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1.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 635-646, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683362

RESUMO

We aimed to assess the effects of intermittent hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO2 at 2 bars for 120 minutes a day for four successive days) on acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (AChIR) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (N=80) that were randomized into four groups: healthy controls (CTR); diabetic rats (DM); and control and diabetic rats that underwent hyperbaric oxygenation (CTR+HBO and DM+HBO), respectively. AChIR was measured in vitro in aortic rings, with/without L-NAME, MS-PPOH, HET0016 or indomethacin. mRNA expression of eNOS, iNOS, COX-1, COX-2, thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXAS1), CYP4A1, CYP4A3 and CYP2J3 was assessed by qPCR. Systemic oxidative stress and plasma antioxidative capacity were determined with the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays, respectively. There was no significant difference in AChIR among experimental groups of rats. In CTR and DM group of rats, AChIR was mediated by NO and EETs pathway, while in the CTR+HBO and DM+HBO groups, NO-pathway prevailed. iNOS expression was upregulated in the DM group compared to CTR, while HBO2 upregulated eNOS in CTR group and TBXAS1 in DM group of rats. In both, CTR and DM group of rats, the sensitivity to ACh in the presence of L-NAME or in the presence of MSPPOH was significantly decreased compared to the response to ACh in the absence or presence of indomethacin or HET0016. DM and DM+HBO rats had increased TBARS compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, HBO2 presumably alters vasorelaxation in response to ACh from NO-EETs mediated pathways to solely NO-pathway, without affecting oxidative status of DM rats.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/fisiologia , Primers do DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12752-12760, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642668

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis, the major risk of cardiovascular events, is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease. Pterostilbene is a naturally occurring dimethylated analogue of resveratrol and has recently been demonstrated to be beneficial against cardiovascular diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms of pterostilbene on atherosclerosis remain elusive. Experimental atherosclerosis was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. Pterostilbene was administered intragastrically for 16 weeks. We found that pterostilbene significantly attenuated thoracic and abdominal atherosclerotic plaque formation in HFD-fed ApoE-/-mice, accompanied by modulated lipid profiles and reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). In addition, pterostilbene restored vascular redox balance in thoracic and abdominal aorta, evidenced by enhanced catalase (CAT) expression and activities, and decreased malondialdehyde and H2O2 production. Notably, pterostilbene specifically induced CAT expression and activities in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of thoracic and abdominal aorta. In vitro, pterostilbene markedly promoted the expression and activity of CAT and decreased ox-low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-mediated VSMC proliferation and intracellular H2O2 production, which was abolished by CAT siRNA knockdown or inhibition. Pterostilbene-induced CAT expression was associated with inhibition of Akt, PRAS40, and GSK-3ß signaling activation and upregulation of PTEN. Our data clearly demonstrated that pterostilbene exerted an antiatherosclerotic effect by inducing CAT and modulating the VSMC function.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Catalase/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Estilbenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Oxirredução
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 27-34, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that is closely associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and the depletion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs has been thought to play a prominent role in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the association between the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population and atherosclerotic development in ApoE-/- mice exposed to PM2.5. METHODS: We employed a real-world system to subject 40 ApoE-/- mice to ambient inhalation of PM2.5 (PM2.5 group, n = 20) or filtered air (FA group, n = 20) for 12 weeks. PM2.5 source apportionment, atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum level of inflammatory factors and lipid profiles, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen were quantified, respectively. RESULTS: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 was 57.4 ± 25.6 µg/m3. Atherosclerotic lesions within aorta, lipid deposition and plaque accumulation in whole artery, serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, TC and LDL-C in the PM2.5 group increased significantly compared to the FA group. Whereas, serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-ß, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs population in splenocytes, Foxp3 protein and mRNA expressions in descending aorta and spleen in the PM2.5 group decreased significantly compared to the FA group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PM2.5 could accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is related to CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs down-regulation, as well as lipid deposition and systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(6): 576-579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155563

RESUMO

Spatiotemporally controllable nitric oxide (NO) releasers are very attractive chemical tools for investigating the biological activities of NO, which is involved in the regulation of vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune responses. We previously developed an easily synthesized, yellowish-green-light-controllable NO releaser, NO-Rosa5, and characterized its photoredox reaction mechanism. Here, we aimed to establish the biological applicability of NO-Rosa5 for in cellullo and ex vivo experiments. We successfully demonstrated yellowish-green-light-controlled NO release in HEK293T cells in vitro, as well as photomanipulation of the rat aorta response to NO in an ex vivo system. Furthermore, NO-Rosa5 showed lower toxicity than NOBL-1, a previously reported blue-light-controllable NO releaser, as determined by tetrazolium salt cell viability assay. Overall, our results indicate that NO-Rosa5 is a biocompatible, photocontrollable NO releaser with low toxicity and potentially broad applicability.


Assuntos
Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Luz , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/síntese química , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Ratos
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 127, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Xin-Ji-Er-Kang (XJEK) is a Chinese herbal formula, which has been reported to exert effective protection against cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and myocarditis. METHODS: Cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) and different concentrations of aqueous layer extracts (AqE). Subsequently nitric oxide (NO) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression levels were detected. In addition, fifty Kunming mice were randomized into control, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), L-NAME+AqE, L-NAME+XJEK and L-NAME+fosinopril treatment groups. Following 8 weeks of treatment, the cardiac hemodynamic index was measured, relaxation of the aorta was examined and pathological changes were observed. Colorimetric analysis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were applied to determine the relevant indicators in plasma and cardiac tissues. RESULTS: The in vitro study results demonstrated that AqE could preserve endothelial function (NO, 21.05 ± 2.03 vs. 8.64 ± 0.59; eNOS, 1.08 ± 0.17 vs.0.73 ± 0.06). In addition, the in vivo results demonstrated that compared with the control group, treatment with AqE could enhance a high hemodynamic state (left ventricular systolic pressure, 116.76 ± 9.96 vs.114.5 ± 15.16), improve endothelial function (NO, 7.98 ± 9.64 vs. 1.66 ± 3.11; eNOS, 19.78 ± 3.18 vs.19.38 ± 3.85), suppress oxidative stress (OS) (superoxide dismutase, 178.17 ± 13.78 vs. 159.38 ± 18.86; malondialdehyde, 0.77 ± 0.13 vs.1.25 ± 0.36) and reverse cardiovascular remodeling. CONCLUSION: Polysaccharide from XJEK exerts protective effects against Ang II-induced injury in HUVECs and L-NAME-induced hypertension in mice and the underlying mechanism may be attributed to improving endothelial dysfunction, OS and the inflammation status in mice.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7060-7072, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240928

RESUMO

As one of the main metabolites of anthocyanin, protocatechuic acid (PCA) possesses strong antioxidant activity. In the present study, we explored the capacity of PCA on the alleviation of endothelial oxidative stress and investigated the underlying mechanisms using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In comparison with palmitic acid (PA)-treated cells, PCA (100 µM) significantly decreased the generations of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (0.82 ± 0.01 vs 1.16 ± 0.05 and 0.80 ± 0.01 vs 1.48 ± 0.15, respectively, p < 0.01), two biomarkers of oxidative damage, and restored the levels of nitric oxide (NO) (0.97 ± 0.04 vs 0.54 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) (0.96 ± 0.03 vs 0.86 ± 0.02, p < 0.01) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PCA also obviously reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (0.86 ± 0.15 vs 2.67 ± 0.09, p < 0.01) in aorta from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. RNA-Seq and Western blot analysis indicated that PCA markedly reduced the expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a membrane fatty acid transporter, and reduced the generations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). These effects of PCA were associated with decreased level of acetylated-lysine and restored the activity of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) through reducing the generation of Ac-CoA or activating Sirt1 and Sirt3 via a CD36/AMP-kinase (AMPK) dependent pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035725

RESUMO

Melanoma is one of the most malignant and aggressive types of cancer worldwide. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is one of the critical regulators of melanoma angiogenesis and metastasis; thus, it might be an effective anti-cancer strategy to explore FGF2-targeting drug candidates from existing drugs. In this study, we evaluate the effect of the marine drug propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) on FGF2-mediated angiogenesis and invasion. The data shows that FGF2 selectively bound to PSS with high affinity. PSS inhibited FGF2-mediated angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model and suppressed FGF2-mediated invasion, but not the migration of murine melanoma B16-F10 cells. The further mechanism study indicates that PSS decreased the expression of activated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and also suppressed their activity. In addition, PSS was found to decrease the level of Vimentin in B16-F10 cells, which is known to participate in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Notably, PSS did not elicit any changes in cancer cell viability. Based on the results above, we conclude that PSS might be a potential drug to regulate the tumor microenvironment in order to facilitate the recovery of melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Alginatos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Laminaria/química , Melanoma Experimental/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Ratos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Phytother Res ; 33(7): 1815-1826, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141276

RESUMO

Capsaicinoid nonivamide (PAVA) and rosuvastatin (RSV) have been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-obesity effects in various animal models, but it is unknown whether their combination would be an effective treatment for obesity-related endothelial dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of PAVA in synergy with RSV. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet during a 20-week period. At 16 weeks, rats in each diet group were divided into subgroups. Normal diet rats were divided into Normal diet control, Normal diet with PAVA, and Normal diet with RSV groups. HFD rats were subdivided into HFD control, HFD with PAVA, HFD with RSV, and HFD with PAVA + RSV groups and evaluated for metabolic parameters, blood pressure, aortic function, and histological change of the aorta in rats. Our results showed the combined therapy had a significantly greater effect than the monotherapy in all measured parameters; this was indicated by improvement in insulin sensitivity and aortic function, decreased blood pressure, lower oxidative stress, and prevention of vascular damage. The synergistic effect of the PAVA and RSV can protect HFD-induced obesity-related endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that the combination of PAVA and RSV could be an effective alternative treatment for obesity-related complications in patients with cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6169-6176, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117553

RESUMO

Dietary choline and its containing foods are biotransformed to trimethylamine (TMA) via gut microbial metabolism. Subsequently, as an intermediate molecule, TMA is quickly transported and oxidized in the liver by hepatic flavin monooxygenases to form trimethylamine oxide (TMAO). TMAO was treated as a waste byproduct from choline metabolism, but recent convincing evidence demonstrated the association between the small molecule TMAO and inflammation-related diseases, including blood vessel inflammation and vascular diseases. The scope of this study is to investigate the preventive effect of nobiletin on TMAO-induced blood vessel inflammation. Our results from Western blot showed that the inhibition of TMAO-induced cardiovascular inflammation was correlated with nobiletin-mediated inhibitory effects on NF-κB and MAPK/ERK related pathways. More specifically, nobiletin prevented the oxidative damage of vascular sites (proximal aorta), inhibited the activity of MAPK/ERK, reduced the expression of NF-κB p65 and phospho-NF-κB p65, and consequently decreased the inflammatory response. Flow cytometry analyses showed that nobiletin decreased TMAO-induced apoptosis of HUVEC cells and counteracted TMAO-induced HUVEC cell proliferation. Results from HE staining and immunohistochemical results also showed that nobiletin reduced the degree of inflammation of the proximal aorta in Sprague-Dawley rats. In summary, nobiletin significantly reduced TMAO-induced vascular inflammation via inhibition of the NF-κB/MAPK pathways.


Assuntos
Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/imunologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Masculino , Metilaminas/efeitos adversos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Doenças Vasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Doenças Vasculares/imunologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028932

RESUMO

In this study the nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) pathway was characterized in tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria aorta. Concentration response curves (CCR) to ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine and histamine were performed in the presence and absence of L-NAME in aorta pre-contracted with ACh (3 µM). CCR to SNP, BAY 41-2272 (sGC stimulator), BAY 60-2770 (sGC activator) and tadalafil (PDE-5 inhibitor) were constructed in the presence and absence of ODQ (10 µM). ATP (pEC50 6.1 ±â€¯0.1), ADP (pEC50 6.0 ±â€¯0.2), AMP (pEC50 6.8 ±â€¯0.1) and histamine (pEC50 6.8 ±â€¯0.12) relaxed Chelonoidis aorta and the addition of L-NAME reduced their efficacy (p < .05). Adenosine effects (pEC50 6.6 ±â€¯0.1) were not changed in the presence of L-NAME. SNP (pEC50 7.5 ±â€¯0.7; Emax 102.2 ±â€¯2.5%), BAY 41-2272 (pEC50 7.3 ±â€¯0.2; Emax 130.3 ±â€¯10.2%), BAY 60-2770 (pEC50 11.4 ±â€¯0.1; Emax 130.3 ±â€¯6.5%) and tadalafil (pEC50 6.7 ±â€¯0.3; Emax 121.3 ±â€¯15.3%) relaxed Chelonoidis aorta. The addition of ODQ reduced the SNP and tadalafil maximum response (p < .05) and promoted 63 fold right shift on BAY 41-2272 curve. In contrast, no alteration was observed on BAY 60-2770 response. Transcriptomic analysis for eNOS and sGC were found in aorta and brain libraries with high homology when compared with human transcripts. The NO-sGC-PDE-5 is functionally present in Chelonoidis aorta with a functional and genomic similarity to mammalian vessels. Unlike most of mammalian vessels, ACh did not cause endothelium-dependent relaxation in Chelonoidis carbonaria aortic rings.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Tartarugas , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Agonistas Purinérgicos/farmacologia , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/genética , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(3): 119-124, 2019 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942165

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of piperazine ferulate (PF) on hypertension and endothelial function, and to assess the possible underlying mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), adult male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats aged 12 to 14 weeks, and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used for this study. Cell viability, activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in vivo NO synthesis, arterial systolic blood pressure, vascular function, expressions of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS) were determined or assessed as appropriate. The results of MTT assay showed the number of viable cells were significantly increased with increase in PF concentration (p < 0.05). The level of expression of ACE was significantly reduced with increase in PF concentration (p < 0.05), while the level of HO-1 expression significantly increased (p < 0.05). Results of DAF-FM fluorescent staining showed that the amounts of NO synthesized in vivo was significantly higher in aortic rings of SH and SD rats treated with PF than in the corresponding control groups (p < 0.05). Treatment with PF in vivo significantly improved impaired acetylcholine-induced aortic relaxation in SH rats. Total eNOS expression was significantly increased after treatment with PF (p < 0.05). The expressions of total eNOS and p-eNOS in both groups were not affected by PF when compared to the control group. These results indicate that PF exerts antihypertensive effect and improves endothelial function in vitro and in vivo via the activation of eNOS.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Piperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Piperazina/química , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sístole/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(18): 16402-16411, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998317

RESUMO

Fully integrated hydrogel channels were fabricated via interfacial bioorthogonal cross-linking, a diffusion-controlled method for the creation and patterning of synthetic matrices based on the rapid bioorthogonal reaction between s-tetrazines (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO) dienophiles. Injecting an aqueous solution of a bisTCO cross-linker into a reservoir of tetrazine-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-Tz), while simultaneously drawing the syringe needle through the reservoir, yielded a cross-linked hydrogel channel that was mechanically robust. Fluorescent tags and biochemical signals were spatially patterned into the channel wall through time-dependent perfusion of TCO-conjugated molecules into the lumen of the channel. Different cell populations were spatially encapsulated in the channel wall via temporal alteration of cells in the HA-Tz reservoir. The interfacial approach enabled the spatial patterning of vascular cells, including human abdominal aorta endothelial cells, aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, and aortic adventitial fibroblasts, into the hydrogel channels with high viability and proper morphology in the anatomical order found in human arteries. The bioorthogonal platform does not rely on external triggers and represents the first step toward the engineering of functional and implantable arteries.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Hidrogéis/química , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/química , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências
13.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934575

RESUMO

Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a strong antioxidant, has been reported for its cardiovascular-protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PCA administration on vascular endothelial function, mediated by insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and antioxidant activities in aging hypertension. Thirty-six-week-old male aging spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly divided into vehicle control (SHR) and PCA (SHR+PCA) groups, while age-matched Wistar⁻Kyoto rats (WKY) served as the normotensive vehicle control group. The oral PCA (200 mg/kg/day) was administered daily for a total of 12 weeks. When the rats reached the age of 48 weeks, the rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of vascular reactivity and Western blotting. Also, nitric oxide (NO) production and antioxidant activities were examined among the three groups. The results showed that, when compared with the SHR group, the insulin-induced and IGF-1-induced vasorelaxation were significantly improved in the SHR+PCA group. There was no significant difference in the endothelium-denuded vessels among the three groups. After the pre-incubation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, the vasorelaxation was abolished and comparable among the three groups. The protein levels of insulin receptors, IGF-1 receptors, phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt)/Akt, and phospho-endothelial NOS (p-eNOS)/eNOS in aortic tissues were significantly enhanced in the SHR+PCA group when compared with the SHR group. Moreover, significant improvements of nitrate/nitrite concentration and antioxidant activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and total antioxidants, were also found in the SHR+PCA group. In conclusion, the 12 weeks of PCA administration remarkably improved the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by insulin and IGF-1 in aging hypertension through enhancing the PI3K⁻NOS⁻NO pathway. Furthermore, the enhanced antioxidant activities partly contributed to the improved vasorelaxation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Masculino , Polienos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939745

RESUMO

The compound, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-ß-d-glucoside (TSG), a primary bioactive polyphenolic component of Polygonum multiflorum exerts numerous pharmacological activities. However, its protective effect against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in the context of metabolic syndrome, remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of TSG treatment on middle-aged (12-mo-old) male LDLr-/- mice, which were fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome and NASH. At the end of the experiment, the blood samples of mice were collected for determination of metabolic parameters. Liver and aorta tissues were collected for analysis, such as histology, immunofluorescence, hepatic lipid content, real-time PCR, and western blot. Our data show that TSG treatment improved the different aspects of NASH (steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis) and atherosclerosis, as well as some of the metabolic basal characteristics. These modulatory effects of TSG are mediated, at least in part, through regulating key regulators of lipid metabolism (SREBP1c, PPARα and their target genes, ABCG5 and CYP7A1), inflammation (CD68, TNF-α, IL-6 and ICAM), fibrosis (α-SMA and TNFß) and oxidative stress (NADPH-oxidase 2/4, CYP2E1 and antioxidant enzymes). These results suggest that TSG may be a promising candidate for preventing and treating the progression of NASH.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Receptores de LDL/genética , Estilbenos/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to improve hypertension. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect and regulatory mechanism of the class I HDAC selective inhibitors, MS-275 and RGFP966, in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertensive mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: MS-275 inhibited the activity of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, while RGFP966 weakly inhibited that of HDAC3 in a cell-free system. MS-275 and RGFP966 treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and thickness of the aorta wall in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice. MS-275 treatment reduced aorta collagen deposition, as determined by Masson's trichrome staining. MS-275 decreased the components of the renin angiotensin system and increased vascular relaxation of rat aortic rings via the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. NO levels reduced by Ang II were restored by MS-275 treatment in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, MS-275 dose (3 mg·kg-1·day-1) was not enough to induce NO production in vivo. In addition, MS-275 did not prevent endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aorta of Ang II-induced mice. Treatment with MS-275 failed to inhibit Ang II-induced expression of NADPH oxidase (Nox)1, Nox2, and p47phox. MS-275 treatment reduced proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, as well as adhesion molecules. Histological analysis showed that Ang II-induced macrophage infiltration was reduced by MS-275 and RGFP966 administration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that class I HDAC selective inhibitors may be good therapeutic agents for the treatment of hypertension through the regulation of vascular remodeling and vasoconstriction, as well as inflammation.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Hipertensão/patologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 1/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(1(Supplementary)): 261-268, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829202

RESUMO

Using rat thoracic aortic rings to test the relaxing effects of the 95% ethanol extract and aqueous extract of Taohong Siwu decoction (THSW) on endothelium intact or endothelium removed aortic rings. Results showed that the 95% ethanol extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg•L-1) and aqueous extract (0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg•L-1) of THSW were able to relax the intact endothelium aortic rings pre-contracted by 10-6 mol•L-1 PE. 10-4 mol•L-1 L-NAME and 10-5 mol•L-1 methylene blue both were able to inhibit the relaxation other than indomethacin. For the endothelium removed aortic rings, potassium channel blocker 3×10-3mol•L-1 tetraethylammonium chloride and 10-5 mol•L-1 glibenclamide had no effect on the relaxation effects caused by the 95% ethanol extract and aqueous extract of THSW. It could be concluded that the 95% ethanol extract and aqueous extract of THSW relax blood vessel by endothelium-dependent way.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glibureto/farmacologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Ratos , Tetraetilamônio/farmacologia
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 204-222, mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007819

RESUMO

To explore the mechanistic basis behind smooth muscle relaxant prospective of Bismarckia nobilis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular ailments. The methanolic extract of B. nobilis and sub-fractions have been evaluated in vitro rabbit isolated tissues, in vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice. The B. nobilis extract relaxed spontaneous and K+(80 mM)- induced contractions in rabbit isolated jejunum preparations, CCh (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions in tracheal and bladder preparations, PE (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced concentrations in aorta preparations, likewise verapamil. Spasmolytic activity of dichloromethane fraction is stronger as compared to aqueous fraction. In vivo castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats and charcoal meal activity in mice further supported spasmolytic activity. B. nobilis extract possess anti-spasmodic, anti-diarrheal, airway relaxant and vasodilator activities possible mediated through calcium channel blocking mechanism, justifying therapeutic utility of B. nobilis in diarrhea, asthma and hypertension.


El objetivo de trabajo fue explorar el mecanismo de acción relacionado con el efecto relajante del músculo liso inducido por Bismarckia nobilis (B. nobilis) en enfermedades gastrointestinales, respiratorias y cardiovasculares. El extracto metanólico de B. nobilis y subfracciones fue evaluado in vitro en tejidos aislados de conejos. Además se evaluó diarrea in vivo inducida con aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de harina de carbón vegetal en ratones. El extracto de B. nobilis relajó tanto las contracciones espontáneas como las inducidas por K+(80 mM) en preparaciones de yeyuno aisladas de conejos, las contracciones inducidas por PE (1 µM) y K+(80 mM) inducidas en preparaciones de aorta; de manera similar a verapamilo. La actividad espasmolítica de la fracción de diclorometano es más potente en comparación con la fracción acuosa. La diarrea inducida in vivo por el aceite de ricino en ratas y la actividad de la harina de carbón vegetal en ratones apoyaron aún más la actividad espasmolítica. El extracto de B. nobilis posee actividades antiespasmódicas, antidiarreicas, relajantes de las vías respiratorias y vasodilatadoras, posibles a través del mecanismo de bloqueo de los canales de calcio, lo que justifica la utilidad terapéutica de B. nobilis en la diarrea, el asma y la hipertensión.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Ratos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Arecaceae , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Asma/metabolismo , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Diarreia/metabolismo , Metanol , Hipotensão/metabolismo , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1880-1892, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864566

RESUMO

Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, exhibits a wide range of biological activities. This study investigated the effect of nobiletin on vascular dysfunction and remodeling in l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given l-NAME (40 mg kg-1) for five weeks to induce hypertension and treated with nobiletin (20 or 40 mg kg-1) or captopril (5 mg kg-1) for the last two weeks. Nobiletin or captopril significantly reduced blood pressure and the enhancement of the contractile response to sympathetic nerve stimulation in the mesenteric vascular beds of l-NAME rats (p < 0.05). Both agents improved the impairment of vasorelaxation responses to acetylcholine in mesenteric vascular beds and aortic rings in l-NAME rats (p < 0.05). Moreover, nobiletin and captopril decreased oxidative stress markers, restored the abnormality of plasma NOx and the protein expressions of eNOS, Nrf-2 and HO-1 observed in l-NAME rats (p < 0.05). Increases in aortic wall thickness, cross sectional area, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen deposition that occurred in l-NAME rats were reduced by nobiletin or captopril (p < 0.05). These reductions were associated with the suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 protein expression (p < 0.05). These findings indicated that nobiletin had antihypertensive effects with amelioration of vascular alterations. The molecular mechanism is likely to involve the restoration of Nrf-2/HO-1/MMP signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925684

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are frequent causes of death in the Western countries. Recently, it has been shown that autophagy dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both atherosclerosis and NAFLD; thus, activators of autophagy might be useful for novel therapeutic interventions. Trehalose-a naturally occuring disaccharide present in plants, bacteria, fungi, insects, and certain types of shrimps-is a known inducer of autophagy. However, according to the literature, its anti-atherosclerotic and anti-steatotic potential seem to depend on the experimental setting. The aim of our study was to comprehensively describe the influence of a prolonged treatment with orally administered trehalose on the development of atherosclerotic lesions and hepatic steatosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice in an experimental set up reflecting both moderate and severe proatherogenic conditions: male apoE-/- mice on a chow diet (CD) and female apoE-/- mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that exogenous trehalose inhibited atherosclerosis and attenuated hepatic steatosis in apoE-/- mice. Such effects of trehalose were not associated with changes of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), or high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, the anti-steatotic action of trehalose in the liver was associated with the induction of autophagy. The exact molecular mechanisms of both the anti-atherosclerotic action of trehalose and its inhibitory effect on liver steatosis require further clarification.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Trealose/uso terapêutico , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Trealose/administração & dosagem , Trealose/farmacologia
20.
Toxicon ; 163: 12-18, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880186

RESUMO

Spider venoms are widely recognized as a new emerging source of potential research tools, pesticides, drug leads, and therapeutic agents. Some studies suggest that these venoms may contain interesting vasodilator compounds with potential therapeutic applications. In the present study, the vasodilator activity of the venom of Poecilotheria regalis was evaluated in isolated rat aortic rings. This venom induced an endothelium-dependent vasodilation [EC50 value was 5.52 (4.18-7.32) µg protein/ml with an Emax = 103.4 ±â€¯3.8%]. While the percentage of vasodilation induced by the venom was significantly diminished in the presence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), it remained unaltered in the presence of suramin, a P2-purinergic receptor antagonist. Moreover, the vasodilator activity of the venom was not affected after boiling bath incubation, but was significantly decreased under reducing conditions. Additionally, venom composition was analyzed by reverse-phase chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and two fractions were obtained, referred to as peptidic and non-peptidic fractions. Interestingly, both fractions induced vasodilation in isolated rat aortic rings. The results of this study showed that the venom of P. regalis induces a concentration-dependent vasodilation in rat aorta that was endothelium-dependent and involves the activation of NO/cGMP pathway. These results suggest that the venom contains a combination of both peptidic and non-peptidic vasodilator components. This study provides pharmacological data that suggest that P. regalis venom may be an important source of peptidic and non-peptidic vasodilator compounds.


Assuntos
Venenos de Aranha/farmacologia , Aranhas , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Venenos de Aranha/química , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
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