature. Good predictors were found only for the two ranids, where leaf litter input was the only variable found to affect relative leg length. Ranid frogs had longer legs when emerging from mesocosms with grass than mesocosms with no litter input, and deciduous leaves produced metamorphs intermediate in leg length. These results suggest that habitat changes in vegetation from land use change, invasive species, and climate change may affect the mobility and fitness of individuals through changes in metamorph relative leg length.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta , Tanques , Animais , Anuros , Ecossistema , Humanos , Fenótipo , Ranidae
4.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116265, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385891

RESUMO

One of the causes of the global decline of amphibians is agricultural activity, responsible for causing habitat fragmentation and bringing a range of agrochemicals and fertilizers in the environment, compounds with a potential disrupting effect on non-target organisms, such as frogs. Exposure to these compounds has numerous harmful effects on the testes of these animals, which can compromise reproduction and, consequently, the maintenance of their communities. In this context, we compared the morphology and morphometry of the testes of three species of neotropical anurans (Physalaemus cuvieri, Dendropsophus minutus, and Boana albopunctata) from an agricultural area and a conservation unit. Histologically, the testicular morphology of the species was similar for both environments; however, morphometrically, there was a difference in the measured testicular parameters (locular area and area of spermatogenic cysts). Physalaemus cuvieri presented higher averages of locular and spermatogonial area in the agricultural environment, whereas the area occupied by the spermatozoa was smaller. Additionally, the testicular pigmentation, which is only present in this species, was greater in animal from the agricultural area. In D. minutus, the locular, spermatogonial, and sperm areas showed lower values in the agricultural area, whereas in B. albopunctata, the opposite pattern was found, with the area of the locule, spermatocytes, and spermatozoids being higher. Agricultural activities influence the testicular metric parameters in different species, and our results suggest that D. minutus is most sensitive to anthropic pressures. The least sensitive species is B. albopunctata. We highlight the importance of evaluating different species, since each species responds differently to agricultural activities.


Assuntos
Anuros , Testículo , Animais , Ecossistema , Masculino , Espermatogênese , Espermatogônias
5.
Zootaxa ; 4878(2): zootaxa.4878.2.5, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311156

RESUMO

We describe a new species of the Scinax catharinae group from one of the last remaining fragments of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Minas Gerais. The new species is distinguished from most species of the group mainly by having the mucronate snout in dorsal view, the unique light-yellow coloration on the gular surface in life contrasting with its overall color pattern, and the m. depressor mandibulae with an origin on the dorsal fascia at the level of the m. dorsalis scapulae. These two latter features are novelties in the diagnosis of Scinax species. The new species is currently known only from municipality of Santa Maria do Salto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This locality is a remaining fragment of Atlantic Forest and has a peculiar geomorphic feature that has been poorly sampled so far.


Assuntos
Anuros , Floresta Úmida , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4878(1): zootaxa.4878.1.1, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311165

RESUMO

The taxonomy of the Asian tree frog genus Feihyla has been in a state of flux ever since its proposal in 2006. Allocation of species to Feihyla remains confusing, particularly with respect to the closely related genus Chirixalus (formerly Chiromantis sensu lato). At the same time, several Chirixalus species are known only from cursory descriptions and remain poorly studied. In this study, we review the systematics of the genus Feihyla and clarify the generic placement of its members along with all other species currently assigned to Chirixalus. Based on integrative evidence gathered from new collections, examination of types and original descriptions, morphological comparisons, phylogenetic relationships inferred from a multi-gene (three mitochondrial + two nuclear) 1,937 bp dataset, as well as reproductive modes including egg-laying, nesting behaviour, and clutch morphology, our results show that the six species formerly attributed to Feihyla represent three morphologically and phylogenetically distinct groups: (1) the type species of the genus, F. palpebralis, along with F. fuhua constitute the Feihyla palpebralis group or Feihyla sensu stricto; (2) F. inexpectata and F. kajau represent the Feihyla vittiger group and are closely related to the Feihyla palpebralis group; (3) 'F. hansenae' and 'F. vittata' constitute another distinct and reciprocally monophyletic lineage, more closely related to Chirixalus + Chiromantis. In light of long-standing taxonomic confusions and unresolved phylogenetic relationships, we propose recognition of a new genus to accommodate 'F. hansenae' and 'F. vittata' in order to stabilise the classification of several Asian rhacophorid species that have been frequently confused and transferred within the Chirixalus-Chiromantis-Feihyla complex. Based on integrative evidence, eight species previously attributed to the genus Chirixalus or Feihyla are formally transferred to Rohanixalus gen. nov., two Chirixalus members are allocated to Feihyla, and one synonymised with Rhacophorus bipunctatus. In addition, we report the first member of the tree frog family Rhacophoridae from the Andaman Islands of India-Rohanixalus vittatus, along with description of its male advertisement call, reproductive behaviour including parental care by the female, and larval morphology. Extended distributions are also provided for Rohanixalus species across Northeast India. The study further reveals the presence of potentially undescribed diversity in the new genus. Altogether, the revised classification and novel insights presented herein will facilitate a better working taxonomy for four phylogenetically distinct but morphologically related groups of Old World tree frogs.


Assuntos
Anuros , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Ásia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4877(2): zootaxa.4877.2.3, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311189

RESUMO

In the current study, two new species of Cosmocercidae nematodes parasitizing the anuran Leptodactylus macrosternum (Leptodactylidae) from two localities in the municipality of Petrolina, sub-middle São Francisco river, state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were described. Oxysomatium petrolinensis n. sp. differs from all congeneric species for having the male caudal papillae distribution pattern unique in this genus, in which the last three pairs of pre-cloacal papillae are located lateroventrally on the anterior border of the cloacal aperture. Additionally, the new species has an unpaired medial precloacal papilla, seven pairs of postcloacal papillae, and a relatively unique spicule size. Oxyascaris caatingae n. sp. differs from all congeneric species mainly for having males with a medial unpaired precloacal papilla and a distribution pattern of caudal papillae unique to this species, being the only species of the genus with adcloacal papillae. The current study proposes the description of Oxysomatium petrolinensis n. sp., fourth species and the first report of this genus in hosts from the Neotropical region. In addition, it describes Oxyascaris caatingae n. sp., which is the fifth species of the genus.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios , Nematoides , Animais , Anuros , Brasil , Ecossistema , Masculino
8.
Zootaxa ; 4890(2): zootaxa.4890.2.11, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311241

RESUMO

The Hainan Pygmy Toad Parapelophryne scalpta (Liu Hu) is the single species of the genus Parapelophryne Fei, Ye Jiang in the Family Bufonidae (Frost 2020) and is endemic to China's Hainan Island, which lies within the tropics at 18°09'-20°10'N, 108°37'-111°03'E, with a land area of ca. 33,900 km2. The taxonomy status of this species has obtained much debates since its discovery: it was originally described by Liu et al. (1973) as a member of the genus Nectophryne Buchholz Peters then allocated to Pelophryne Barbour by Ye Fei (1978). On the basis of its unique morphological characters, Fei et al. (2003) erected a new genus Parapelophryne to discriminate P. scalpta from other bufonids. Some researchers, however, still listed the species under the genus Pelophryne (Stuart et al. 2008; Shi et al. 2011). Recently, the validity of the genus Parapelophryne is further confirmed by Matsui et al. (2015) on the basis of molecular analyses. Interestingly enough, Matsui et al. (2015)'s result showed that this extremely small-sized toad is a sister taxon of the large-sized toads of the genus Bufo Garsault, which is mainly distributed in temperate and subtropical regions of Eurasia (Frost 2020). Parapelophryne scalpta is a forest-dependent species and only inhabits in well-preserved evergreen broadleaf forests (Fei Ye 2016). It is the smallest toad species in China with snout-vent length of 19-23 mm in adult males and 24-27 mm in females (Fei Ye 2016). Due to their small size and elusive habits, little is known about the natural history of P. scalpta and its acoustic characteristics are still undocumented (Fei Ye 2016). During a herpetological survey in Hainan in 2015, we luckily detected male calls of P. scalpta and obtained a short but clear record of the advertisement call of the species. Herein, we describe the acoustic characteristics and calling behavior of Parapelophryne scalpta.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Acústica , Animais , China , Feminino , Ilhas , Masculino
9.
Zootaxa ; 4881(3): zootaxa.4881.3.4, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311302

RESUMO

We report recent findings of Isthmohyla pictipes (Cope, 1875) in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, roughly two decades after it was last registered. We provide notes on microhabitat use, color variation, external morphology of adults and larvae, and geographic variation, and discuss some taxonomic characters employed to differentiate I. pictipes from I. tica (Starrett, 1966) and I. xanthosticta (Duellman, 1968). We also report fluorescence on the ventral surfaces of I. pictipes. Our findings are expected to shed light on the taxonomy of this species and should be useful in further population assessments and conservation plans.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Cor , Costa Rica , Larva
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e04612020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338114

RESUMO

We report a case of envenomation by Dendrobates tinctorius in the northwest of the Amazon Forest. The patients were two men, who presented with numbness in the right arm and slight numbness in the lower lip, respectively. Dendrobates tinctorius secretions contain pumiliotoxin, one of several toxins found in the dendrobatidis skin, which interferes with muscle contraction and causes locomotor difficulties. Although Dendrobatidae is a family of anurans known for their venom, few studies describe the symptoms of envenomation in humans.


Assuntos
Anuros , Venenos , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Pele
11.
Zootaxa ; 4877(3): zootaxa.4877.3.11, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311186

RESUMO

In a recent article, Chandramouli et al. (2020) re-assessed the systematic position of the hylaranine frog Indosylvirana nicobariensis and proposed a new monotypic genus, Bijurana, for this species. The authors re-examined the type series of specimens and attempted to justify the recognition of a new genus using morphological and phylogenetic data. They concluded that the taxon's unique phylogenetic position, high genetic divergence (uncorrected p-distance ≥ 13.64% of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene), and a unique combination of morphological characters warranted the erection of the new genus.


Assuntos
Anuros , Genes Mitocondriais , Animais , Anuros/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
12.
Zootaxa ; 4885(3): zootaxa.4885.3.6, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311271

RESUMO

The dicroglossid genus Sphaerotheca was erected by Günther in 1859, with its range of distribution in South Asia. Since then, 13 species have been described and 10 species are considered valid. Many of these descriptions were from low to mid-elevation ranges of homestead areas, agroecosystems and degraded landscapes with a few from forested areas. In the present account, a new species of Sphaerotheca, a genetically distinct lineage with a morphological character set distinguishable from its congeners, is described from the surroundings of Bengaluru city, India. Based on evidence for the origin of the original specimen, we also designated a neotype for Rana variegata Gravenhorst, 1829, a junior primary homonym of Rana variegata Linnaeus, 1758, and permanently invalid name, so that it is now a subjective synonym of Rana (Tomopterna) breviceps rolandae Dubois, 1983.


Assuntos
Anuros , Ecossistema , Animais , Índia , Ranidae
13.
Zootaxa ; 4869(4): zootaxa.4869.4.1, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311341

RESUMO

Frogs of the genus Minervarya are cryptic and widely distributed in South Asia. However, many of them lack information about the precise type locality, genetic data, and distribution range. The present study aimed to examine the genetic affinities of a widely distributed species Minervarya syhadrensis around its type locality in the northern Western Ghats (Pune, Maharashtra). We studied the type specimen of M. syhadrensis and collected similar sized Minervarya frogs from Pune district. In the field, we observed two different calls from morphologically similar (M. syhadrensis like) males suggesting the sympatric occurrence of two cryptic species (that we initially named Minervarya species A and Minervarya species B). We analyzed morphology, call pattern, and mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence of both species. Minervarya species A has a long call with a low pulse repetition rate and higher dominant frequency compared to that of the Minervarya species B. These species cannot be differentiated based on morphometric data. However, they can be sorted out using morphological characters such as the presence of longitudinal skin folds on the dorsal side (Minervarya species A) and differences in foot webbing. DNA sequences of Minervarya species A and Minervarya species B are matching with those of M. caperata and M. agricola respectively. After studying the type specimens of M. syhadrensis and M. caperata, we found morphological similarities (longitudinal skin folds) with the samples of Minervarya species A collected during the present study. Based on the results of our study (morphology and genetic) and available literature, we propose to redefine M. syhadrensis as applying to the lineage initially named Minervarya species A, and to treat the species M. caperata as a junior synonym of M. syhadrensis. Our study will be helpful in further taxonomic revision of the genus, and provides natural history information for M. syhadrensis and M. agricola.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Anuros/genética , Índia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
14.
Zootaxa ; 4868(3): zootaxa.4868.3.3, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311390

RESUMO

Neotropical toads from the Rhinella margaritifera species group have been considered a taxonomic puzzle for a long time. Because of the high morphological similarity and an unknown number of undescribed taxa among the species of this group, we did an extensive search for character distribution within all nominal taxa. Herein we describe Rhinella parecis sp. nov. a new species from Southern Brazilian Amazon. We provide a morphological diagnosis, morphometric comparisons with similar species, and a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis on the relationships of the new species. Rhinella parecis sp. nov. is assigned to the R. margaritifera group and differs from others species by snout-vent length ranging 40.7-53.5 mm in males (n=12) and 44.9-54.8 mm in females (n=4), snout rounded in dorsal view, acute with fleshy ridge extending to tip of snout in lateral view, canthal and pre-orbital crests absent, supra-orbital, parietal and supra-tympanic crests present and low, dorsolateral row of tubercles present, bony protrusion at the angle of jaws absent, tympanum evident, vertebral apophyses absent and toes half-webbed. The new species is the 20th species associated to the R. margaritifera group distributed in the Chapada dos Parecis, a probable center of endemism in states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Brasil , Bufonidae , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4894(2): zootaxa.4894.2.2, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311081

RESUMO

In anuran amphibians, acoustic signals are fundamental mechanisms of mate recognition and mate choice, which makes frog calls a fundamental tool for anuran taxonomy. In this work, we describe the advertisement call of two species for the genus Melanophryniscus, M. cambaraensis and M. macrogranulosus and use the descriptions to try to solve a taxonomic problem between them. We collected data after heavy rains in three different sample sites in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2012 and 2013. The advertisement call of both species is composed of two segments. It always begins with part A (about 0.44-6 seconds) composed of single modulated pulses separated by long time intervals. It is followed by part B, a long train of unmodulated pulses with short time intervals, lasting from 9 to 32.2 seconds. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated some variation between temporal parameters of the two species, but Multivariate Analysis of Variance showed no significant differences. Within-individual Coefficient of Variation (CV) showed only two static parameters: pulse rate and peak frequency, both in the part B of the call. Despite intra-male variation in some acoustic parameters, it is not possible to differentiate between M. cambaraensis and M. macrogranulosus species only using bioacoustics.


Assuntos
Anuros , Bufonidae , Animais , Brasil , Masculino , Floresta Úmida , Vocalização Animal
16.
Zootaxa ; 4894(1): zootaxa.4894.1.10, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311099

RESUMO

In a recent study, Hortal et al. (2015) recognized seven shortfalls of knowledge that hamper our understanding of biodiversity. Three of these are of particular importance for drawing conservation strategies for ecological indicator species, among which we can count the amphibians (Simon et al. 2011): the Linnean shortfall describes 'the knowledge incongruity between the described species and the remaining species yet to be described' (Brown Lomolino 1998); the Wallacean shortfall defines 'paucity of knowledge about the actual distribution range of the species' (Lomolino 2004); and the Darwinian shortfall refers to 'lack of knowledge about the tree of life and evolution of lineages, species and traits' (Diniz-Filho et al. 2013).


Assuntos
Anuros , Biodiversidade , Animais , Índia , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4869(1): zootaxa.4869.1.6, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311374

RESUMO

We quantitatively describe for the first time the advertisement call of Chiasmocleis (Syncope) carvalhoi using recordings  of five specimens from northern Peruvian Amazonia. The advertisement call is characterized by a single, short, tonal, and high-pitched note. Call duration ranges between 0.03-0.06 s and its dominant frequency between 7.12-7.92 kHz. The lack of pulses within notes distinguishes C. (Syncope) carvalhoi from all congeneric species except C. (Syncope) antenori, C. (Syncope) parkeri and C. (Chiasmocleis) mantiqueira, which can be distinguished by the shorter duration of their notes and silent intervals (in C. (Syncope) antenori and C. (Syncope) parkeri) and by the lower dominant frequency (in C. (Syncope) parkeri and C. (Chiasmocleis) mantiqueira). In addition, based on our collected specimens, we report on and discuss about the variation of some external morphological characters and natural history of C. (Syncope) carvalhoi, including the absence of vocal slits and sacs. Our study reveals a potential association between the absence of vocal slits and sacs, and tonal calls in Chiasmocleis, as well as conflicting morphological diagnostics characters in the literature.


Assuntos
Anuros , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Brasil , Peru
18.
Zootaxa ; 4869(1): zootaxa.4869.1.7, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311375

RESUMO

The third instar larva and puparium of Gastrops willistoni Cresson (Diptera: Ephydridae), preying on eggs in a foam nest of Leptodactylus knudseni Heyer (Anura: Leptodactylidae), in a central Amazonian dryland forest (Brazil) are described for the first time. The fusiform larva has a short breathing tube, its anterior spiracles are fan-shaped and posterior spiracles with three spircular openings. Pupa is ovoid with a broad anterior margin and bifurcate posterior tip. The taxonomic relationship of the frog egg predators, Gastrops Williston and Typopsilopa Cresson, are discussed.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Anuros , Larva , Pupa
19.
Zootaxa ; 4894(3): zootaxa.4894.3.5, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311072

RESUMO

A new species of Limnonectes from Phu Yen Province, South-central Vietnam is described based on morphological and molecular differences. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: SVL 49.8-77.9 mm in males, 40.8-61.8 mm in females; males with moderately enlarged head (HL/SVL 0.47, HW/SVL 0.48); head slightly broader than long (HL/HW 0.97 in males, 0.95 in females); vomerine teeth present; external vocal sacs absent; rostral length short (RL/SVL 0.15); tympanum invisible; dorsal surface of head, body and flanks with ridges and tubercles; dorsal surface of tibia and foot distinctly tuberculate, covered with moderately dense, small, low tubercles; supratympanic fold present; dorsolateral fold absent; Finger I with nuptial pad, composed of minute spines on dorsal surface and medial edge in males; toes webbed to distal of terminal phalanx, webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-0IV0--0V0; in life, dorsum yellowish brown with dark brown markings; ventral surface white with brown markings. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species from Vietnam and Limnonectes fastigatus as well as L. kiziriani form a clade, which is sister to L. fragilis from China, although the nodal support values for the set of relationships are insignificant from all analyses.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Feminino , Cabeça , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
20.
Zootaxa ; 4894(3): zootaxa.4894.3.11, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311078

RESUMO

The Limnonectes kuhlii complex is a group of morphologically similar species of fanged frogs distributed across much of mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Many new species in this complex have been described in recent years, primarily on the basis of mitochondrial DNA divergence corroborated by differences in linear measurements and qualitative characters. Males in this species complex develop enlarged heads at sexual maturity, but the degree of head enlargement varies among mature males, even within the same population. We evaluated the utility of body length (snout-vent length minus head length) in descriptive statistics and in size-adjusting measurements for traditional morphometric analysis, as well as a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of male head shape, in Indochinese species of the L. kuhlii complex. The analyses supported quantitative and qualitative morphological distinction of a divergent mitochondrial lineage of the L. kuhlii complex in northeastern Cambodia, and the lineage is described as a new species. Limnonectes fastigatus sp. nov. differs from its closest relatives and from geographically proximate members of the complex by having the combination of elongated, slender odontoids; nuptial pads on the first finger; immaculate belly; significantly different body length-adjusted measurements in both sexes; and a significantly different male head shape. The new species is the only member of the L. kuhlii complex known from Cambodia.


Assuntos
Anuros , DNA Mitocondrial , Animais , Anuros/genética , Camboja , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia
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