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2.
Can Vet J ; 62(9): 969-974, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475582

RESUMO

The primary goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of postoperative appetite return in cats premedicated with maropitant citrate. Medical records of 75 cats admitted for gastrointestinal (GI) and urogenital (UG) surgeries were reviewed and analyzed. Buprenorphine analgesia was used with 36 cats (48%) premedicated with maropitant and 39 cats (52%) that were used as a control group. No significant differences in postoperative appetite return were reported with maropitant premedication compared to controls. Age, breed, preoperative weight, surgery type, surgery and anesthesia times, and total hospitalization time were also evaluated and were not reported to be significantly associated with postoperative appetite return. Presenting complaints of hyporexia or anorexia were significantly associated with earlier postoperative appetite return. Results of this study suggest that cats treated with buprenorphine for GI or UG surgeries do not have postoperative appetites return sooner when premedicated with maropitant.


Assuntos
Apetite , Buprenorfina , Animais , Gatos , Quinuclidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 657807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568080

RESUMO

It is known that the microbiome affects human physiology, emotion, disease, growth, and development. Most humans exhibit reduced appetites under high temperature and high humidity (HTHH) conditions, and HTHH environments favor fungal growth. Therefore, we hypothesized that the colonic mycobiota may affect the host's appetite under HTHH conditions. Changes in humidity are also associated with autoimmune diseases. In the current study mice were fed in an HTHH environment (32°C ± 2°C, relative humidity 95%) maintained via an artificial climate box for 8 hours per day for 21 days. Food intake, the colonic fungal microbiome, the feces metabolome, and appetite regulators were monitored. Components of the interleukin 17 pathway were also examined. In the experimental groups food intake and body weight were reduced, and the colonic mycobiota and fecal metabolome were substantially altered compared to control groups maintained at 25°C ± 2°C and relative humidity 65%. The appetite-related proteins LEPT and POMC were upregulated in the hypothalamus (p < 0.05), and NYP gene expression was downregulated (p < 0.05). The expression levels of PYY and O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine were altered in colonic tissues (p < 0.05), and interleukin 17 expression was upregulated in the colon. There was a strong correlation between colonic fungus and sugar metabolism. In fimo some metabolites of cholesterol, tromethamine, and cadaverine were significantly increased. There was significant elevation of the characteristic fungi Solicoccozyma aeria, and associated appetite suppression and interleukin 17 receptor signaling activation in some susceptible hosts, and disturbance of gut bacteria and fungi. The results indicate that the gut mycobiota plays an important role in the hypothalamus endocrine system with respect to appetite regulation via the gut-brain axis, and also plays an indispensable role in the stability of the gut microbiome and immunity. The mechanisms involved in these associations require extensive further studies.


Assuntos
Disbiose , Receptores de Interleucina-17 , Animais , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Basidiomycota , Colo , Umidade , Camundongos , Temperatura
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/virologia , Apetite , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/virologia , Calafrios/diagnóstico , Calafrios/etiologia , Calafrios/virologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/virologia , Inglaterra , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/virologia , Faringite/diagnóstico , Faringite/etiologia , Faringite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Medicina Estatal
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5175, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462445

RESUMO

Calcitonin receptor (Calcr)-expressing neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS; CalcrNTS cells) contribute to the long-term control of food intake and body weight. Here, we show that Prlh-expressing NTS (PrlhNTS) neurons represent a subset of CalcrNTS cells and that Prlh expression in these cells restrains body weight gain in the face of high fat diet challenge in mice. To understand the relationship of PrlhNTS cells to hypothalamic feeding circuits, we determined the ability of PrlhNTS-mediated signals to overcome enforced activation of AgRP neurons. We found that PrlhNTS neuron activation and Prlh overexpression in PrlhNTS cells abrogates AgRP neuron-driven hyperphagia and ameliorates the obesity of mice deficient in melanocortin signaling or leptin. Thus, enhancing Prlh-mediated neurotransmission from the NTS dampens hypothalamically-driven hyperphagia and obesity, demonstrating that NTS-mediated signals can override the effects of orexigenic hypothalamic signals on long-term energy balance.


Assuntos
Obesidade/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/metabolismo , Núcleo Solitário/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanocortinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/genética , Receptores da Calcitonina/genética , Receptores da Calcitonina/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27073, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449506

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Polypharmacy influences malnutrition and activities of daily living (ADL) in older individuals owing to side effects such as anorexia. This study aimed to examine whether polypharmacy (5 or more drugs) is associated with malnutrition and ADL disability among daycare facility users.This cross-sectional study was performed in a daycare facility specializing in rehabilitation. Malnutrition was defined according to the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition criteria and ADL disability according to the "criteria for determination of the daily life independence level (bedridden level) of elderly with disabilities."In total, 103 of the 134 included individuals were analyzed. Thirty-three (32.0%) participants were malnourished, 46 (44.7%) had ADL disability, 58 (56.3%) qualified as cases of polypharmacy, and 9 (8.7%) experienced loss of appetite. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that polypharmacy was independently associated with malnutrition and ADL disability. Separate analyses of each type of drug revealed that proton pump inhibitors (that impair protein absorption and assimilation), anticonstipation drugs, and antihypertensive drugs were associated with malnutrition, whereas proton pump inhibitors, anticonstipation drugs, antidyslipidemia drugs, and antidiabetic drugs were associated with ADL disability. The only factor related to anorexia was the loss of pleasure of eating, which in turn was related to psychological stress.The side effects of polypharmacy among individuals with malnutrition and ADL disability may include impaired protein absorption and assimilation caused by proton pump inhibitors, but not anorexia. Further multicenter prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Centros-Dia de Assistência à Saúde para Adultos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Polimedicação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anorexia/epidemiologia , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
7.
Nurs Open ; 8(6): 3242-3250, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463433

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to explore the current level and associated factors of appetite and death anxiety amongst COVID-19 patients and also to identify correlation between the two variables. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: Demographic and characteristic questionnaires, templer death anxiety scale, council on nutrition of appetite questionnaire and medical coping modes questionnaire were utilized. RESULTS: The average scores of appetite and death anxiety were 19.46 (4.09) and 6.58, (3.21) respectively. 76 patients (100%) suffered from appetite loss, whilst 27 (35.50%) patients suffered from severe death anxiety. Marital status, COVID-19 disease condition ranks, educational level and death anxiety were explained 55.20% of the total variance in the appetite regression model (F = 31.83, p < .001), whilst the gender, avoidance coping strategy and appetite level were explained 49.80% of the total variance in death anxiety model (F = 17.80, p < .001). A moderate negative correlation between appetite and death anxiety was also confirmed (r=-.55, p < .001).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Apetite , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445000

RESUMO

Breakfast has been labeled "the most important meal of the day", especially for children and adolescents. Dietary protein intake may benefit and regulate appetite and energy balance. However, few meta-analyses have been conducted to examine the effect of protein-rich (PR) breakfast on both children and adolescents. This meta-analytic study was conducted to examine the effect of consuming a PR breakfast on short-term energy intake and appetite in children and adolescents. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in January 1990-January 2021. The inclusion criteria applied were RCTs in children and adolescents (7-19 year) comparing PR breakfast consumption with normal protein (NP)/traditional breakfast consumption. Finally, ten studies were included in the analysis, eight studies examined the effect of consuming PR breakfast on SEI (n = 824), and nine studies examined the effect on appetite (fullness = 736, hunger = 710). Our meta-analysis using the random-effects model shows that participants assigned to consume PR breakfast had lower SEI (MD, -111.2 kcal; 95% CI: -145.4, -76.9), higher fullness (MD, 7.4 mm; 95% CI: 6.0, 8.8), and lower hunger (MD, -8.5 mm; 95% CI: -9. 7, -7.3) than those assigned to consume NP/traditional breakfast. However, there was considerable inconsistency across the trial results. Our review suggests that the consumption of PR breakfast could be an excellent strategy for weight management by declining SEI and suppressing appetite, and provides new evidence of the relationship between energy balance and obesity. However, since most eligible studies were of low quality, the results ought to be interpreted cautiously.


Assuntos
Apetite , Desjejum/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/fisiologia , Criança , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(8): 987-991, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404062

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia is defined as a multifactorial syndrome that causes anorexia and an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass). When patients got cachexia, the effectiveness and tolerance for anti-cancer therapy is reduced, leading to their poor prognosis. Although known as such disease, there had been no effective cure for cancer cachexia. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that promotes appetite and improve cachexia. However, there is a limitation as a drug because its half-life is short and must be intravenous injected. Anamorelin is a first novel drug, an orally active, non- peptidic ghrelin mimetic and growth hormone secretagogue approved in Japan in January 2021. Like ghrelin, anamorelin also increases the appetite and lean body mass of patients with cancer cachexia. On the other hand, in clinical trials, there was no statistical significance for increasing the 6-minute walk test distance and recovering non-dominant hand grip strength. As for the functional recovery, a new program has been developed for non-pharmacotherapy with nutritional and exercise interventions. These 2 kinds of interventions will become effective anti-cachexia therapy. Research is also underway to produce anti-cachexia drugs other than anamorelin. Somes are already in their clinical trials. Anti-cachexia therapy will be a new option for treating advanced cancer.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Neoplasias , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Anorexia/etiologia , Apetite , Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Caquexia/etiologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444898

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the accuracy of the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and the SNAQ for Japanese Elderly (SNAQ-JE) for the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM)-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia screening in older persons. We included 380 inpatients aged ≥65 years (mean age, 79.3 ± 7.9; 60.0% women) and admitted to rehabilitation units. Undernutrition and sarcopenia were diagnosed based on GLIM criteria and the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, respectively, using bioimpedance analysis. Poor appetite was defined as an SNAQ score of <14 points and an SNAQ-JE score of ≤14 points. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of these tools for detecting poor appetite for GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia were assessed. The rates of GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia were 56.8% and 59.2%, respectively. The number of patients with poor appetite was 94 (24.7%) for the SNAQ and 234 (61.6%) for the SNAQ-JE. The sensitivity and specificity of the SNAQ measured against GLIM-defined malnutrition were 32.9% and 73.1%, respectively, and against sarcopenia were 29.8% and 70.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the SNAQ-JE measured against GLIM-defined malnutrition were 82.6% and 51.0%, respectively, and against sarcopenia were 86.0% and 53.7%, respectively. The SNAQ-JE showed fair accuracy for GLIM-defined malnutrition and sarcopenia in older patients admitted to rehabilitation units.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Avaliação Nutricional , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apetite , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 105, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant obesogenic appetitive behaviors are associated with greater infant weight and child obesity, yet little is known about maternal influences on infant appetitive behaviors. This study examines the relations between maternal eating behaviors, feeding to soothe, and infant appetitive behaviors in a longitudinal sample of United States mothers. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited in the first trimester (< 12 weeks) and followed through 1 year postpartum. Mothers reported their own eating behaviors (eating competence, restrained, emotional, and external eating) in pregnancy; feeding to soothe their infant at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum; and their infants' appetitive behaviors (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, slowness in eating, and satiety responsiveness) at 6 months. Three path models were estimated to examine the direct relations of maternal eating behaviors with infant appetitive behaviors, the indirect relations of maternal eating behaviors with infant appetitive behaviors through feeding to soothe, and the longitudinal relations between feeding to soothe and infant appetitive behaviors. RESULTS: Maternal eating behaviors and infant appetitive behaviors were directly and indirectly related in all three models. Greater maternal eating competence was related to greater enjoyment of food but was not related to feeding to soothe. Greater maternal restrained and external eating were not directly related to infant appetitive behaviors but were indirectly related to greater infant responsiveness to food through more frequent feeding to soothe. Additionally, several longitudinal relations between feeding to soothe behaviors and infant appetitive behaviors were present. More frequent feeding to soothe at 2 months was related to greater responsiveness to food at 6 months, which was then related to more frequent feeding to soothe at 6 months. Furthermore, greater satiety responsiveness, faster eating speed, and greater responsiveness to food at 6 months were related to more frequent feeding to soothe at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal eating behaviors were related to infant appetitive behaviors directly and indirectly through feeding to soothe. Additionally, results suggest feeding to soothe and infant appetitive behaviors may be bidirectionally linked. These results underscore the need to examine how parental feeding behaviors are influenced both by parental eating behaviors and child appetitive behaviors throughout infancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Apetitivo , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(9): 549-559, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262156

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery induces sustained weight loss and metabolic benefits via notable effects on the gut-brain axis that lead to alterations in the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and glycaemia. However, in a subset of patients, bariatric surgery is associated with adverse effects on mental health, including increased risk of suicide or self-harm as well as the emergence of depression and substance use disorders. The contributing factors behind these adverse effects are not well understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that there are important links between gut-derived hormones, microbial and bile acid profiles, and disorders of mood and substance use, which warrant further exploration in the context of changes in gut-brain signalling after bariatric surgery. Understanding the basis of these adverse effects is essential in order to optimize the health and well-being of people undergoing treatment for obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 162, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284827

RESUMO

Feelings of hunger and satiety are the key determinants for maintaining the life of humans and animals. Disturbed appetite control may disrupt the metabolic health of the host and cause various metabolic disorders. A variety of factors have been implicated in appetite control, including gut microbiota, which develop the intricate interactions to manipulate the metabolic requirements and hedonic feelings. Gut microbial metabolites and components act as appetite-related signaling molecules to regulate appetite-related hormone secretion and the immune system, or act directly on hypothalamic neurons. Herein, we summarize the effects of gut microbiota on host appetite and consider the potential molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose that the manipulation of gut microbiota represents a clinical therapeutic potential for lessening the development and consequence of appetite-related disorders. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Apetite , Regulação do Apetite , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299356

RESUMO

The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin and its receptor are involved in a range of physiological processes, including parturition, lactation, cell growth, wound healing, and social behavior. More recently, increasing evidence has established the effects of oxytocin on food intake, energy expenditure, and peripheral metabolism. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of the central oxytocinergic system in which oxytocin acts to shape eating behavior and metabolism. Next, we discuss the peripheral beneficial effects oxytocin exerts on key metabolic organs, including suppression of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, skeletal muscle regeneration, and bone tissue mineralization. A brief summary of oxytocin actions learned from animal models is presented, showing that weight loss induced by chronic oxytocin treatment is related not only to its anorexigenic effects, but also to the resulting increase in energy expenditure and lipolysis. Following an in-depth discussion on the technical challenges related to endogenous oxytocin measurements in humans, we synthesize data related to the association between endogenous oxytocin levels, weight status, metabolic syndrome, and bone health. We then review clinical trials showing that in humans, acute oxytocin administration reduces food intake, attenuates fMRI activation of food motivation brain areas, and increases activation of self-control brain regions. Further strengthening the role of oxytocin in appetite regulation, we review conditions of hypothalamic insult and certain genetic pathologies associated with oxytocin depletion that present with hyperphagia, extreme weight gain, and poor metabolic profile. Intranasal oxytocin is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials to learn whether oxytocin-based therapeutics can be used to treat obesity and its associated sequela. At the end of this review, we address the fundamental challenges that remain in translating this line of research to clinical care.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205710

RESUMO

Neuropeptide B (NPB) is a peptide hormone that was initially described in 2002. In humans, the biological effects of NPB depend on the activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), and, in rodents, NPBWR1. NPB and its receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral tissues. NPB is also present in the circulation. In the CNS, NPB modulates appetite, reproduction, pain, anxiety, and emotions. In the peripheral tissues, NPB controls secretion of adrenal hormones, pancreatic beta cells, and various functions of adipose tissue. Experimental downregulation of either NPB or NPBWR1 leads to adiposity. Here, we review the literature with regard to NPB-dependent control of metabolism and energy homeostasis.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Reprodução
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200678

RESUMO

Food homeostatic states (hunger and satiety) influence the cognitive systems regulating impulsive responses, but the direction and specific mechanisms involved in this effect remain elusive. We examined how fasting, and satiety, affect cognitive mechanisms underpinning disinhibition using a novel framework and a gamified test-battery. Thirty-four participants completed the test-battery measuring three cognitive facets of disinhibition: attentional control, information gathering and monitoring of feedback, across two experimental sessions: one after overnight fasting and another after a standardised meal. Homeostatic state was assessed using subjective self-reports and biological markers (i.e., blood-derived liver-expressed antimicrobial protein 2 (LEAP-2), insulin and leptin). We found that participants who experienced greater subjective hunger during the satiety session were more impulsive in the information gathering task; results were not confounded by changes in mood or anxiety. Homeostatic state did not significantly influence disinhibition mechanisms linked to attentional control or feedback monitoring. However, we found a significant interaction between homeostatic state and LEAP-2 on attentional control, with higher LEAP-2 associated with faster reaction times in the fasted condition only. Our findings indicate lingering hunger after eating increases impulsive behaviour via reduced information gathering. These findings identify a novel mechanism that may underpin the tendency to overeat and/or engage in broader impulsive behaviours.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Homeostase , Fome/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Apetite/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisões , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Saciação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201703

RESUMO

Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; p = 0.011) and rice (-64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; p = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adulto , Aminoácidos/análise , Apetite , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/sangue , Saciação , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208986

RESUMO

(1) Background: The favorable effects of high protein snacks on body composition and appetite status in lean and athletic populations have been illustrated previously. However, the effects of soy-enriched high protein snacks have not been investigated in women with normal-weight obesity (NWO). Consequently, we aimed at comparing the effects of six months of soy-enriched high protein snack replacement on appetite, body composition, and dietary intake in women with NWO. (2) Methods: One hundred seven (107) women with NWO [(age: 24 ± 3 yrs, BMI: 22.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2, body fat percentage (BFP): 38 ± 3.2%)] who were assigned to one of two groups; high protein snack (HP, n = 52) containing 50 g soybean or isocaloric low-protein snack (protein: 18.2 g, carbohydrate: 15 g, fat: 10 g, energy: 210 kcal) or isocaloric low protein snack (LP, n = 55) containing 3.5 servings of fruit (protein: <2 g, carbohydrate: ≈50 g, fat: <1 g, energy: ≈210 kcal) as part of their daily meals (as a snack at 10 a.m.), successfully completed the study interventions. Body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), BFP, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, and appetite levels were evaluated prior to and after the six-month intervention. (3) Results: Appetite (HP = -12 mm and LP = -0.6 mm), energy intake (HP = -166.2 kcal/day and LP = 91.3 kcal), carbohydrate intake (HP = -58.4 g/day and LP = 6.4 g/day), WC (HP = -4.3 cm and LP = -0.9 cm), and BFP (HP = -3.7% and LP = -0.9%) were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced, while skeletal muscle mass (HP = 1.2 kg and LP = 0.3 kg) significantly increased in the HP compared to the LP group, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Six months of a soy-enriched high protein snack replacement decreased appetite and improved body composition in women with NWO. Our findings suggest that soy-enriched high protein snacks are an efficacious strategy for body composition improvement.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Lanches , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299350

RESUMO

Leptin is a cytokine that regulates appetite and energy expenditure, where in fishes it is primarily produced in the liver and acts to mobilize carbohydrates. Most fishes have only one leptin receptor (LepR/LepRA1), however, paralogs have recently been documented in a few species. Here we reveal a second leptin receptor (LepRA2) in rainbow trout that is 77% similar to trout LepRA1. Phylogenetic analyses show a salmonid specific genome duplication event as the probable origin of the second LepR in trout. Tissues distributions showed tissue specific expression of these receptors, with lepra1 highest in the ovaries, nearly 50-fold higher than lepra2. Interestingly, lepra2 was most highly expressed in the liver while hepatic lepra1 levels were low. Feed deprivation elicited a decline in plasma leptin, an increase in hepatic lepra2 by one week and remained elevated at two weeks, while liver expression of lepra1 remained low. By contrast, muscle lepra1 mRNA increased at one and two weeks of fasting, while adipose lepra1 was concordantly lower in fasted fish. lepra2 transcript levels were not affected in muscle and fat. These data show lepra1 and lepra2 are differentially expressed across tissues and during feed deprivation, suggesting paralog- and tissue-specific functions for these leptin receptors.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119649

RESUMO

The use of probiotics has been recently considered a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent pathologies such as obesity; however, the specific mechanisms of action by which probiotics exert their beneficial effects on metabolic health remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplementation (PROB) on appetite regulation, growth-related markers, and microbiota diversity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, compared to a group subjected to a constant darkness photoperiod (DARK), as well as to evaluate the effects of both treatments on melatonin receptors' expression. After a 24 h treatment, both PROB and DARK conditions caused a significant increase in leptin a expression. Moreover, mRNA abundances of leptin b and proopiomelanocortin a were elevated in the PROB group, and DARK showed a similar tendency, supporting a negative regulation of appetite markers by the treatments. Moreover, both PROB and DARK also enhanced the abundances of melatonin receptors transcript (melatonin receptor 1 ba and bb) and protein (melatonin receptor 1) suggesting a potential involvement of melatonin in mediating these effects. Nevertheless, treatments did not exhibit a significant effect on the expression of most of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis genes evaluated. Finally, only the DARK condition significantly modulated gut microbiota diversity at such short time, altogether highlighting the rapid effects of this probiotic on modulating appetite regulatory and melatonin receptors' expression, without a concomitant variation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/química , Larva/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Probióticos/farmacologia , Receptores de Melatonina/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Peixe-Zebra
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