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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111556, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326842

RESUMO

Facile green synthesis of copper nanoparticles from different biological procedures has been indicated, but among all, biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles from medicinal plants is considered as the most suitable method. The use of medicinal plant material increases the therapeutical effects of copper nanoparticles. The aim of this study was green synthesis of copper nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Falcaria vulgaris leaf (CuNPs) and assessment of their cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and cutaneous wound healing properties. These nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis. The synthesized CuNPs had great cell viability dose-dependently (Investigating the effect of the CuNPs on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line) and indicated this method was nontoxic. Also, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test was done to assess the antioxidant activities, which indicated similar antioxidant potentials for CuNPs and butylated hydroxytoluene. In part of cutaneous wound healing property of CuNPs, after creating the cutaneous wound, the rats were randomly divided into six groups: treatment with 0.2% CuNPs ointment, treatment with 0.2% CuSO4 ointment, treatment with 0.2% F. vulgaris ointment, treatment with 3% tetracycline ointment, treatment with Eucerin basal ointment, and untreated control. These groups were treated for 10 days. Treatment with CuNPs ointment remarkably increased (p ≤ .01) the wound contracture, vessel, hexosamine, hydroxyl proline, hexuronic acid, fibrocyte, and fibrocytes/fibroblast rate and substantially reduced (p ≤ .01) the wound area, total cells, neutrophil, and lymphocyte compared to other groups. In antibacterial and antifungal parts of this research, the concentration of CuNPs with minimum dilution and no turbidity was considered minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). To determine minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), 60 µL MIC and three preceding chambers were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and Muller Hinton Agar, respectively. The minimum concentration with no fungal and bacterial growth were considered MFC and MBC, respectively. CuNPs inhibited the growth of all fungi at 2-4 mg/mL concentrations and removed them at 4-8 mg/mL concentrations (p ≤ .01). In case of antibacterial effects of CuNPs, they inhibited the growth of all bacteria at 2-8 mg/mL concentrations and removed them at 4-16 mg/mL concentrations (p ≤ .01). The results of XRD, FT-IR, UV, TEM, and FE-SEM confirm that the aqueous extract of F. vulgaris leaf can be used to yield copper nanoparticles with notable amount of antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, and cutaneous wound healing potentials without any cytotoxicity. Further clinical trials are necessary for confirmation these therapeutical effects of CuNPs in human.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Cobre/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Food Chem ; 296: 150-159, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202299

RESUMO

Sea fennel is an herbaceous aromatic and edible halophyte, naturally occurring in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin. Besides its scientific interest as a salt-tolerant species it exhibits considerable nutritional value and economical potential. As sea fennel is distributed in maritime areas, where natural iodine is available in high concentrations, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether sea fennel has the potential to accumulate elevated iodine concentrations under cultivation. A biofortification experiment in a hydroponic system applying two forms of iodine, KI and KIO3 in different concentrations was set up and monitored using sophisticated targeted elementary and metabolite analysis. The biofortification potential and possible effects on nutritional value were investigated. This study revealed that both iodine forms increased the iodine content of sea fennel tissues. Nutritional and health promoting components, biomass production but also antioxidant potential were stable or even improved under the iodine treatments.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Hidroponia/métodos , Iodo/química , Valor Nutritivo , Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofortificação , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plântula/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934718

RESUMO

Methoxylated coumarins represent a large proportion of officinal value coumarins while only one enzyme specific to bergaptol O-methylation (BMT) has been identified to date. The multiple types of methoxylated coumarins indicate that at least one unknown enzyme participates in the O-methylation of other hydroxylated coumarins and remains to be identified. Combined transcriptome and metabonomics analysis revealed that an enzyme similar to caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT-S, S is short for similar) was involved in catalyzing all the hydroxylated coumarins in Peucedanum praeruptorum. However, the precise molecular mechanism of its substrate heterozygosis remains unsolved. Pursuing this question, we determined the crystal structure of COMT-S to clarify its substrate preference. The result revealed that Asn132, Asp271, and Asn325 govern the substrate heterozygosis of COMT-S. A single mutation, such as N132A, determines the catalytic selectivity of hydroxyl groups in esculetin and also causes production differences in bergapten. Evolution-based analysis indicated that BMT was only recently derived as a paralogue of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) via gene duplication, occurring before the Apiaceae family divergence between 37 and 100 mya. The present study identified the previously unknown O-methylation steps in coumarin biosynthesis. The crystallographic and mutational studies provided a deeper understanding of the substrate preference, which can be used for producing specific O-methylation coumarins. Moreover, the evolutionary relationship between BMT and COMT-S was clarified to facilitate understanding of evolutionary events in the Apiaceae family.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apiaceae/química , Apiaceae/genética , Cumarínicos/química , Mineração de Dados , Evolução Molecular , Furocumarinas/química , Furocumarinas/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Heterozigoto , Metilação , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/química , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade por Substrato , Transcriptoma/genética , Umbeliferonas/química , Umbeliferonas/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(6): e1900059, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969463

RESUMO

Seseli libanotis is an aromatic umbelliferous plant distributed sporadically on dry grassland edges in Europe and Western Asia. The essential oil composition in the different plant parts was studied from plants collected on nine sites in Austria and one site in Alto Adige, Italy. Monoterpenes such as α-pinene, sabinene and ß-myrcene and the sesquiterpene germacrene D were present in all essential oils from the aerial parts. Inflorescences and fruits had the highest essential oil contents. These essential oils from four sites were rich in acorenone B, while from other three sites they had carotol as a major component. Osthole as furocoumarin occurred in some oils. The root essential oils were dominated by α-pinene. The essential oil variability has been studied by principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) with plant parts or sampling site as a priori groups. PCA could well separate inflorescence and fruit essential oil samples from leaf and stem essential oil samples. DA differentiated well between the plant parts and most of the sampling sites.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Europa (Continente) , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 815-824, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895566

RESUMO

Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. (Fam. Apiaceae), an orophilous species of eastern Mediterranean and western Asia, possesses a number of biological properties that are worthy of exploitation in different fields. Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of coumarins, prenyl-coumarins, and furano-coumarins as the main constituents of this species, as well as several flavonoids. Among prenyl-coumarins, osthol is a promising apoptotic agent quite selective toward cancer cells. In addition, the essential oils have been extensively investigated, and several chemotypes have been identified. This work reviews the literature on this species published between 1965 and 2018, describes its volatile and nonvolatile metabolites, and outlines its pharmacological effects.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 285: 46-52, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797371

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tocopherol, rosemary essential oil and ferulago on oxidative stability of mayonnaise during storage. Their efficacy was also compared with tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and the control group. During the primary oxidation stage, tocopherol was more efficient than TBHQ, while in the secondary oxidation stage it was the same as other antioxidants. At end of storage, samples with added rosemary essential oil and ferulago extract showed peroxide value (2.29 and 2.80 meq O2/kg oil), anisidine value (11.83 and 12.23), hexanal and heptanal concentration (510.2, 589.9 and 76.6, 75.2 ng/g), respectively, which were meaningfully less than those of the control sample (10.44 meq O2/kg, 18.32, 1339.8 ng/g, and 225.5 ng/g, respectively). Based on the overall results, tocopherol and rosemary essential oil can be recommended as replacement for TBHQ. However, further evaluation needs to be performed on the organoleptic properties of Ferulago extract.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tocoferóis/química , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/química , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução
7.
Molecules ; 24(4)2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769848

RESUMO

Extracts of bled resin from Azorella compacta, of the Azorelloideae family from the Andes (>4000 m), were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra of the dominant compounds of the resin and its hydrogenation products were documented. The most abundant compounds were oxygenated diterpenoids, namely mulinadien-20-oic (Δ11,13 and Δ11,14) acids, azorell-13-en-20-oic acid, 13α,14ß-dihydroxymulin-11-en-20-oic acid, and azorellanol, with a group of azorellenes and mulinadienes. The mass spectra of the novel diterpenoid hydrocarbons with the azorellane and mulinane skeletons were also presented. This study documents the molecular diversity of these diterpenoid classes, and could be of great utility for future organic geochemical, environmental, archeological, pharmaceutical, and forensic chemistry studies.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Diterpenos/química , Altitude , Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/metabolismo
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 150: 59-65, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195388

RESUMO

In the search for antifungal lead compounds from natural resources, Notopterygium incisum, a medicine plant only distributed in China, showed antifungal potential against apple fruit pathogens. Based on the bioassay-guided isolation, chromatography fraction 6 of the ethyl acetate partition exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against apple fruit pathogens. Furthermore, nine antifungal secondary metabolites, including five linear furocoumarins (1-5), two phenylethyl esters (6-7), one falcarindiol (8), and one sesquiterpenoid (9), were isolated and elucidated from fraction 6. Compound 5 is a new metabolite, and 9 isolated from the genus Notopterygium for the first time. The purified compounds (1-9) were firstly reported to exhibit antifungal activities against apple fruit pathogens of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryosphaeria dothidea with the MIC values ranging from 8 to 250 mg L-1, especially 8 of 16 and 8 mg L-1, respectively. Moreover, 8 could inhibit the spore germination and new sporulation of B. dothidea, as well as enhance the membrane permeabilization of B. dothidea spores. This was the first investigation for the antifungal components against apple fruit pathogens from Notopterygium incisum, which has great potential to be developed into bio-fungicides.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Di-Inos/farmacologia , Álcoois Graxos/farmacologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 294: 151-157, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148990

RESUMO

Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a naturally occurring flavolignan in Anthriscus sylvestris known as cow parsley or wild chervil, and has been reported to have inhibitory effects against several pathological processes including cancer, inflammation and infection. Here, we report the effects of DPT in the fatty liver induced by high fat diet in vivo as well as its regulatory mechanism related with the transcription factor for lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in vitro. C57BL/6 mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and also orally administrated with DPT for additional 4 weeks. 5 and 10 mg/kg of DPT decreased lipid accumulation in the liver induced by high fat diet, as indicated by histological parameters such as Oil Red O staining and hematoxylin & eosin as well as the contents of hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol. In hepatocytes, DPT inhibited the liver X receptor α-mediated SREBP-1c induction and expression of the lipogenic genes, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Moreover, DPT induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which has been known to inhibit the expression of SREBP-1c in hepatocyte. Also this compound restored the dysregulation of AMPK and SREBP-1c induced by high fat diet in mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that DPT significantly inhibited fatty liver by adjusting lipid metabolism coordinated with AMPK activation and SREBP-1c inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Podofilotoxina/análogos & derivados , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Receptores X do Fígado/agonistas , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Podofilotoxina/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 234, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatness is an unwanted side effect of genetic selection in broiler chickens. In this study, we introduce mountain celery powder as a feed supplement to suppress lipogenesis and improve antioxidant status in broiler chickens. Male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were fed a control diet or a diet that includes mountain celery (MC) at 7.5 gkg-1over 42 days. RESULTS: Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) improved in chicks fed MC. A highly significant down-regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis including acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was observed in the liver of chickens fed MC. These birds, however, had greater compensatory upregulation in antioxidative genes SOD1 and catalase in the liver compared to the birds that received the control diet. Birds received MC had significantly lower level of lipid peroxidation (1.59 µmol/L serum malondialdehyde) compared to birds from the control group (3.57 µmol/L; P = 0.0024). Birds fed MC had significantly (P < 0.05) lower circulatory concentrations of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and LDL but higher concentrations of HDL. Relative liver weight and abdominal fat deposition were significantly reduced by feeding MC. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that feeding birds MC significantly suppresses hepatic lipogenesis by down-regulating key hepatic lipogenic enzyme genes and boosts antioxidant capacity by up-regulating hepatic antioxidantive genes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apiaceae , Galinhas/metabolismo , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Masculino
11.
J Med Food ; 21(2): 199-202, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451459

RESUMO

We previously showed rats fed with apiaceous vegetables, but not with their putative chemopreventive phytochemicals, reduced colonic DNA adducts formed by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a dietary procarcinogen. We report here the effects of feeding apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables versus their purified predominant phytochemicals, either alone or combined, on prostate and pancreatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation. In experiment I, male Wistar rats received three supplemented diets: CRU (cruciferous vegetables), API (apiaceous vegetables), and CRU+API (both types of vegetables). In experiment II, rats received three diets supplemented with phytochemicals matched to their levels in the vegetables from experiment I: P + I (phenethyl isothiocyanate and indole-3-carbinol), FC (furanocoumarins; 5-methoxypsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, and isopimpinellin), and COMBO (P + I and FC combined). After 6 days of feeding, PhIP was injected (10 mg/kg body weight) and animals were killed on day 7. PhIP-DNA adducts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In prostate, PhIP-DNA adducts were reduced by API (33%, P < .05), P + I (45%, P < .001), and COMBO (30%, P < .01). There were no effects observed in pancreas. Our results suggest that fresh vegetables and purified phytochemicals lower PhIP-DNA adducts and may influence cancer risk.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Brassicaceae/química , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Animais , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/análise , Adutos de DNA/análise , Adutos de DNA/genética , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Imidazóis/análise , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Masculino , Pâncreas/química , Próstata/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Verduras/química
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 14(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28862791

RESUMO

Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydrodistilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, which was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD50 of 50.4 µl l-1 , 116.7 µg larva-1 , and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) µg adult-1 , respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Moscas Domésticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/química , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Moscas Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Molecules ; 22(7)2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696392

RESUMO

The extreme conditions (e.g., cold, low oxygen, and strong ultraviolet radiation) of the high mountains provide an ideal natural laboratory for studies on speciation and the adaptive evolution of organisms. Up to now, few genome/transcriptome-based studies have been carried out on how plants adapt to conditions at extremely high altitudes. Notopterygium incisum and Notopterygium franchetii (Notopterygium, Apiaceae) are two endangered high-alpine herbal plants endemic to China. To explore the molecular genetic mechanisms of adaptation to high altitudes, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the transcriptomes of the two species. In total, more than 130 million sequence reads, 81,446 and 63,153 unigenes with total lengths of 86,924,837 and 62,615,693 bp, were generated for the two herbal species, respectively. OrthoMCL analysis identified 6375 single-copy orthologous genes between N. incisum and N. franchetii. In total, 381 positively-selected candidate genes were identified for both plants by using estimations of the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate. At least 18 of these genes potentially participate in RNA splicing, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and the plant-pathogen interaction pathway, which were further enriched in various functional gene categories possibly responsible for environment adaptation in high mountains. Meanwhile, we detected various transcription factors that regulated the material and energy metabolism in N. incisum and N. franchetii, which probably play vital roles in the tolerance to stress in surroundings. In addition, 60 primer pairs based on orthologous microsatellite-containing sequences between the both Notopterygium species were determined. Finally, 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers (SSR) were successfully characterized for the two endangered species. Based on these candidate orthologous and SSR markers, we detected that the adaptive evolution and species divergence of N. incisum and N. franchetii were significantly associated with the extremely heterogeneous environments and climatic oscillations in high-altitude areas. This work provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms of adaptation to high-altitudes in alpine herbal plants.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adaptação Fisiológica , Apiaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Repetições de Microssatélites , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 215: 85-90, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600926

RESUMO

We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species.


Assuntos
Cátions/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176303, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441407

RESUMO

It is assumed that salinity enhances the concentration of valuable metabolites in halophytes. The objective was to find a salt concentration and a point in time at which the yield for the valuable metabolites was maximal. Therefore, three different halophyte species were grown under different salinities and harvested over a period from shortly after stress induction up to three weeks. Various reaction patterns were found in the metabolite composition of the analyzed plant material. Halimione portulacoides showed a "short term response", indicated by an increase in all metabolites analyzed after a few hours, whereas Crithmum maritimum showed a "long term response" through accumulation of proline starting after days. Triglochin maritima did not change in metabolite concentration, but like the other plant species the biomass was reduced by salinity. Generally, a higher production in secondary metabolites by higher salinity was outbalanced by a reduction in biomass production. Concentrations of analyzed antioxidants showed a similar reaction and correlated with each other.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Alismatales/metabolismo , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
16.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 581-589, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27937676

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Changium smyrnioides Wolff (Apiaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant with numerous pharmacological uses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of light intensity levels on the growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites of C. smyrnioides, cultivated seedlings were subjected to different relative light intensities via sun-shading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Changium smyrnioides seedlings were subjected to five irradiance treatments (100, 60.54, 44.84, 31.39, and 10.56% sunlight) in glasshouse for 9 months. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with spectrophotometric method, photosynthetic parameters with Li-6400XT, dry matter accumulation and active component contents in the root with spectrophotometric and HPLC method were analyzed. RESULTS: With an increase in relative light intensity levels, activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were increased overall, while net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and dry matter accumulation patter first increased and then declined. The highest net photosynthetic rate (30.68 µmol/m2·s) and dry root weight (5.07 g) were achieved under 60.54% sunlight. Lower relative light intensity levels stimulated the accumulation levels of bioactive compounds in the roots so that the highest contents of mannitol (1.35%) and choline (405.58 µg/g) were recorded under 31.39% sunlight, and the highest polysaccharide content (10.80%) were achieved under 44.84% sunlight. With a decrease in the relative light intensity levels, the water-soluble component content increased first and then decreased. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results revealed that 31.39-60.54% sunlight serve as appropriate relative light intensity conditions for cultivated C. smyrnioides.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Biomassa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Fitoterapia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria , Fatores de Tempo , Água/metabolismo
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 953: 40-47, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28010741

RESUMO

Universal acquisition of reliable information regarding the qualitative and quantitative properties of complicated matrices is the premise for the success of metabolomics study. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is now serving as a workhorse for metabolomics; however, LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomics is suffering from some shortcomings, even some cutting-edge techniques have been introduced. Aiming to tackle, to some extent, the drawbacks of the conventional approaches, such as redundant information, detector saturation, low sensitivity, and inconstant signal number among different runs, herein, a novel and flexible work-flow consisting of three progressive steps was proposed to profile in depth the quantitative metabolome of plants. The roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn (Peucedani Radix, PR) that are rich in various coumarin isomers, were employed as a case study to verify the applicability. First, offline two dimensional LC-MS was utilized for in-depth detection of metabolites in a pooled PR extract namely universal metabolome standard (UMS). Second, mass fragmentation rules, notably concerning angular-type pyranocoumarins that are the primary chemical homologues in PR, and available databases were integrated for signal assignment and structural annotation. Third, optimum collision energy (OCE) as well as ion transition for multiple monitoring reaction measurement was online optimized with a reference compound-free strategy for each annotated component and large-scale relative quantification of all annotated components was accomplished by plotting calibration curves via serially diluting UMS. It is worthwhile to highlight that the potential of OCE for isomer discrimination was described and the linearity ranges of those primary ingredients were extended by suppressing their responses. The integrated workflow is expected to be qualified as a promising pipeline to clarify the quantitative metabolome of plants because it could not only holistically provide qualitative information, but also straightforwardly generate accurate quantitative dataset.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Metaboloma , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 62(9): 20-6, 2016 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27585257

RESUMO

Antimicrobial herbal compounds are one of the important medical resources, and in order to help alleviate the spread of the pediatric infectious diseases, identification of additional bioactive phytochemicals and herbal extracts will be practical in treating illnesses. In the present work, antimicrobial activities various extracts of Tordylium persicum Boiss. & Hausskn aerial parts were determined against five Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, two fungi, and Echinococcus granulosus. Antimicrobial activities were assayed using both disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods. Scolicidal activity was assayed by the Smyth and Barrett method. Also total phenol and total flavonoid contents for plant extracts were assayed. Results showed that the methanolic extract was more effective on all microbes. The results showed that Streptococcus pyogenes was the most susceptible to the methanolic extract (MIC = 25.9 ± 0.0 µg/mL), while Proteus vulgaris was the most resistant strain (MIC = 295.3 ± 0.0 µg/mL) among all bacteria evaluated. The extracts showed significant activity versus E. granulosus (P < 0.5) with dose-dependent inhibitions of the protoscolices. The high concentration of total polyphenolics (294.5 ± 0.1 GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (105.7 ± 0.3 mg CE/g DW) may be responsible for these activities. Our study is first evaluation on antimicrobial and scolicidal activities of T. persicum. Due to the appearance of antibiotic-resistance, ourstudy suggested that methanol extracts of this plant are appropriate candidate for traditional curative uses and it can be utilized in the pediatric infectious disease therapy, especially pediatric infectious disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia
19.
Braz J Biol ; 76(3): 796-803, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27097091

RESUMO

Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Pólen/metabolismo , Animais , Apiaceae/química , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva , Pólen/química
20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151032, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968034

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to establish a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) system for quantitative analysis of saikosaponin a (SSa) in the crude drug of Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix). A 96-well microplate coated with rabbit anti-mouse IgG was incubated with the methanol extracts of Chaihu samples and a mouse anti-SSa monoclonal antibody, and a Eu3+-labeled SSa-human serum albumin conjugate was used as the tracer. The established competitive TRFIA showed a good fourth order polynomial fitting from 0.01 to 10.0 µg/mL for standard SSa sample with a detection limit of 0.006 µg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation of the assay were 7.3% and 8.9%, respectively, and the average SSa recovery was 119.2%. For samples of Chaihu extract, the results of this assay showed a good correlation with those by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay established previously. This TRFIA system is ultrasensitive for detecting SSa with a wide detection range and a good stability and represents the first attempt of using TRFIA for quality evaluation of the crude drug of Chaihu.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fluorimunoensaio/métodos , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Saponinas/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saponinas/química
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