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1.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 559: 111798, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243201

RESUMO

Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form dominance hierarchies in which subordinates experience chronic social stress and suppression of food intake. Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of food intake reflects increased expression of anorexigenic (appetite inhibiting) signals and decreased expression of orexigenic (appetite stimulating) signals. Trout were confined in pairs for 1 or 4 days, or were confined in pairs for 4 days and then allowed to recover from social interactions for 2 or 4 days; sham fish were handled identically but held alone. Subordinates did not feed during social interaction and had lower food intake than dominants or shams during recovery. In parallel, plasma cortisol (∼18-26x) and liver leptin (lep-a1) transcript abundance (∼10-14x) were elevated in subordinates during social interaction but not recovery, suggesting that these factors contributed to the suppression of food intake. Fish deemed likely to become subordinate based on inhibition of food intake in response to a mild stressor also showed elevated liver lep-a1 transcript abundance (∼5x). The moderate response in these fish coupled with a correlation between liver lep-a1 and cortisol suggest that stress-induced elevation of cortisol increased liver lep-a1 transcript abundance in subordinate trout, contributing to stress-induced suppression of food intake.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Apetite , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244591

RESUMO

The Characidae family of fish is composed of commercially important species for which little is known about the regulation of feeding. Fish are ectotherms so that their body temperature fluctuates with the temperature of the surrounding water. Changes in water temperature can thus have major effects on the physiology of fish, in particular their feeding. The mechanisms by which appetite is influenced by changes in temperatures in fish remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of temperature on feeding behavior, food intake and the expression of appetite regulators in three characid fish (black tetra, neon tetra and cavefish) by submitting them to four different temperatures for 2 weeks (20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C). In all species, food intake increased with increasing temperature. In neon and black tetras, increasing temperatures decreased expressions of orexin and leptin and increased that of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). In cavefish, temperature had no effect on brain orexin, leptin or CART. In all three species, higher temperatures induced increases in intestine expression of cholecystokinin (CCK), but no effects were seen for intestine ghrelin and peptide YY expressions. Our results show that temperature affects feeding in Characidae fish and induces species-specific changes in the expression of appetite regulators.


Assuntos
Apetite , Characidae , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Characidae/fisiologia , Orexinas/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Temperatura , Neônio/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Água
3.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432544

RESUMO

Malaysia has been experiencing smoke-haze episodes almost annually for the past few decades. PM2.5 is the main component in haze and causes harmful impacts on health due to its small aerodynamic size. This study aimed to explore the implications of PM2.5 exposure on the dietary intake of working individuals. Two phased 13-weeks follow-up study was conducted involving 440 participants, consisting of two cohorts of outdoor and indoor workers. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were monitored using DustTrakTM DRX Aerosol Monitor. Data on Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and 24 h diet recall were collected weekly. The highest PM2.5 concentration of 122.90 ± 2.07 µg/m3 was recorded in August, and it vastly exceeded the standard value stipulated by US EPA and WHO. SNAQ scores and calorie intake were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with changes in PM2.5 exposure of outdoor workers. Several moderate and positive correlations (R-value ranged from 0.4 to 0.6) were established between SNAQ scores, calorie intake and PM2.5 exposure. Overall findings suggested that long hours of PM2.5 exposure affect personal dietary intake, potentially increasing the risk of metabolic syndromes and other undesired health conditions. The current policy should be strengthened to safeguard the well-being of outdoor workers.


Assuntos
Apetite , Material Particulado , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Fumaça
4.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 68(Supplement): S5-S7, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437016

RESUMO

Gut hormones produced and released from enteroendocrine cells have key roles not only in nutrient digestion and absorption, but also in control of appetite, nutrient deposition and storage in the body. Several types of enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients after meal ingestion and release specific gut hormones. Understanding how gut hormone responses are controlled and in turn regulate physiological outcomes is an area of active research. In addition, the role of the endocrine system in human-physiology and in pathophysiology (obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal diseases) has begun being investigated. The symposium was organized to present and discuss recent advances in this research field from the aspects of bench to bedside.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Células Enteroendócrinas/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Apetite
5.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e94, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405095

RESUMO

Alternate day fasting (ADF) with consumption of calories up to 25 % of the daily energy intake on fast days is one of the most used intermittent fasting regimens and promoted as a promising, alternative approach for treating obesity. Feelings of appetite are critical for adherence to dietary approaches, and therefore the success of dietary interventions. This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of a minimum of 8 weeks of ADF on subjective feelings of appetite and body weight for adults with overweight and obesity. We conducted the review in accordance with the Cochrane guidelines, including systematic searches in four databases. Because of the high level of clinical and methodological heterogeneity, a narrative approach was used to synthesise the results. Eight studies with a total of 456 participants met the eligibility criteria: three randomised controlled trials and five uncontrolled before-after studies. Seven of the studies had high risk of bias. Feelings of appetite were assessed by hunger in eight studies, fullness in seven studies, satisfaction in four studies and desire to eat in one study. All the studies assessed weight loss. The certainty of the evidence was rated low or very low for all outcomes, thus no firm conclusions can be drawn about the potential benefits of ADF on subjective feelings of appetite and body weight. Despite the high interest in ADF, good quality evidence is still needed to determine its effectiveness and if offered in clinical practice, ADF should be offered cautiously while concomitantly evaluated.


Assuntos
Apetite , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Adulto , Jejum , Peso Corporal , Obesidade
6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 1233748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320895

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between consumption of dietary oils and anthropometric indices, mood, and appetite among women staff of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used, and 245 women staff of Tehran University of Medical Sciences participated. A 168-item food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary and nutrient intake. The association between liquid vegetable oils, hydrogenated vegetable oil, and animal fat intake and anthropometric indices, appetite, and mood was evaluated. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire was used to assess mood. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate appetite status. The tape measure was used to measure the waist circumference and height. SPSS was used to compute body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Results: In the present study, sunflower and frying oil were the most consumed liquid oils (n = 135/245 participants). Participants with a moderate intake of MUFA had greater odds ratio (OR: 3.47; 95% CI: 1.20-10.7; P trend = 0.025) of a high appetite compared to those with a low intake of MUFA. However, the study found no evidence of an association between consumption of edible oils (vegetable oils, animal fat oils, and other fatty acid sources) and mood, anthropometric indices, or appetite. Conclusions: In the current research, we noticed a significant connection between moderate intake of MUFA and a large appetite and no association between consumption of edible oils and other outcomes. In conclusion, a balanced diet low in fast meals, processed foods, cakes, cookies, and sweets is suggested to limit the consumption of artificial trans-fatty acids.


Assuntos
Apetite , Óleos Vegetais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico) , Circunferência da Cintura , Índice de Massa Corporal
7.
Nat Metab ; 4(11): 1532-1550, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344765

RESUMO

Animals must adapt their dietary choices to meet their nutritional needs. How these needs are detected and translated into nutrient-specific appetites that drive food-choice behaviours is poorly understood. Here we show that enteroendocrine cells of the adult female Drosophila midgut sense nutrients and in response release neuropeptide F (NPF), which is an ortholog of mammalian neuropeptide Y-family gut-brain hormones. Gut-derived NPF acts on glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) signalling to induce sugar satiety and increase consumption of protein-rich food, and on adipose tissue to promote storage of ingested nutrients. Suppression of NPF-mediated gut signalling leads to overconsumption of dietary sugar while simultaneously decreasing intake of protein-rich yeast. Furthermore, gut-derived NPF has a female-specific function in promoting consumption of protein-containing food in mated females. Together, our findings suggest that gut NPF-to-AKH signalling modulates specific appetites and regulates food choice to ensure homeostatic consumption of nutrients, providing insight into the hormonal mechanisms that underlie nutrient-specific hungers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Feminino , Animais , Drosophila , Apetite , Açúcares , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Mamíferos
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 992667, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313742

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF), which is the most common inherited genetically determined disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein. Pulmonary failure is the leading cause of death in this population, while the dysregulation of endocrine system creates significant disorders, including malnutrition, underweight, and CF-related diabetes. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the following hormones in the serum of patients with CF: ghrelin, putative peptide YY (PYY), Agouti-signaling protein (ASP), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). To our knowledge, serum levels of PYY, ASP, and α-MSH have not yet been assessed in CF. For this purpose, we measured hormone levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 38 patients from the local CF care center, as well as 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Moreover, we estimated the correlations between the tested hormones and the parameters of the patients' clinical status. In this study, we found sinificantly reduced serum levels of ghrelin and ASP in patients with CF (p<0.01). There was no difference in PYY and α-MSH levels between participants with CF and healthy subjects. Furthermore, there was no difference in hormone levels between females and males with CF. The type of gene mutation (homozygous or heterozygous for ΔF508) had no effect on hormone levels. Ghrelin was negatively correlated with age, body mass index, and C-reactive protein. PYY was negatively associated with the age of the patients. Hormone dysregulation in CF may contribute to decreased appetite, as well as many other disturbed processes. Therefore, ghrelin appears to play a key role in the regulation of energy management of CF. Future multicenter and multidisciplinary studies should focus on an unequivocal understanding of the role of these hormones in CF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Grelina , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Apetite , Estudos Transversais , alfa-MSH , Peptídeo YY
9.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(8): 1096-1103, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36237122

RESUMO

We compared the effects of consuming egg-breakfast of superior protein quality to cereal-breakfast of similar energy density and protein quantity, but lower protein quality. Two, two-week randomised crossover clinical trials included 30 otherwise healthy women with overweight or obesity. Subjects received counselling to follow a reduced-calorie diet. Under supervision, participants consumed either breakfast for one-week then crossed over to the opposite breakfast. Experiment-1 outcome variables included post-breakfast appetite hormones, glucose and insulin, subjective markers of satiety and energy intake at lunch and dinner. In Experiment-2, an appealing food (brownies) was included in lunch. Following the breakfasts, Experiment-1 showed no significant differences in outcome variables. In Experiment-2, the egg-breakfast increased fullness (p = 0.038), but lunch-time energy intake was not different. If these findings apply to other breakfasts, it suggests that in comparing two breakfasts with similar protein quantity, the greater protein quality of a breakfast may not be adequate to induce satiety.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Humanos , Apetite , Estudos Cross-Over , Saciação , Resposta de Saciedade , Redução de Peso
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(8): 1665-1666, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280943

RESUMO

People with diabetes and/ or obesity are advised to curtail their calorie intake in order to improve their glycaemic control and reduce their weight. However, many patients complain of an inability to manage their appetite and thereby find it difficult to control their calorie intake. Dysregulated appetite leads to glycaemic swings, and creates a challenge for metabolic management. Moreover, short term non-structured methods to suppress appetite often can cause a rebound excess of food intake, which can even overshoot more than the baseline intake. This article shares the non-pharmacological heuristics and hacks to help suppress and optimize appetite which can be used in day-to-day clinical practice.


Assuntos
Apetite , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Ingestão de Energia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 73(8): 1116-1123, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300275

RESUMO

A good appearance of food increases appetite. A new food product called iEat® resembles the appearance and softness of familiar foods. Previous studies have reported that iEat® foods increase appetite. However, the neuronal substrates underlying the increase in appetite following the observation of iEat® foods remain unknown. In the present study, the brain activity of 20 healthy adults during the visual presentation of iEat® and pureed foods and non-food objects was examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with pureed foods and non-food objects, iEat® foods showed significantly greater activation in regions of the brain reward system, such as the amygdala, ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex. In addition, individual differences in the activity of the left amygdala were positively correlated with subjective appetite ratings. These results suggest that the good appearance of foods, such as iEat® foods, may be useful for stimulating the appetite of patients with poor appetite.


Assuntos
Alimentos Especializados , Recompensa , Adulto , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia
13.
Cell Metab ; 34(10): 1420-1421, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198286

RESUMO

Many studies associate skipping breakfast with increased overall and disease-specific mortality. In this issue, studies by Ruddick-Collins et al. and Vujovic et al. may begin to explain these findings by showing that those who either skip breakfast or shift high calorie intake from morning to evening display increased hunger. Of note, skipping breakfast also resulted in lower energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Fome , Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar
14.
Cell Metab ; 34(10): 1486-1498.e7, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36198293

RESUMO

Late eating has been linked to obesity risk. It is unclear whether this is caused by changes in hunger and appetite, energy expenditure, or both, and whether molecular pathways in adipose tissues are involved. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02298790) to determine the effects of late versus early eating while rigorously controlling for nutrient intake, physical activity, sleep, and light exposure. Late eating increased hunger (p < 0.0001) and altered appetite-regulating hormones, increasing waketime and 24-h ghrelin:leptin ratio (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, late eating decreased waketime energy expenditure (p = 0.002) and 24-h core body temperature (p = 0.019). Adipose tissue gene expression analyses showed that late eating altered pathways involved in lipid metabolism, e.g., p38 MAPK signaling, TGF-ß signaling, modulation of receptor tyrosine kinases, and autophagy, in a direction consistent with decreased lipolysis/increased adipogenesis. These findings show converging mechanisms by which late eating may result in positive energy balance and increased obesity risk.


Assuntos
Fome , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Apetite , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235865

RESUMO

Background: There is evidence that high-fibre diets have significant health benefits, although the effect of increasing fibre on individuals' appetite, satiety, and gastrointestinal comfort is not well established, nor is its acceptability and feasibility. Methods: This mixed-methods feasibility randomised control trial included 38 participants allocated to one of three conditions: FibreMAX (two daily servings of 25 g of BARLEYmax®), FibreGRAD (two daily servings with the amount of fibre gradually increased), and Control (two daily servings totalling 25 g of placebo product). Participants completed a food diary at baseline. The Hunger and Fullness Questionnaire and questions regarding gastrointestinal response were completed at baseline and at the end of each week. Participants completed the acceptability of intervention measure and engaged in a semi-structured interview, following trial completion. Results: The qualitative data suggested that increased fibre influenced appetite and fullness perceptions. Baseline fibre consumption and the method of increased fibre increase did not influence our findings. The qualitative results also indicated that the fibre intake was perceived as beneficial to well-being; it influenced feelings of hunger and caused some minor acute gastrointestinal symptoms that dissipated after a short adaption period. Conclusion: This study suggests that increasing fibre intake through BARLEYmax® is a safe intervention that is acceptable to participants.


Assuntos
Apetite , Saciação , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Fome
17.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235718

RESUMO

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress signal that can be induced by protein restriction and is associated with reduced food intake. Anorexia of aging, insufficient protein intake as well as high GDF15 concentrations often occur in older age, but it is unknown whether GDF15 concentrations change acutely after meal ingestion and affect appetite in older individuals. After an overnight fast, appetite was assessed in older (n = 20; 73.7 ± 6.30 years) and younger (n = 20; 25.7 ± 4.39 years) women with visual analogue scales, and concentrations of circulating GDF15 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were quantified before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion of either dextrose (182 kcal) or a mixed protein-rich meal (450 kcal). In response to dextrose ingestion, appetite increased in both older and younger women, whereas GDF15 concentrations increased only in the older group. In older women, appetite response was negatively correlated with the GDF15 response (rho = -0.802, p = 0.005). Following high-protein ingestion, appetite increased in younger women, but remained low in the old, while GDF15 concentrations did not change significantly in either age group. GLP-1 concentrations did not differ between age groups or test meals. In summary, acute GDF15 response differed between older and younger women. Associations of postprandial appetite and GDF15 following dextrose ingestion in older women suggest a reduced appetite response when the GDF15 response is high, thus supporting the proposed anorectic effects of high GDF15 concentrations.


Assuntos
Apetite , Proteínas na Dieta , Glucose , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrition ; 103-104: 111815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088864

RESUMO

Historically, fat mass has been considered to have significant influence on human body energy homeostasis through its indirect relationship with appetite control. However, over the past decade, there has been a surge of evidence supporting the potential role of fat-free mass (FFM) in appetite control, and thus the regulatory involvement of FFM in appetite-related measures. Yet, the underlying biological mechanisms that explain the role of FFM in tonic/episodic appetite regulation remain unclear. Available evidence points to a biological link between FFM and peripheral appetite hormones; however, these relationships may be appetite hormone specific. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to present the potential relationship between FFM and appetite hormones, while also emphasizing that further research is needed to elucidate potential cause-effect. Overall, available evidence suggests the appetite stimulating hormone, ghrelin, has an inverse relationship with FFM. The relationship between FFM and the appetite suppression hormones, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and glucagon-like peptide-1, has been relatively unexplored. The evidence presented in this review should encourage researchers, clinicians, and health professionals to consider investigating FFM maintenance as a suitable strategy during weight loss for improvements in appetite control.


Assuntos
Grelina , Peptídeo YY , Humanos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Apetite/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite
19.
Cell Metab ; 34(10): 1472-1485.e6, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087576

RESUMO

Morning loaded calorie intake in humans has been advocated as a dietary strategy to improve weight loss. This is also supported by animal studies suggesting time of eating can prevent weight gain. However, the underlying mechanisms through which timing of eating could promote weight loss in humans are unclear. In a randomized crossover trial (NCT03305237), 30 subjects with obesity/overweight underwent two 4-week calorie-restricted but isoenergetic weight loss diets, with morning loaded or evening loaded calories (45%:35%:20% versus 20%:35%:45% calories at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively). We demonstrate no differences in total daily energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate related to the timing of calorie distribution, and no difference in weight loss. Participants consuming the morning loaded diet reported significantly lower hunger. Thus, morning loaded intake (big breakfast) may assist with compliance to weight loss regime through a greater suppression of appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite , Fome , Animais , Dieta Redutora , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Redução de Peso
20.
Appetite ; 179: 106309, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to reveal the individual differences in Neuroticism and cognitive flexibility among successful restrained eaters (SREs), unsuccessful restrained eaters (UREs), and non-restrained eaters (NREs). Moreover, this study is dedicated to investigating whether certain personality traits and cognitive flexibility could concurrently influence disinhibited eating behaviors among restrained eaters and reveal the pathways through which they interact. METHODS: Female participants aged 17 and 24 years (NREs = 23; SREs = 24; UREs = 23) were assessed with body mass index (BMI) and appetite state measurement, the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. To measure behavioral and neural responses related to cognitive flexibility, participants were required to complete a food-related switching task, and their brain activities were recorded through the technique of electroencephalography (EEG). Here we analyzed two widely investigated components-the N2 and P3 components that separately relate to conflict monitoring and response inhibition. RESULTS: The behavioral performance of food-related task switching did not show significant between-group differences. However, in comparison to NREs and SREs, UREs elicited larger N2 and lower P3 amplitudes during task switching. In addition, UREs exhibited a lower level of Neuroticism than SREs and NREs. Furthermore, food-related task switching induced N2 amplitude fully mediated the association between Neuroticism and disinhibited eating behavior in restrained eaters controlled for BMI and negative affect. Importantly, when a parallel mediation model with N2 and P3 was built concurrently, N2 was still able to fully mediate the association. CONCLUSION: According to behavioral and neural evidence, increased N2 amplitude induced by food-related task switching totally mediated the negative association between Neuroticism and disinhibited eating in restrained eaters.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Alimentos , Apetite , Cognição , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos
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