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2.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352678

RESUMO

Appetitive traits of food approach or food avoidance are commonly measured using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (AEBQ). However, there is no Polish version of the AEBQ validated for adolescents, and to the best of our knowledge, no study completed with the Polish version of the AEBQ has been published thus far. The present study aimed to validate the AEBQ in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students and to assess differences in appetitive traits between boys and girls within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study. The PLACE-19 Study was conducted in a group of 2448 adolescents recruited in May 2020 through the random quota sampling of secondary schools. The AEBQ was used to assess food approach subscales (Food Responsiveness, Emotional Over-Eating, and Enjoyment of Food) and food avoidance subscales (Satiety Responsiveness, Emotional Under-Eating, Food Fussiness, and Slowness in Eating). To validate the questionnaire, the standardized factor loadings within confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with weighted least squares (WLS) were analyzed, and invariance was verified. The CFA presented good model fit, with χ2 = 4826.105 (degrees of freedom (df) = 384), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.069 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.067, 0.070), comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.90, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08. The results revealed that, compared to the configural invariance model, the metric invariance model did not result in significantly decreased model fit, with ΔCFI = -0.002 and ΔRMSEA = -0.001, which were lower than the recommended cutoffs of 0.010 and 0.015, respectively. The scalar invariance model also did not result in significantly decreased fit of the model over the metric invariance model, with ΔCFI = -0.005 and ΔRMSEA = 0.000. Girls reported higher levels of Food Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Over-Eating (p < 0.0001), Satiety Responsiveness (p < 0.0001), Emotional Under-Eating (p < 0.0001), and Slowness in Eating than boys (p < 0.0001), and the total AEBQ scores of girls were also higher (p < 0.0001). Positive inter-correlations were observed between all food approach subscales, as well as between Emotional Under-Eating and all food approach subscales for girls, boys, and the total sample; positive inter-correlations were also observed between the majority of food avoidance subscales. The present study confirmed the validity of the AEBQ in the studied population, and supported the associations between appetitive traits assessed using the AEBQ; it also indicated higher scores of both food approach and food avoidance subscales in girls than in boys in a population-based sample of Polish secondary school students.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Alimentos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicometria/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(4): E814-E819, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893673

RESUMO

Lactate, a molecule originally considered metabolic waste, is now associated with a number of important physiological functions. Although the roles of lactate as a signaling molecule, fuel source, and gluconeogenic substrate have garnered significant attention in recent reviews, a relatively underexplored and emerging role of lactate is its control of energy intake (EI). To expand our understanding of the physiological roles of lactate, we present evidence from early infusion studies demonstrating the ability of lactate to suppress EI in both rodents and humans. We then discuss findings from recent human studies that have utilized exercise intensity and/or sodium bicarbonate supplementation to modulate endogenous lactate and examine its impact on appetite regulation. These studies consistently demonstrate that greater blood lactate accumulation is associated with greater suppression of the hunger hormone ghrelin and subjective appetite, thereby supporting a role of lactate in the control of EI. To stimulate future research investigating the role of lactate as an appetite-regulatory molecule, we also highlight potential underlying mechanisms explaining the appetite-suppressive effects of lactate using evidence from rodent and in vitro cellular models. Specifically, we discuss the ability of lactate to 1) inhibit the secretory function of ghrelin producing gastric cells, 2) modulate the signaling cascades that control hypothalamic neuropeptide expression/release, and 3) inhibit signaling through the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus. Unravelling the role of lactate as an appetite-regulatory molecule can shed important insight into the regulation of EI, thereby contributing to the development of interventions aimed at combatting overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Lactatos , Animais , Regulação do Apetite , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos
4.
Nat Metab ; 2(9): 958-973, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868922

RESUMO

Cellular metabolic reprogramming is an important mechanism by which cells rewire their metabolism to promote proliferation and cell growth. This process has been mostly studied in the context of tumorigenesis, but less is known about its relevance for nonpathological processes and how it affects whole-animal physiology. Here, we show that metabolic reprogramming in Drosophila female germline cells affects nutrient preferences of animals. Egg production depends on the upregulation of the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway in the germline, which also specifically increases the animal's appetite for sugar, the key nutrient fuelling this metabolic pathway. We provide functional evidence that the germline alters sugar appetite by regulating the expression of the fat-body-secreted satiety factor Fit. Our findings demonstrate that the cellular metabolic program of a small set of cells is able to increase the animal's preference for specific nutrients through inter-organ communication to promote specific metabolic and cellular outcomes.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Açúcares , Animais , Diversidade de Anticorpos , Carcinogênese , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Fome/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Via de Pentose Fosfato , Inanição
5.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1109-1124, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940529

RESUMO

Objective: Appetitive risk behaviors (ARB), including tobacco use, alcohol consumption, consumption of calorie dense/nutrient-poor foods, and sexual risk behavior contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. Affective states that arise from a wide array of unrelated circumstances (i.e., incidental affect) may carry over to influence ARB. A meta-analysis is needed to systematically examine causal evidence for the role of incidental affect (including specific emotions) in influencing ARB. Method: Integrating effect sizes from 91 published and unpublished experimental studies that include both an incidental-affect induction and neutral-control condition (k = 271 effect sizes: k = 183 negative affect, k = 78 positive affect), this meta-analysis examines how negative and positive affective states influenced ARB and related health cognitions (e.g., intentions, evaluations, craving, perceived control). Results: Negative affective states reliably increased ARB, in analyses where all negative affective states were analyzed (d = .29) and in stratified analyses of just negative mood (d = .30) and stress (d = .48). These effects were stronger among study populations coded as clinically at risk. Positive affective states generally did not influence ARB or related health cognitions, except in the presence of a craving cue. Design issues of extant literature largely precluded conclusions about the effects of specific positive and negative affective states. Conclusion: Taken together, findings suggest the importance of strategies to attenuate negative affect incidental to ARB to facilitate healthier behavioral patterns, especially among clinically at-risk individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22962-22966, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868418

RESUMO

Gonadal hormones are linked to mechanisms that govern appetitive behavior and its suppression. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by the enzyme aromatase, highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive-aged women and in the brains of men and women of all ages. We measured aromatase availability in the amygdala using positron emission tomography (PET) with the aromatase inhibitor [11C]vorozole in a sample of 43 adult, normal-weight, overweight, or obese men and women. A subsample of 27 also completed personality measures to examine the relationship between aromatase and personality traits related to self-regulation and inhibitory control. Results indicated that aromatase availability in the amygdala was negatively associated with body mass index (BMI) (in kilograms per square meter) and positively correlated with scores of the personality trait constraint independent of sex or age. Individual variations in the brain's capacity to synthesize estrogen may influence the risk of obesity and self-control in men and women.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Androgênios , Aromatase/análise , Inibidores da Aromatase , Índice de Massa Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipogênese , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Autocontrole
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14473-14481, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513737

RESUMO

Hypothalamic tanycytes are chemosensitive glial cells that contact the cerebrospinal fluid in the third ventricle and send processes into the hypothalamic parenchyma. To test whether they can activate neurons of the arcuate nucleus, we targeted expression of a Ca2+-permeable channelrhodopsin (CatCh) specifically to tanycytes. Activation of tanycytes ex vivo depolarized orexigenic (neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein; NPY/AgRP) and anorexigenic (proopiomelanocortin; POMC) neurons via an ATP-dependent mechanism. In vivo, activation of tanycytes triggered acute hyperphagia only in the fed state during the inactive phase of the light-dark cycle.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiopatologia , Células Ependimogliais/fisiologia , Hiperfagia/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/citologia , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Injeções Intraventriculares , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Modelos Animais , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Optogenética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R171-R183, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551825

RESUMO

Exercise is often used as a strategy for weight loss maintenance. In preclinical models, we have shown that exercise may be beneficial because it counters the biological drive to regain weight. However, our studies have demonstrated sex differences in the response to exercise in this context. In the present study, we sought to better understand why females and males exhibit different compensatory food eating behaviors in response to regular exercise. Using a forced treadmill exercise paradigm, we measured weight gain, energy expenditure, food intake in real time, and the anorectic effects of leptin. The 4-wk exercise training resulted in reduced weight gain in males and sustained weight gain in females. In male rats, exercise decreased intake, whereas it increased food intake in females. Our results suggest that the anorectic effects of leptin were not responsible for these sex differences in appetite in response to exercise. If these results translate to the human condition, they may reveal important information for the use and application of regular exercise programs.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity remains a primary threat to the health of most Americans, with over 66% considered overweight or obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or greater. A common treatment option many believe to be effective, and therefore turn to, is exercise. However, the amount of weight loss from exercise training is often disappointingly less than expected with greater amounts of exercise not always promoting greater weight loss. Increases in energy intake have been prescribed as the primary reason for this lack of weight loss success with exercise. Research has mostly focused on alterations in hormonal mediators of appetite (e.g.: ghrelin, peptide YY, GLP-1, pancreatic polypeptide, and leptin) that may increase hunger and/or reduce satiety to promote greater energy intake with exercise training. A less understood mechanism that may be working to increase energy intake with exercise is reward-driven feeding, a strong predictor of energy intake and weight status but rarely analyzed in the context of exercise. DESIGN: Sedentary men and women (BMI: 25-35 kg/m2, N = 52) were randomized into parallel aerobic exercise training groups partaking in either two or six exercise sessions/week, or sedentary control for 12 weeks. METHODS: The reinforcing value of food was measured by an operant responding progressive ratio schedule task (the behavioral choice task) to determine how much work participants were willing to perform for access to a healthy food option relative to a less healthy food option before and after the exercise intervention. Body composition and resting energy expenditure were assessed via DXA and indirect calorimetry, respectively, at baseline and post testing. RESULTS: Changes in fat-free mass predicted the change in total amount of operant responding for food (healthy and unhealthy). There were no correlations between changes in the reinforcing value of one type of food (healthy vs unhealthy) to changes in body composition. CONCLUSION: In support of previous work, reductions in fat-free mass resulting from an aerobic exercise intervention aimed at weight loss plays an important role in energy balance regulation by increasing operant responding for food.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício Físico , Alimentos , Obesidade/terapia , Reforço Psicológico , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Redutora , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(9): e12651, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the beneficial effects of exercise on appetite might depend on its timing during the day or relative to a meal, this remains poorly explored in youth. OBJECTIVES: To examine the importance of meal timing (+30 vs +90 minutes) after performing exercise on energy intake, appetite and food reward in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Eighteen adolescents with obesity randomly completed three conditions: (a) lunch (12:00 pm) set 30 minutes after a rest session (11:00 am); (b) lunch (12:00 pm) set 30 minutes after an exercise session (11:00 am)(MEAL-30); (c) lunch (01:00 pm) set 90 minutes after an exercise session (11:00 am)(MEAL-90). Lunch and dinner ad libitum energy intake was assessed, food reward (LFPQ) assessed before and after lunch, and before dinner, appetite sensations were assessed at regular intervals. RESULTS: Energy intake was lower at MEAL-90 than MEAL-30 and CON at lunch (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively) and lunch + dinner combined (P < .001). A decrease in intake (g) of protein, fat and carbohydrate was observed. Post-exercise hunger was lower on MEAL-90 compared with CON. No condition effects were found at lunch for food reward. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying the timing of the meal after exercise might help affect energy balance by decreasing ad libitum energy intake without increasing hunger and by improving satiety in adolescents with obesity.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Masculino , Recompensa , Saciação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(10): 4575-4583, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Loss of appetite is a common side effect of cancer and cancer treatments resulting in risk of malnutrition and cancer cachexia. This review aimed to systematically determine nutrition interventions that improve appetite and nutrition-related outcomes of adults with cancer undergoing cancer treatments, and to identify appetite assessment tools used to measure appetite. METHODS: Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials of adults with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or immunotherapy treatments, nutrition interventions and appetite assessed by an appetite assessment tool or quality of life tool. The search strategy was applied to four databases and two researchers systematically assessed for eligibility. Following data extraction, quality of the included library was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist: Primary Research. A narrative synthesis of results was undertaken. RESULTS: After title/abstract screening, 24 full texts were assessed for eligibility; five trials of n = 472 participants were included in the final library. Nutrition interventions that improved appetite were oral nutrition supplements, fish oil supplements and dietary counselling. Appetite was assessed via visual analogue scales (n = 1) and EORTC QLQ C30 questionnaire (n = 4). Quality was assessed as neutral in 2 studies and positive in 3 studies. CONCLUSION: The use of oral nutrition supplements and dietary counselling and increases in EPA from fish oil supplementation improved the appetite and nutrition outcomes of patients with cancer undergoing cancer treatments. Validated assessment tools in the oncology setting are needed to determine which nutrition interventions positively influence appetite outcomes.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Humanos
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350022

RESUMO

A 16-year-old girl presented to her primary care physician with a one-month history of decreased appetite and abdominal pain. She had normal bowel movements and no vomiting, but her periumbilical pain limited her ability to finish most meals. She had gradual weight loss over the previous 2 years, and during the previous 4 years, she intermittently received counseling for depression after the loss of her mother. Her initial physical examination and laboratory evaluation were unremarkable. She was referred to a nutritionist, adolescent medicine, and pediatric gastroenterology. Her presentation evolved over time, which ultimately led to a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Apetite/fisiologia , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Dor Abdominal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230732

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by a resistance to appetite-regulating hormones, leading to a misalignment between the physiological signals and the perceived hunger/satiety signal. A disruption of the synthesis rhythm may explain this situation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary-induced weight loss on the daily rhythms of leptin and ghrelin and its influence on the daily variability of the appetite sensations of patients with obesity. Twenty subjects with obesity underwent a hypocaloric dietary intervention for 12 weeks. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were analyzed at baseline and at the end of the intervention and in 13 normal-weight controls. Appetite ratings were analyzed. Weight loss decreased leptin synthesis (pauc < 0.001) but not the rhythm characteristics, except the mean variability value (pmesor = 0.020). By contrast, the mean ghrelin level increased after weight loss. The rhythm characteristics were also modified until a rhythm similar to the normal-weight subjects was reached. The amount of variability of leptin and ghrelin was correlated with the effectiveness of the dietary intervention (p < 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively). Losing weight partially restores the daily rhythms of leptin and modifies the ghrelin rhythms, but appetite sensations are barely modified, thus confirming that these hormones cannot exercise their physiological function properly.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta de Saciedade/fisiologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(7)2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272767

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the major social and health problems globally and often associated with various other pathological conditions. In addition to unregulated eating behaviour, circulating peptide-mediated hormonal secretion and signaling pathways play a critical role in food intake induced obesity. Amongst the many peptides involved in the regulation of food-seeking behaviour, somatostatin (SST) is the one which plays a determinant role in the complex process of appetite. SST is involved in the regulation of release and secretion of other peptides, neuronal integrity, and hormonal regulation. Based on past and recent studies, SST might serve as a bridge between central and peripheral tissues with a significant impact on obesity-associated with food intake behaviour and energy expenditure. Here, we present a comprehensive review describing the role of SST in the modulation of multiple central and peripheral signaling molecules. In addition, we highlight recent progress and contribution of SST and its receptors in food-seeking behaviour, obesity (orexigenic), and satiety (anorexigenic) associated pathways and mechanism.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Peptídeos/metabolismo
15.
Br J Nutr ; 124(4): 407-417, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248846

RESUMO

This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until 'comfortably full' (ad libitum) and on the other, until they 'could not eat another bite' (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Hiperfagia/sangue , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6993, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332781

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a member of the FGF superfamily that acts in an endocrine manner. FGF21 is a key regulator of energy balance and metabolism in mammals, and has emerged as a therapeutic potential for treating obesity and diabetes. Here, we report that mRNAs encoding FGF21 and its receptors are widely distributed within the zebrafish tissues and are importantly modulated by fasting (decreased in brain and liver, and increased in gut). FGF21 stimulates food intake in zebrafish, likely in part by modulating brain npy/agrp and nucb2/nesfatin-1 and gut ghrelin and cck mRNA expression. In accordance with this orexigenic role, the expression of FGF21 and its receptors were observed to increase preprandially and decrease post-feeding in the foregut and/or liver. Finally, we found important evidence in favor of a role for FGF21 in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in the zebrafish liver in a way that mimics a fasting metabolic state.


Assuntos
Jejum/fisiologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Biologia de Sistemas
17.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(4): 398-403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate olfactory function in elderly subjects requiring nursing care to clarify its association with appetite and nutritional status. SETTING: Facility for the elderly requiring nursing care. PARTICIPANTS: The subjects were 158 elderly people requiring nursing care and 37 elderly people not requiring nursing care. MEASUREMENTS: Experiment I: Olfactory function and factors (cognitive function, appetite, and nutritional status) that may be associated with it were compared between the elderly subjects requiring nursing care and those not requiring nursing care using covariance analysis in consideration of age. For evaluation, the OSIT-J was used for olfactory function, the HDS-R for cognitive function, the CNAQ for appetite, and BMI for nutritional status. Experiment II: The subjects were the same elderly subjects requiring nursing care in Experiment I, and food intake was surveyed in addition to the OSIT-J, HDS-R, CNAQ, and BMI. A univariate linear regression analysis was performed with OSIT-J as the response variable, and age, HDS-R, CNAQ, BMI, and food intake as the explanatory variables. RESULTS: Experiment I: On covariance analysis, the OSIT-J score was significantly lower for the elderly subjects requiring nursing care than for those not requiring nursing care (p<0.01). The mean score was 8 or lower in both groups, demonstrating lower olfactory function in both groups. Regarding factors that may be associated with olfactory function, a significant difference was noted in the HDS-R (p<0.01), confirming significantly lower cognitive function in the elderly subjects requiring nursing care. No significant difference was noted in the CNAQ or BMI. Experiment II: On a univariate linear regression analysis, an association with the OSIT-J was noted for age and HDS-R. Age was inversely correlated and the HDS-R was positively correlated. Factors associated with lower olfactory function in the elderly subjects requiring nursing were age and cognitive function, whereas appetite, nutritional status, and food intake were not associated. CONCLUSION: Olfactory function in elderly subjects requiring nursing care was poorer than that in those not requiring nursing care, suggesting that aging and cognitive decline are associated with lower olfactory function. In addition, no association of lower olfactory function with appetite, nutritional status, or food intake was noted in the elderly subjects requiring nursing care.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Enfermagem Geriátrica/normas , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
19.
Int J Behav Med ; 27(2): 247-254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distress intolerance, one's inability to withstand distressing emotional or physical states, is a transdiagnostic vulnerability implicated in affect-based health behaviors, including cigarette smoking and poor weight control. The current study evaluated associations between distress intolerance and the reliance on cigarettes for management of weight, appetite, or body dissatisfaction, which may pose a burden for cessation and increase risk of weight-related health problems. METHOD: Daily smokers (n = 577) completed an online survey assessing distress tolerance and reliance on cigarettes for weight and shape control with the four subscales of the Smoking and Weight Eating Episodes Test (SWEET). Four hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the association between distress intolerance and SWEET scores, accounting for the effect of relevant covarying factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for model covariates, distress intolerance was significantly incrementally associated with greater tendency to rely on cigarettes to suppress appetite (adjR2 = .040), prevent overeating (adjR2 = .034), cope with body dissatisfaction (adjR2 = .046), and cope with nicotine withdrawal-related appetite increases (adjR2 = .030). CONCLUSION: Distress intolerance may play an etiological role in maladaptive use of cigarettes to control appetite, weight, and body dissatisfaction among daily smokers, particularly those with weight- or shape-related concerns. Interventions aimed at increasing perceived ability to withstand distress could potentially reduce reliance on cigarettes for the aforementioned purposes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Apetite/fisiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The question of whether there is daytime time variation in diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) has not been clearly answered. Moreover, it is unclear whether a potential diurnal variation in DIT is preserved during hypocaloric nutrition. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that DIT varies depending on the time of day and explored whether this physiological regulation is preserved after low-calorie compared with high-calorie intake. DESIGN: Under blinded conditions, 16 normal-weight men twice underwent a 3-day in-laboratory, randomized, crossover study. Volunteers consumed a predetermined low-calorie breakfast (11% of individual daily kilocalorie requirement) and high-calorie dinner (69%) in one condition and vice versa in the other. DIT was measured by indirect calorimetry, parameters of glucose metabolism were determined, and hunger and appetite for sweets were rated on a scale. RESULTS: Identical calorie consumption led to a 2.5-times higher DIT increase in the morning than in the evening after high-calorie and low-calorie meals (P < .001). The food-induced increase of blood glucose and insulin concentrations was diminished after breakfast compared with dinner (P < .001). Low-calorie breakfast increased feelings of hunger (P < .001), specifically appetite for sweets (P = .007), in the course of the day. CONCLUSIONS: DIT is clearly higher in the morning than in the evening, irrespective of the consumed calorie amount; that is, this physiological rhythmicity is preserved during hypocaloric nutrition. Extensive breakfasting should therefore be preferred over large dinner meals to prevent obesity and high blood glucose peaks even under conditions of a hypocaloric diet.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Desjejum/fisiologia , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Calorimetria Indireta , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
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