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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3739-3753, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000433

RESUMO

Many tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are present in wildlife. The objective of this study is to reveal the role of wild bears in maintaining TBPs. A total of 49 brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) from Hokkaido, and 18 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Tochigi, and 66 Japanese black bears from Nagano were examined by two molecular methods, reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization, and nested PCR. A total of 5 TBPs (Hepatozoon ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like group, Cytauxzoon sp. UR1, Babesia sp. UR1, and Babesia microti) were detected from bear blood DNA samples. B. microti was detected from blood DNA samples of Japanese black bear for the first time, with the prevalence of 6.0% (5/84). Out of detected pathogens, H. ursi, Babesia sp. UR2-like pathogens, and Cytauxzoon sp. UR1 were considered as three of the most prevalent TBPs in bears. The prevalence of H. ursi were significantly higher in Japanese black bear (0% vs 96.4%) while that of Babesia sp. UR2-like group was higher in Hokkaido brown bears (89.8% vs 40.5%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. UR1 were significantly higher in Japanese black bears from Tochigi (44.4%), comparing with those from Nagano (18.2%). The prevalence of the detected TBPs were significantly higher in adult bears, comparing with those in younger bears. The present study suggests that Japanese bear species contribute in the transmission of several TBPs in Japan. The expanding distribution of bears might cause the accidental transmission of TBPs to humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Ursidae/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Japão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Carrapatos/parasitologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3469-3479, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827104

RESUMO

Amphibians are among the most threatened vertebrate groups in the world, and the main causes include climate change, habitat destruction, and emerging diseases. Herein, we investigated the occurrence and characterized molecularly Apicomplexa in anurans from southeastern Brazil. Forty individuals from seven anuran species were sampled in São Paulo state. In the molecular analyses, one Leptodactylus latrans and one Rhinella diptycha were positive in PCR assays for species of Hepatozoon. Two L. latrans were also positive for coccidian infections (Lankesterella sp. and an unidentified coccidian species). Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA clustered the sequences detected in anurans from the present study with Hepatozoon spp. detected in reptiles and other anurans from Brazil, albeit they were separate from Hepatozoon haplotypes detected in frogs from Africa and North America. Our study showed, for the first time, the molecular detection of Lankesterella sp. and another coccidian in L. latrans. Additionally, co-infection by different species of Hepatozoon haplotypes and an unidentified coccidian in anurans from Brazil was documented.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Anuros/classificação , Apicomplexa/classificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccídios/classificação , Coccídios/genética , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008717, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745123

RESUMO

Hepatocystis is a genus of single-celled parasites infecting, amongst other hosts, monkeys, bats and squirrels. Although thought to have descended from malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), Hepatocystis spp. are thought not to undergo replication in the blood-the part of the Plasmodium life cycle which causes the symptoms of malaria. Furthermore, Hepatocystis is transmitted by biting midges, not mosquitoes. Comparative genomics of Hepatocystis and Plasmodium species therefore presents an opportunity to better understand some of the most important aspects of malaria parasite biology. We were able to generate a draft genome for Hepatocystis sp. using DNA sequencing reads from the blood of a naturally infected red colobus monkey. We provide robust phylogenetic support for Hepatocystis sp. as a sister group to Plasmodium parasites infecting rodents. We show transcriptomic support for a lack of replication in the blood and genomic support for a complete loss of a family of genes involved in red blood cell invasion. Our analyses highlight the rapid evolution of genes involved in parasite vector stages, revealing genes that may be critical for interactions between malaria parasites and mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Sangue/parasitologia , Colobus/parasitologia , Malária/veterinária , Doenças dos Macacos/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Malária/sangue , Malária/parasitologia , Doenças dos Macacos/sangue , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/fisiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Transcriptoma
4.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(10): 835-849, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828659

RESUMO

Recent breakthroughs in high-throughput technologies, transcriptomics, and advances in our understanding of gene regulatory networks have enhanced our perspective on the complex interplay between parasite and host. Noncoding RNA molecules have been implicated in critical roles covering a broad range of biological processes in the Apicomplexa. Processes that are affected range from parasite development to host-parasite interactions and include interactions with epigenetic machinery and other regulatory factors. Here we review recent progress involving noncoding RNAs and their functions in the Apicomplexa, with a focus on three parasites: Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium. We discuss the limitations and challenges of current methods applied to apicomplexan noncoding RNA study and discuss future directions in this exciting field.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Epigênese Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Pesquisa/tendências
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e002420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428179

RESUMO

Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. is described from the blood of the Egyptian saw-scaled viper, Echis pyramidum, captured from Saudi Arabia. Five out of ten viper specimens examined (50%) were found infected with Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. with parasitaemia level ranged from 20-30%. The infection was restricted only to the erythrocytes. Two morphologically different forms of intraerythrocytic stages were observed; small and mature gamonts. The small ganomt with average size of 10.7 × 3.5 µm. Mature gamont was sausage-shaped with recurved poles measuring 16.3 × 4.2 µm in average size. Infected erythrocytes were hypertrophied; their nuclei were deformed and sometimes displaced from their central position in the normal uninfected cell. Merogonic stages were observed in the lung endothelial cell and the liver parenchyma cells. Mature meront was 17.8 × 13.6 µm and contained banana-shaped merozoites with average size of ~15 × 2 µm. Phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequence clustered Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n with previously sequenced Hepatozoon spp., most of them infected reptilian hosts without geographic consideration. The morphological and molecular comparison with closely related species proved the taxonomic uniqueness and novelty of the present form.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/fisiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Viperidae/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/patologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viperidae/sangue
7.
Eur J Protistol ; 73: 125688, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143143

RESUMO

The molecular divergence, morphology and pathology of a cryptic gregarine that is related to the bee parasite Apicystis bombi Lipa and Triggiani, 1996 is described. The 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequence of the new gregarine was equally dissimilar to that of A. bombi and the closest related genus Mattesia Naville, 1930, although phylogenetic analysis supported a closer relation to A. bombi. Pronounced divergence with A. bombi was found in the ITS1 sequence (69.6% similarity) and seven protein-coding genes (nucleotide 78.05% and protein 90.2% similarity). The new gregarine was isolated from a Bombus pascuorum Scopoli, 1763 female and caused heavy hypertrophism of the fat body tissue in its host. In addition, infected cells of the hypopharyngeal gland tissue, an important excretory organ of the host, were observed. Mature oocysts were navicular in shape and contained four sporozoites, similar to A. bombi oocysts. Given these characteristics, we proposed the name Apicystis cryptica sp. n. Detections so far indicated that distribution and host species occupation of Apicystis spp. overlap at least in Europe, and that historical detections could not discriminate between them. Specific molecular assays were developed that can be implemented in future pathogen screens that aim to discriminate Apicystis spp. in bees.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/classificação , Abelhas/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/citologia , Apicomplexa/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Europa (Continente) , Corpo Adiposo/parasitologia , Oocistos/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(4): 382-392, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191852

RESUMO

Apicomplexan parasites harbor chimeric proteins embodying P4-type ATPase and guanylate cyclase domains. Such proteins - serving as the actuator of cGMP signaling in this group of important pathogens - are indeed unusual in terms of their sheer size, modus operandi, and evolutionary repurposing. Much like the mythological Sphinx, a human-lion chimeric creature that posed challenging riddles, the P4-type ATPase-guanylate cyclase chimeras present both structural and functional conundrums. Here we review the function, topology, mechanism, and intramolecular coordination of the alveolate-specific chimeras in apicomplexan parasites. The steep technological challenge to understand these molecular Sphinxes will surely keep many interdisciplinary researchers busy in the next decades.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases , Apicomplexa/enzimologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Guanilato Ciclase , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Parasitos , Proteínas de Protozoários , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Guanilato Ciclase/genética , Guanilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Parasitos/enzimologia , Parasitos/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
J Biol Chem ; 295(3): 701-714, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767680

RESUMO

The Apicomplexa phylum comprises diverse parasitic organisms that have evolved from a free-living ancestor. These obligate intracellular parasites exhibit versatile metabolic capabilities reflecting their capacity to survive and grow in different hosts and varying niches. Determined by nutrient availability, they either use their biosynthesis machineries or largely depend on their host for metabolite acquisition. Because vitamins cannot be synthesized by the mammalian host, the enzymes required for their synthesis in apicomplexan parasites represent a large repertoire of potential therapeutic targets. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic reconstruction and functional studies coupled to metabolomics that unravel the interplay between biosynthesis and salvage of vitamins and cofactors in apicomplexans. A particular emphasis is placed on Toxoplasma gondii, during both its acute and latent stages of infection.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Coenzimas/metabolismo , Toxoplasmose/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Apicomplexa/genética , Coenzimas/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/patogenicidade , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Vitaminas/genética
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(D1): D768-D775, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372645

RESUMO

Malaria is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the Plasmodium genus, which resulted in an estimated 219 million cases of malaria and 435 000 malaria-related deaths in 2017. Despite the availability of the Plasmodium falciparum genome since 2002, 74% of the genes remain uncharacterized. To remedy this paucity of functional information, we used transcriptomic data to build gene co-expression networks for two Plasmodium species (P. falciparum and P. berghei), and included genomic data of four other Plasmodium species, P. yoelii, P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. cynomolgi, as well as two non-Plasmodium species from the Apicomplexa, Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria parva. The genomic and transcriptomic data were incorporated into the resulting database, malaria.tools, which is preloaded with tools that allow the identification and cross-species comparison of co-expressed gene neighbourhoods, clusters and life stage-specific expression, thus providing sophisticated tools to predict gene function. Moreover, we exemplify how the tools can be used to easily identify genes relevant for pathogenicity and various life stages of the malaria parasite. The database is freely available at www.malaria.tools.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Genômica , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Toxoplasma/genética
11.
Protist ; 171(1): 125710, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884404

RESUMO

This study set out to bolster morphological and molecular datasets of marine gregarine apicomplexans. Gregarines were sampled from the Sea of Japan and Northwest Pacific from cirratuliform polychaetes (Acrocirridae, Cirratulidae, and Flabelligeridae), as well as sipunculids. Trophozoites (feeding stages) were gathered for identification using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cells were also collected for molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. As a result, three new species of Selenidium, S. planusae n. sp., S. validusae n. sp., and S. pyroidea n. sp. were described, and additional morphological and genetic data were gathered for an existing species, S. orientale; and Trollidium was established as a new genus. Trollidium akkeshiense n. gen. n. sp. possessed a unique, unsymmetrical organization of microtubules running the longitudinal length of one side of the trophozoite, corresponding to a zig-zag pattern of epicytic (surface) folds, and a flicking pattern of movement. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA showed that these portions of the ribosomal operon are able to resolve some relationships among Selenidium, while other lineages including Trollidium akkeshiense n. gen. n. sp. appeared to be highly influenced by long branch attraction. High evolutionary rates along the ribosomal operon of gregarines may hinder this marker from resolving deeper nodes among early apicomplexans.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Filogenia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 779-785, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057995

RESUMO

Abstract A free-living, adult male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was referred to the Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp veterinary hospital after being found with skin lesions and a fracture on the right pelvic limb, which had to be amputated due to compromised integrity. Around 20 days later, bilateral accentuated swollen on humerus-radius-ulna articulation was observed. The synovial liquid was drained and sent to the laboratory for synovial cytology with Rosenfeld staining that revealed predominantly degenerated neutrophils with karyolytic chromatin associated with intracellular inclusions suggestive of Hepatozoon sp. gametocytes. Blood and synovial liquid samples were submitted to molecular analysis, aiming to amplify the Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA gene fragment. Despite the positioning of the found Hepatozoon sequence together with Hepatozoon canis previously detected in domestic carnivores, the BLAST analysis showed only 98% identity with H. canis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a Hepatozoon was detected in the synovial liquid by clinical pathology and molecular analyses.


Resumo Um lobo guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus) adulto, macho, de vida livre foi encaminhado para atendimento no hospital veterinário Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp após ser encontrado com lesões de pele e fratura em membro pélvico direito, sendo amputado devido a comprometimento da integridade do membro. Aproximadamente 20 dias após a chegada ao hospital, foi notado acentuado aumento de volume bilateral em região de articulação úmero-rádio-ulnar. O líquido sinovial foi drenado e enviado para análise citológica com coloração de Rosenfeld, revelando a presença de neutrófilos degenerados com cromatina cariolítica associados a inclusões intracelulares sugestivas de gametócitos de Hepatozoon sp. Amostras de sangue e líquido sinovial foram submetidas a análises moleculares visando amplificar um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA de Hepatozoon spp. Apesar da sequência de Hepatozoon detectada se posicionar filogeneticamente no mesmo clado que H. canis previamente detectado em carnívoros domésticos, o resultado da análise do BLAST mostrou somente 98% de identidade com H. canis. De acordo com o conhecimento dos autores, esta é a primeira vez que Hepatozoon foi detectado no líquido sinovial por meio de patologia clínica e análises moleculares.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Líquido Sinovial/parasitologia , Apicomplexa/genética , Canidae/parasitologia , Filogenia , Brasil , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Achados Incidentais
13.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504055

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing methods are increasingly used to identify eukaryotic, unicellular and multicellular symbiont communities within hosts. In this study, we analyzed the non-specific reads obtained during a metabarcoding survey of the bacterial communities associated to three different tissues collected from 13 wild Mediterranean teleost fish species. In total, 30 eukaryotic genera were identified as putative parasites of teleosts, associated to skin mucus, gills mucus and intestine: 2 ascomycetes, 4 arthropods, 2 cnidarians, 7 nematodes, 10 platyhelminthes, 4 apicomplexans, 1 ciliate as well as one order in dinoflagellates (Syndiniales). These results highlighted that (1) the metabarcoding approach was able to uncover a large spectrum of symbiotic organisms associated to the fish species studied, (2) symbionts not yet identified in several teleost species were putatively present, (3) the parasitic diversity differed markedly across host species and (4) in most cases, the distribution of known parasitic genera within tissues is in accordance with the literature. The current work illustrates the large insights that can be gained by making maximum use of data from a metabarcoding approach.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/parasitologia , Metagenoma , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Artrópodes/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Cilióforos/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Peixes/microbiologia , Brânquias/microbiologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Nematoides/genética , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Simbiose
14.
Database (Oxford) ; 20192019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529106

RESUMO

Despite significant progress in apicomplexan genome sequencing and genomics, the current list of experimentally validated transcription factors (TFs) in these genomes is incomplete and mainly consists of AP2 family of proteins, with only a limited number of non-AP2 family TFs and transcription-associated co-factors (TcoFs). We have performed a systematic bioinformatics-aided prediction of TFs and TcoFs in apicomplexan genomes and developed the ApicoTFdb database which consists of experimentally validated as well as computationally predicted TFs and TcoFs in 14 apicomplexan species. The predicted TFs are manually curated to complement the existing annotations. The current version of the database includes 1292 TFs which includes experimentally validated and computationally predicted TFs, representing 20 distinct families across 14 apicomplexan species. The predictions include TFs of TUB, NAC, BSD, HTH, Cupin/Jumonji, winged helix and FHA family proteins, not reported earlier as TFs in the genomes. Apart from TFs, ApicoTFdb also classifies TcoFs into three main subclasses: TRs, CRRs and RNARs, representing 2491 TcoFs in 14 apicomplexan species, are analyzed in this study. The database is designed to integrate different tools for comparative analysis. All entries in the database are dynamically linked with other databases, literature reference, protein-protein interactions, pathways and annotations associated with each protein. ApicoTFdb will be useful to the researchers interested in less-studied gene regulatory mechanisms mediating the complex life cycle of the apicomplexan parasites. The database will aid in the discovery of novel drug targets to much needed combat the growing drug resistance in the parasites.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Internet , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Apicomplexa/classificação
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 779-785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483033

RESUMO

A free-living, adult male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was referred to the Governador "Laudo Natel" - FCAV/Unesp veterinary hospital after being found with skin lesions and a fracture on the right pelvic limb, which had to be amputated due to compromised integrity. Around 20 days later, bilateral accentuated swollen on humerus-radius-ulna articulation was observed. The synovial liquid was drained and sent to the laboratory for synovial cytology with Rosenfeld staining that revealed predominantly degenerated neutrophils with karyolytic chromatin associated with intracellular inclusions suggestive of Hepatozoon sp. gametocytes. Blood and synovial liquid samples were submitted to molecular analysis, aiming to amplify the Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA gene fragment. Despite the positioning of the found Hepatozoon sequence together with Hepatozoon canis previously detected in domestic carnivores, the BLAST analysis showed only 98% identity with H. canis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time a Hepatozoon was detected in the synovial liquid by clinical pathology and molecular analyses.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Canidae/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Líquido Sinovial/parasitologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
16.
Mol Ecol ; 28(22): 4845-4863, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483077

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects have evolved many mechanisms to overcome plant chemical defences, including detoxification and sequestration. Herbivores may also use toxic plants to reduce parasite infection. Plant toxins could directly interfere with parasites or could enhance endogenous immunity. Alternatively, plant toxins could favour down-regulation of endogenous immunity by providing an alternative (exogenous) defence against parasitism. However, studies on genomewide transcriptomic responses to plant defences and the interplay between plant toxicity and parasite infection remain rare. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are specialist herbivores of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which contain toxic cardenolides. Monarchs have adapted to cardenolides through multiple resistance mechanisms and can sequester cardenolides to defend against bird predators. In addition, high-cardenolide milkweeds confer monarch resistance to a specialist protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha). We used this system to study the interplay between the effects of plant toxicity and parasite infection on global gene expression. We compared transcriptional profiles between parasite-infected and uninfected monarch larvae reared on two milkweed species. Our results demonstrate that monarch differentially express several hundred genes when feeding on A. curassavica and A. incarnata, two species that differ substantially in cardenolide concentrations. These differentially expressed genes include genes within multiple families of canonical insect detoxification genes, suggesting that they play a role in monarch toxin resistance and sequestration. Interestingly, we found little transcriptional response to infection. However, parasite growth was reduced in monarchs reared on A. curassavica, and in these monarchs, several immune genes were down-regulated, consistent with the hypothesis that medicinal plants can reduce reliance on endogenous immunity.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Plantas Tóxicas/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Asclepias/parasitologia , Cardenolídeos , Herbivoria/genética , Larva/genética , Parasitos/genética
17.
Curr Biol ; 29(17): R836-R839, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505182

RESUMO

A new study presents the first comprehensive genome and transcriptome data for an enigmatic group of apicomplexan parasites, the gregarines. The findings provide insights into the early evolution of parasitism in the apicomplexans and illustrate the important contributions of convergent and parallel evolution in the rise of eukaryotic parasites.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Parasitos/genética , Animais , Genoma , Filogenia , Simbiose
18.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 232: 111204, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381948

RESUMO

Mitochondrial respiration is a critical process for the survival of many eukaryotes, including parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. These intracellular parasites include the causative agents of numerous serious diseases in humans and animals, including toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) and malaria (Plasmodium species). Emerging evidence indicates that the mitochondrial respiratory chain of apicomplexans has notable differences to that of the host cells they infect. These differences make the respiratory chain a prominent drug target in apicomplexans, with numerous inhibitors of this pathway in current use or development. This review highlights unique aspects of the respiratory chain of apicomplexans and provides perspective on emerging points of inquiry into this essential and therapeutically exploitable pathway.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Apicomplexa/efeitos dos fármacos , Apicomplexa/genética , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infecções por Protozoários/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia
19.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 166: 107226, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369734

RESUMO

During analyses of the invasive Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis for pathologies in Tokyo Bay, infection by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus beihaiensis was found through histological examination, Ray's Fluid Thioglycollate Medium assays, and molecular analyses. Specific PCR assays for each Perkinsus species also revealed the presence of an indigenous congeneric species, Perkinsus olseni, but P. beihaiensis was dominant in M. galloprovincialis. Sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region I of P. beihaiensis found in Japan were genetically more similar to those found in South American countries (Panama and Brazil) than in Asian countries (China and India). Though Mediterranean mussels have become widespread in Japanese waters since their invasion in the 1930s, epidemiological surveys show that mussels collected outside Tokyo Bay are free of any Perkinsus infections. Based on these results, it was strongly suggested that P. beihaiensis invaded Tokyo Bay by transportation of bivalves originating from South America but has not yet spread to other parts of Japan. The possibility is not ruled out, however, that the parasite is indigenous in Japan but the environment in Tokyo Bay favors its transmission to Mediterranean mussels.


Assuntos
Baías/parasitologia , Mytilus/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Apicomplexa/genética , Japão , Filogenia
20.
Biomolecules ; 9(8)2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430853

RESUMO

The phylum Apicomplexa (Alveolates) comprises a group of host-associated protists, predominately intracellular parasites, including devastating parasites like Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. One of the more fascinating characteristics of Apicomplexa is their highly reduced (and occasionally lost) remnant plastid, termed the apicoplast. Four core metabolic pathways are retained in the apicoplast: heme synthesis, iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, isoprenoid synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis. It has been suggested that one or more of these pathways are essential for plastid and plastid genome retention. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of several apicomplexan relatives, and next-generation sequencing efforts are revealing that they retain variable plastid metabolic capacities. These data are providing clues about the core genes and pathways of reduced plastids, while at the same time further confounding our view on the evolutionary history of the apicoplast. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of the apicoplast, explore plastid metabolism in Apicomplexa and their close relatives, and propose that the differences among reduced plastids result from a game of endosymbiotic roulette. Continued exploration of the Apicomplexa and their relatives is sure to provide new insights into the evolution of the apicoplast and apicomplexans as a whole.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/metabolismo , Luz , Apicomplexa/genética
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