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1.
Life Sci ; 264: 118606, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091444

RESUMO

AIMS: Sepsis is a severe endothelial dysfunction syndrome. The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial dysfunction induced by sepsis is controversial. To explore the role of eNOS in vascular dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: The effect of sepsis on vasodilation and eNOS levels was examined in septic mouse arteries and in cell models. KEY FINDINGS: In early sepsis mouse arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxation decreased and phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr495 site in endothelial nitric oxide synthase increased. Mechanically, the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Thr497 in bovine aortic endothelial cells occurred in a protein kinase C-α dependent manner. In late sepsis, both nitric oxide-dependent relaxation responses and endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels were decreased in septic mice arteries. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels expression levels decreased in tumor necrosis factor-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and this could be prevented by the ubiquitin proteasome inhibitor (MG-132). MG-132 could reverse the decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and improve nitric oxide-dependent vasodilator dysfunction in septic mice arteries. SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that vasodilator dysfunction is induced by the increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in early sepsis and its degradation in late sepsis.


Assuntos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/biossíntese , Sepse/enzimologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/enzimologia , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 101-108, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) has become the current standard of care for emergent treatment of traumatic blunt thoracic aortic injuries (BTAI). Although aortic dilation (AD) of the infrarenal neck after EVAR for aortic aneurysms has been studied, changes in aortic diameter after TEVAR for BTAI is not well understood. This study aims to characterize changes in thoracic aortic diameter after stent-graft placement in the setting of nonaneurysmal traumatic aortic injury. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective review was performed involving patients presenting with BTAI treated with TEVAR. Only patients with at least 12 months follow-up were included. Aortic diameter, defined as the outer-to-outer diameter on 3D center-line imaging, was measured at six locations along the proximal and mid thoracic aorta. The first postoperative CT (≤1 month) served as a baseline from which interval measurements were compared. RESULTS: Twenty patients with BTAI treated from 2011 to 2017 had adequate imaging available for review and were included in this study cohort. Median follow-up time was 46.8 (12-80, range) months. At the latest follow-up, AD occurred at all measured locations within the endograft, starting from the proximal graft edge (0.62 ± 0.69 mm, P = 0.027) to the distal graft edge (1.21 ± 1.28 mm, P = 0.003). AD was most pronounced in the distal graft segment 2 cm proximal to the distal graft edge, with a mean AD of 1.32 ± 1.59 mm (+5.3%, P < 0.001). At this location, AD was found to increase in a linear manner with an estimated rate of 0.67 ± 0.20 mm/year (P = 0.006). The native aorta proximal and distal to the endograft was not found to significantly dilate during follow-up (P = 0.280-0.897). Seventy percent of the patients were found to have AD >5%. The amount of AD was not found to be associated with either graft oversizing (P = 0.151) or age (P = 0.340). There were no cases of graft migration, erosion, or endoleak. CONCLUSIONS: AD is a common benign finding after TEVAR for BTAI. AD is most pronounced at the near the distal end of the stent graft. In late-term follow-up, there are no known associated complications related to AD.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Remodelação Vascular , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adulto , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/lesões , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Dilatação Patológica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 474-480, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic stent grafting can cause aortic stiffening and increase pulse wave velocity (PWV), which can potentially affect long-term cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors contributing to increases in PWV after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS: We included 64 patients with thoracic aortic pathology (51 men; mean age, 73 years) who underwent elective TEVAR, in this study. TEVAR was performed for degenerative aortic aneurysm (n = 43) or aortic dissection (n = 21), and the treatment length was 175 ± 52 mm. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was obtained before and 1 week after TEVAR. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of increases in baPWV of ≥100 cm/sec after TEVAR. RESULTS: baPWV increased from 1,851 ± 392 cm/sec to 2,047 ± 479 cm/sec, and the change in baPWV (ΔbaPWV) was 195 ± 339 cm/sec (95% confidence interval, 111-280). Thirty-seven patients (58%) had ΔbaPWV ≥100 cm/sec after TEVAR. In the multivariable analysis, in addition to Δheart rate and Δsystolic blood pressure, age (odds ratio, 1.21/year; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.40) and coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 12.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-121) were independent determinants of ΔbaPWV ≥100 cm/sec after TEVAR, whereas ΔbaPWV ≥100 cm/sec was not associated with treatment length or device type. CONCLUSIONS: TEVAR was associated with PWV progression, especially in older patients with coronary artery disease, whereas treatment length or device type was not a predictor of PWV progression after TEVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 152-161, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for type B aortic dissections is used to promote false lumen (FL) thrombosis and favorable aortic remodeling, but its impact on occlusion of FL origin branch vessels has not been widely described. We compare FL versus true lumen (TL) branch vessel patency after TEVAR. METHODS: Patients treated by TEVAR for type B aortic dissection in zones 2-5 in the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2009 to 2018 were evaluated. The primary outcome was postoperative branch patency. Secondary outcomes were need for branch vessel intervention, preoperative origin, and postoperative patency of individual branch vessels (celiac, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, and iliac arteries). A subset analysis was performed comparing acute and chronic dissections. RESULTS: Of 11,774 patients, 1,484 met criteria for analysis. The left renal was the most common to have FL origin (21.6%), whereas right and left common iliac arteries were the most likely to originate off both lumens (BLs; 22% and 24%). Branch vessels that originated from the TL, FL, BLs, or were obstructed had postoperative patency rates of 99%, 99%, 99%, and 87% (P < 0.0001). Branch vessel treatment was performed in 5% of patients. The right (2.5%) and left (2.8%) renal arteries were the most frequently obstructed branches postoperatively. On multivariate analysis, preoperatively obstructed branches (odds ratio 0.03, P < 0.0001) were negatively associated with postoperative branch patency and branch vessel treatment (odds ratio 3.8, P = 0.004) was positively associated with postoperative patency. FL or BL origin, number of zones covered by TEVAR, urgency, dissection chronicity (acute versus chronic), and demographics were not independently associated with patency. These findings remained unchanged in the subset analysis of only acute dissections. CONCLUSIONS: Branch vessel patency rates after TEVAR for a type B aortic dissection are high and are not significantly different for FL or BL origin vessels compared with TL vessels. Branches that are patent before TEVAR almost always remain patent after TEVAR, but branch vessel stenting may be required in less than 5%.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 171-180, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying fragile aortas that are more likely to lead to adverse clinical outcomes would provide surgeons with a better sense of how to balance the risks of surgical versus medical management in patients with type B dissections. We examine the progression of a type B dissection into a type A dissection in a patient and analyze changes in the Gaussian surface curvature distribution, as well as the response of the stress distribution at the lesser curve in response to pressurization. We hypothesize that examining the Gaussian curvature will provide us with a link between aortic surface geometry and the stress distribution, which is crucial to understanding the process driving aortic dissection. METHODS: Computed tomography scans of a patient before and after the type A dissection are obtained. These are segmented in Simpleware ScanIP. Centerline curvatures are calculated on segmented models in ScanIP. Models are then pressurized in the finite element analysis software Abaqus. The Gaussian curvature is calculated by exporting segmentations into the computational program Matlab and applying a modified previously published algorithm. RESULTS: The centerlines generated in ScanIP fail to capture the change in the acuity of the lesser curve before and after the type A dissection. Instead, Gaussian curvature analysis shows that the curvature distribution before the type A dissection is much wider compared with the distribution after the type A dissection. In addition, analyzing the stress distribution in response to pressurization reveals that before the type A dissection there is a large divergence in the principal stress vectors at the lesser curve but this transitions to a more uniform hoop stress after the type A dissection. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis demonstrates that Gaussian surface curvature analysis captures changes in aortic geometry that are otherwise silent in centerline curvature analysis. Here, we show that as the aorta develops a type A dissection it is able to more smoothly handle the hoop stress at the lesser curve compared with the stress focusing seen in the before type A geometry. We propose that the geometric focusing before type A creates a higher energy stress state, which is relaxed on retrograde dissection. Thus, Gaussian curvature analysis may provide a window to capture underlying geometric instability in type B dissections.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortografia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Imageamento Tridimensional , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Caso Único como Assunto
6.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(6): H1313-H1324, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006918

RESUMO

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) modifies the contractile function of the vessel it surrounds (outside-in signaling). Little work points to the vessel actively affecting its surrounding PVAT. We hypothesized that inside-out arterial signaling to PVAT would be evidenced by the response of PVAT to changes in tangential vascular wall stress. Rats coarcted in the mid-thoracic aorta created PVAT tissues that would exemplify pressure-dependent changes (above vs. below coarctation); a sham rat was used as a control. Radiotelemetry revealed a ∼20 mmHg systolic pressure gradient across the coarctation 4 wk after surgery. Four measures (histochemical, adipocyte progenitor proliferation and differentiation, isometric tone, and bulk mRNA sequencing) were used to compare PVAT above versus below the ligature in sham and coarcted rats. Neither aortic collagen deposition in PVAT nor arterial media/radius ratio above coarctation was increased versus below segments. However, differentiated adipocytes derived from PVAT above the coarctation accumulated substantially less triglycerides versus those below; their relative proliferation rate as adipogenic precursors was not different. Functionally, the ability of PVAT to assist stress relaxation of isolated aorta was reduced in rings above versus below the coarctation. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that the coarctation resulted in more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between PVAT above versus below when compared with sham samples from the same locations. A majority of DEGs were in PVAT below the coarctation and were enriched in neuronal/synaptic terms. These findings provide initial evidence that signaling from the vascular wall, as stimulated by a pressure change, influences the function and transcriptional profile of its PVAT.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A mid-thoracic aorta coarcted rat was created to generate a stable pressure difference above versus below the coarctation ligature. This study determined that the PVAT around the thoracic aorta exposed to a higher pressure has a significantly reduced ability to assist stress relaxation versus that below the ligature and appears to retain the ability to be anticontractile. At the same time, the PVAT around the thoracic aorta exposed to higher pressure had a reduced adipogenic potential versus that below the ligature. Transcriptomics analyses indicated that PVAT below the coarctation showed the greatest number of DEGs with an increased profile of the synaptic neurotransmitter gene network.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Coartação Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial , Mecanotransdução Celular , Transcriptoma , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Coartação Aórtica/genética , Coartação Aórtica/metabolismo , Coartação Aórtica/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(10): e1008273, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079926

RESUMO

Myriad risk factors-including uncontrolled hypertension, aging, and diverse genetic mutations-contribute to the development and enlargement of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Detailed analyses of clinical data and longitudinal studies of murine models continue to provide insight into the natural history of these potentially lethal conditions. Yet, because of the co-existence of multiple risk factors in most cases, it has been difficult to isolate individual effects of the many different factors or to understand how they act in combination. In this paper, we use a data-informed computational model of the initiation and progression of thoracic aortic aneurysms to contrast key predisposing risk factors both in isolation and in combination; these factors include localized losses of elastic fiber integrity, aberrant collagen remodeling, reduced smooth muscle contractility, and dysfunctional mechanosensing or mechanoregulation of extracellular matrix along with superimposed hypertension and aortic aging. In most cases, mild-to-severe localized losses in cellular function or matrix integrity give rise to varying degrees of local dilatations of the thoracic aorta, with enlargement typically exacerbated in cases wherein predisposing risk factors co-exist. The simulations suggest, for the first time, that effects of compromised smooth muscle contractility are more important in terms of dysfunctional mechanosensing and mechanoregulation of matrix than in vessel-level control of diameter and, furthermore, that dysfunctional mechanobiological control can yield lesions comparable to those in cases of compromised elastic fiber integrity. Particularly concerning, therefore, is that loss of constituents such as fibrillin-1, as in Marfan syndrome, can compromise both elastic fiber integrity and mechanosensing.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Animais , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Biologia Computacional , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 61(6): 708-712, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964898

RESUMO

In the past decades, treatment of acute thoracic aortic syndrome underwent drastic changes with a central role for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). One of the essential factors in the success of TEVAR is accurate sizing of the endograft, as both under- and oversizing can lead to suboptimal results and disastrous complications. The aim of this review was to give an overview of issues regarding endograft sizing in emergent TEVAR. Sizing of the endograft can be complicated by specific factors related to the underlying disease. For instance, different types of the acute thoracic aortic syndrome, i.e. blunt thoracic injury, thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection with concomitant rupture are associated with hemorrhagic shock and the need for resuscitation, which leads to profound changes in diameter of the thoracic aorta. These diameter changes should be taken into account during endograft sizing. Measuring the thoracic aorta based on the admission CTA can lead to inaccurate sizing, even if proper centerline-based measurements are performed. The use of real-time imaging, in particular intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), has been shown to provide more accurate endograft sizing in acute thoracic aortic syndromes, especially if associated with hypovolemia. Future research should provide additional data on the exact role of different intra-operative imaging modalities (e.g. IVUS, transesophageal echocardiography [TEE], three dimensional CTA) on endograft sizing and long-term outcomes to ultimately improve patient outcome.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Stents , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aortografia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Emergências , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
9.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 254-259, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862982

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Conventional open repair of a traumatic aortic isthmic rupture is associated with a significantly high mortality and morbidity rates. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is currently often performed because it is a less invasive treatment than surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate short and mid-term results of TEVAR in traumatic aortic isthmic rupture. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted between 2010 and 2018 including patients who underwent TEVAR for traumatic aortic isthmic rupture. RESULTS: Thirty-six consecutive patients were included. All patients had sustained a violent blunt chest trauma after a sudden deceleration with associated injuries. The injury severity score (ISS) was 40 (14-66). All patients were hemodynamically stable at admission. We deployed thoracic aorta stent grafts with a mean diameter of 26mm (18-36). The procedural success rate was 100%. We reported one intra-operative complication which was a distal migration of the graft, managed by an implantation of an aortic extension graft. On the first postoperative day, one patient presented an acute lower limb ischemia, probably due to the surgical femoral access, treated with an embolectomy with a Fogarty catheter with satisfactory results. The mean follow-up was 40.41 months (6.5-96). The mortality and paraplegia rates were 0% at one month and during the follow-up period. We reported a case of kinking of the graft that occurred at 6 months. No cases of endoleak neither re-intervention were reported. CONCLUSION: TEVAR is a safe and a reliable method for the treatment of sub-acute traumatic thoracic aortic injuries.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Ruptura Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/lesões , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Ruptura Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ruptura Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 59, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomically pre-shaped sinus prostheses (SP) were developed to mimic the aortic sinus with the goal to preserve near physiological hemodynamic conditions after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Although SP have shown more physiological flow patterns, a comparison to straight tube prosthesis and the analysis of derived quantitative parameters is lacking. Hence, this study sought to analyze differences in aortic wall shear stress (WSS) between anatomically pre-shaped SP, conventional straight tube prostheses (TP), and age-matched healthy subjects) using time-resolved 3-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D Flow CMR). Moreover, the WSS gradient was introduced and analyzed regarding its sensitivity to detect changes in hemodynamics and its dependency on the expression of secondary flow patterns. METHODS: Twelve patients with SP (12 male, 62 ± 9yr), eight patients with TP (6 male, 59 ± 9yr), and twelve healthy subjects (2 male, 55 ± 6yr) were examined at 3 T with a 4D Flow CMR sequence in this case control study. Six analysis planes were placed in the thoracic aorta at reproducible landmarks. The following WSS parameters were recorded: WSSavg (spatially averaged over the contour at peak systole), max. WSSseg (maximum segmental WSS), min. WSSseg (minimum segmental WSS) and the WSS Gradient, calculated as max. WSSseg - min. WSSseg. Kruskal-Wallis- and Mann-Whitney-U-Test were used for statistical comparison of groups. Occurrence and expression of secondary flow patterns were evaluated and correlated to WSS values using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: In the planes bordering the prosthesis all WSS values were significantly lower in the SP compared to the TP, approaching the physiological optimum of the healthy subjects. The WSS gradient showed significantly different values in the four proximally localized contours when comparing both prostheses with healthy subjects. Strong correlations between an elevated WSS gradient and secondary flow patterns were found in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. CONCLUSION: Overall, the SP has a positive impact on WSS, most pronounced at the site and adjacent to the prosthesis. The WSS gradient differed most obviously and the correlation of the WSS gradient with the occurrence of secondary flow patterns provides further evidence for linking disturbed flow, which was markedly increased in patients compared to healthy sub jects, to degenerative remodeling of the vascular wall.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Hemodinâmica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Desenho de Prótese , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Estresse Mecânico , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 386-393, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current treatment for acute retrograde type A intramural haematoma (IMH) remains challenging. Aortic remodelling in both the ascending aorta (AA) and descending thoracic aorta (DTA) was evaluated and the 30 day and mid term outcomes were determined in patients who underwent thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) for retrograde type A IMH with a primary intimal tear or ulcer like projection in the DTA METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicentre observational study. Clinical data, including post-operative mortality and adverse event, aorta related re-intervention, aortic remodelling, and the survival rate of 18 non-consecutive patients with acute retrograde type A IMH undergoing TEVAR between June 2006 and March 2018 were reviewed. RESULTS: The median age at repair was 58.1 years (range 38-86) and 14 (78%) were men. Eight patients (44%) presented with haemopericardium, and 10 (56%) underwent TEVAR within 24 h. The mean IMH thickness and AA diameter were 10.4 ± 3.6 and 45.7 ± 4.6 mm, respectively. Among all patients with acute retrograde type A IMH, 11 patients presented with classical type B aortic dissection and seven with type B IMH. All procedures were technically successful. The median follow up was 28.7 months (range 7-78). No 30 day mortality was observed. Three patients developed post-procedure adverse events. Of these, two patients had neurological events, with one each having cerebrovascular and spinal cord infarction individually, and the third patient required long term haemodialysis with ventilator support. The overall survival rate was 100%. The maximum diameter of the AA and the IMH in the AA significantly decreased after TEVAR. Aortic remodelling was also observed in the DTA along the length of TEVAR coverage. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with acute retrograde type A IMH, TEVAR offered a treatment alternative to open surgical grafting and medical follow up.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Hematoma/cirurgia , Remodelação Vascular , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Prótese Vascular , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Feminino , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(7): 586-591, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization in thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) remains controversial. Left subclavian artery coverage without revascularization can cause stroke and death. TEVAR has gained popularity for the treatment of chronic type B aortic dissection (cTBD). Using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database, we reviewed outcomes of LSA revascularization in TEVAR for cTBD. METHODS: The VQI registry identified 5683 patients treated with TEVAR from July 2010 to July 2016, including 208 repairs for cTBD. We analyzed outcomes per the Society for Vascular Surgery reporting standards. RESULTS: Of the 208 patients, 150 (72.1%) were male with a median age of 65.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 55.0-72.0). Median aneurysm diameter was 5.7 cm (IQR, 5.0-6.5 cm). Data on the patency of the LSA was available in 131 (63.0%) patients. Twenty-five (19.1%) had occlusion of the LSA without revascularization, while 106 (80.9%) maintained patency or had revascularization. Successful device delivery occurred in all 131 (100%) patients. Maintaining LSA patency did not affect the rate of cerebrovascular accident (P = .16), spinal cord ischemia (P = 1.00), or death (P = 1.00). This was also nonsignificant when analyzing the subgroup of 98 elective cases. There was no difference in the rates of endoleak. Any intervention for the LSA (revascularization or occlusion) led to a longer procedure time (203.6 minutes vs 163.7 minutes, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining LSA patency during TEVAR for cTBD offers no advantage in perioperative morbidity or endoleak. Occlusion of LSA may be performed safely in this cohort and revascularization reserved for those who have anatomy that compromises perfusion to critical organs.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Artéria Subclávia/cirurgia , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Dissecante/fisiopatologia , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Endoleak/etiologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Subclávia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
15.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(6): 487-496, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our objective was to determine significant predictors of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) and to further develop a simple and clinically orientated risk score model. METHODS: A retrospective review of data from the Society of Vascular Surgery/Vascular Quality Initiative national data set was performed for all patients undergoing TEVAR from January, 2014 to June 2018. Preoperative demographics, procedure-related variables, and clinical details related to SCI were examined. A SCI risk score was developed utilizing a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: For the 7889 patients in the final analysis who underwent TEVAR during the study period, the mean age was 67.6 ± 13.9, range 18 to 90 years, and the majority was male (65%). Postoperative outcomes included stroke (3.0%), myocardial infarction (2.9%), inhospital mortality (5.4%), transient SCI (1.5%), and permanent SCI (2.1%). Nearly half of the overall cases were performed in high volume centers. Predictors of increased risk for SCI included age by decade (odds ratio [OR]: 1.2), celiac coverage (OR: 1.5), current smoker (OR: 1.6), dialysis (OR: 1.9), 3 or more aortic implanted devices (OR: 1.7), emergent or urgent surgery (OR: 1.5), adjunct aorta-related procedure (OR: 2.5), adjunct not related (OR: 2.6), total estimated length of aortic device (19-31 cm, OR: 1.9 and ≥32 cm, OR: 3.0), ASA class 4 or 5 (OR: 1.6), and procedure time ≥154 minutes (OR: 1.8). Two predictors decreased the risk of SCI, cases from high-volume centers (OR: 0.6) and eGFR ≥ 60 (OR: 0.6). To evaluate the risk score model, probabilities of SCI from the original regression, raw score, and raw score categories resulted in area under the curve statistics of 0.792, 0.786, and 0.738, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal cord ischemia remains one of the most feared complications of TEVAR. Incidence of SCI in this large series of patients with TEVAR was 3.6% with nearly 60% being permanent. The proposed model provides an assessment tool to guide clinical decisions, patient consent process, risk-assessment, and procedural strategy.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/diagnóstico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 69: 413-417, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the endograft displacement forces (DF), which quantify the forces exerted by the pulsatile blood flow on the vessel wall and transmitted on the terminal fixation site of the endograft after its deployment in proximal landing zones (PLZs) of the bovine aortic arch variant. METHODS: Thirty healthy aortic computed tomographic angiographies of subjects with bovine arch configuration (10 per type of arch, I-III) were selected for the purpose of the study. A 3-dimensional model of the aortic arch lumen was reconstructed. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was then used to compute DF magnitude and orientation (i.e., x, y, and z axes) in PLZs of each case. DF values were normalized to the corresponding aortic wall area to estimate equivalent surface traction (EST). RESULTS: DF were highest in zone 0, consistently with the greater surface area. DF in zone 3 were much greater than in zone 2 because of a 3-fold greater upward component (z axis) (P < 0.001), being therefore mainly oriented orthogonally to the aortic blood flow and to the vessel longitudinal axis in that zone. EST progressively increased from zone 0 toward more distal PLZs, with EST in zone 3 being much greater than that in zone 2 (P < 0.001). The same pattern was observed after stratification by type of arch. CONCLUSIONS: The bovine arch is associated with a consistent fluid dynamic pattern, which identifies in zone 3 an unfavorable biomechanical environment for endograft deployment.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Simulação por Computador , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aortografia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Fluxo Pulsátil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Mecânico
17.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(5): 785-791, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495679

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the structural variation of the aortic arch and the supra-aortic arteries and establish an average spatial configuration that would be a pattern for a "universal double fenestration" design for physician-modified endovascular grafts (PMEGs) used in total thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Materials and Methods: Aortic arch morphology was retrospectively analyzed by reviewing the preoperative thoracic computed tomography angiography scans in 33 consecutive patients (mean age 68 years; 27 men) treated between January 2017 and March 2019 using double-fenestrated PMEGs for zone 0 TEVAR. Image analysis was completed according to a standardized technique on a vascular workstation with center lumen line reconstruction for all measurements. Variations in branching pattern of the aortic arch were classified into 8 types. Results: The arch trunk configuration was type I in 26 patients (79%), type II in 5 (15%), type III in 1, and type IV in 1. Mean aortic diameters at the level of mid ascending aorta, innominate artery (IA), left common carotid artery (LCCA), and left subclavian artery (LSA) were 35.7±3.7, 34.2±4.5, 33.3±6.7, and 33.7±4.7 mm, respectively. Mean diameters of the trunk were 12.2±1.7, 7.5±1.4, and 8.0±0.8 mm, respectively. Mean longitudinal center to center lengths were 15.9±2.5 mm between the LSA and LCCA and 12.1±3.0 mm between the LCCA and IA. Mean clock positions using the LSA as reference were 12:50 for the IA and 12:05 for the LCCA. In 32 patients (97%) all the supra-aortic branch vessels fit perfectly inside two delimited areas defined by a proximal common square area of 30×30 mm for the IA and LCCA and a second distal 8-mm-diameter circle for the LSA. Conclusion: Variations of the aortic arch anatomy are numerous and common. A general morphological pattern is described that delimits the aortic area where these variations occur. This information can be utilized for the design of an off-the-shelf double-fenestrated stent-graft for zone 0 TEVAR.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Doenças da Aorta/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Desenho de Prótese , Stents , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/anormalidades , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(5): 777-784, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589119

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze the anatomical characteristics of arch aneurysms and evaluate the anatomical feasibility of 4 next-generation stent-grafts with either branched or fenestrated configurations. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of 213 patients (mean age 75.0±7.1 years; 179 men) with arch aneurysms treated using total arch replacement or zone 0 or 1 thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) from 2007 to 2017 at 2 Japanese hospitals. Anatomical analyses were performed using the centerline of flow technique on a 3-dimensional workstation. The anatomical feasibility of the Zenith A-branch, TAG Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis (TBE), Terumo Aortic Relay Plus Double Branched (DB), and fenestrated Najuta stent-grafts were evaluated based on the instructions for use (IFU). Results: The mean lengths from the sinotubular junction (STJ) to the innominate artery (IA) and from the IA to the left common carotid artery were 114.9±15.9 and 12.8±5.6 mm, respectively. The mean aortic diameters at the STJ and IA were 31.3±3.4 and 34.1±5.3 mm, respectively. In terms of feasibility, 5.2% of patients were within the Zenith A-branch IFU, 40.8% for the TAG TBE, 24.9% for the Relay Plus DB, and 13.6% for the Najuta. Significant (>50% circumference) thrombus/calcification at the sealing zone affected nearly half of the patients, but there is currently no standardized definition or evaluation method for "significant" thrombus/calcification. Conclusion: Only 5% to 41% of arch aneurysm patients are anatomically suitable for TEVAR using any one of the next-generation branched or fenestrated stent-grafts. Furthermore, a definitive method of evaluating the thrombus/calcification burden needs to be established in future IFU.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Desenho de Prótese , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(4): 753-763, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471542

RESUMO

Blood flow through the heart and great vessels is sensitive to time and multiple velocity directions. The assessment of its three-dimensional nature has been limited. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow the comprehensive visualization and quantification of in vivo flow dynamics using four-dimensional (4D)-flow MRI. In addition, the technique provides the opportunity to obtain advanced hemodynamic measures. This article introduces 4D-flow MRI as it is currently used for blood flow visualization and quantification of cardiac hemodynamic parameters. It discusses its advantages relative to other flow MRI techniques and describes its potential clinical applications.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
20.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 29, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic valve repair has become a treatment option for adults with symptomatic bicuspid (BAV) or unicuspid (UAV) aortic valve insufficiency. Our aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess the impact of aortic valve repair on changes in blood flow dynamics in patients with symptomatic BAV or UAV. METHODS: Twenty patients with adult congenital heart disease (median 35 years, range 18-64; 16 male) and symptomatic aortic valve regurgitation (15 BAV, 5 UAV) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent 4D flow CMR before and after aortic valve repair. Aortic valve regurgitant fraction and systolic peak velocity were estimated. The degree of helical and vortical flow was evaluated according to a 3-point scale. Relative flow displacement and wall shear stress (WSS) were quantified at predefined levels in the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: All patients underwent successful aortic valve repair with a significant reduction of aortic valve regurgitation (16.7 ± 9.8% to 6.4 ± 4.4%, p < 0.001) and systolic peak velocity (2.3 ± 0.9 to 1.9 ± 0.4 m/s, p = 0.014). Both helical flow (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5, p < 0.001) and vortical flow (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.5 ± 0.6, p = 0.002) as well as both flow displacement (0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.25 ± 0.1, p = 0.031) and WSS (0.8 ± 0.2 N/m2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.2 N/m2, p < 0.001) in the ascending aorta were significantly reduced after aortic valve repair. CONCLUSIONS: 4D flow CMR allows assessment of the impact of aortic valve repair on changes in blood flow dynamics in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Aortografia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hemodinâmica , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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