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1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500626

RESUMO

We investigated the protective effect and mechanisms of apigenin against cognitive impairments in a scopolamine-injected mouse model. Our results showed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of scopolamine leads to learning and memory dysfunction, whereas the administration of apigenin (synthetic compound, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) improved cognitive ability, which was confirmed by behavioral tests such as the T-maze test, novel objective recognition test, and Morris water maze test in mice. In addition, scopolamine-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain was attenuated by administration of apigenin. To further evaluate the protective mechanisms of apigenin on cognitive and memory function, Western blot analysis was carried out. Administration of apigenin decreased the B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) ratio and suppressed caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, apigenin down-regulated the ß-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme, along with presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 protein levels. Apigenin-administered mice showed lower protein levels of a receptor for advanced glycation end-products, whereas insulin-degrading enzyme, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) expression were promoted by treatment with apigenin. Therefore, this study demonstrated that apigenin is an active substance that can improve cognitive and memory functions by regulating apoptosis, amyloidogenesis, and BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445559

RESUMO

Scutellarein (SCU) is a well-known flavone with a broad range of biological activities against several cancers. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is major cancer type due to its poor prognosis even after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, which causes a variety of side effects in patients. Therefore, efforts have been made to develop effective biomarkers in the treatment of HCC in order to improve therapeutic outcomes using natural based agents. The current study used SCU as a treatment approach against HCC using the HepG2 cell line. Based on the cell viability assessment up to a 200 µM concentration of SCU, three low-toxic concentrations of (25, 50, and 100) µM were adopted for further investigation. SCU induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and inhibited cell migration and proliferation in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased PTEN expression by SCU led to the subsequent downregulation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway related proteins. In addition, SCU regulated the metastasis with EMT and migration-related proteins in HepG2 cells. In summary, SCU inhibits cell proliferation and metastasis in HepG2 cells through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling by upregulation of PTEN, suggesting that SCU might be used as a potential agent for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356661

RESUMO

Estrogen replacement therapy is a treatment to relieve the symptoms of menopause. Many studies suggest that natural bioactive ingredients from plants resemble estrogen in structure and biological functions and can relieve symptoms of menopause. The fruit of V. rotundifolia, called "Man HyungJa" in Korean, is a traditional medicine used to treat headache, migraine, eye pain, neuralgia, and premenstrual syndrome in Korea and China. The aim of the present study was to confirm that V. rotundifolia fruit extract (VFE) exerts biological functions similar to those of estrogen in menopausal syndrome. We investigated its in vitro effects on MCF-7 cells and in vivo estrogen-like effects on weight gain and uterine contraction in ovariectomized rats. Using the polar extract, the active constituents of VFE (artemetin, vitexicarpin, hesperidin, luteolin, vitexin, and vanillic acid) with estrogen-like activity were identified in MCF-7 cells. In animal experiments, the efficacy of VFE in ameliorating body weight gain was similar to that of estrogen, as evidenced from improvements in uterine atrophy. Vitexin and vitexicarpin are suggested as the active constituents of V. rotundifolia fruits.


Assuntos
Estrogênios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitex/química , Animais , Apigenina/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estrogênios não Esteroides/química , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Medicina Tradicional Coreana , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovariectomia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445132

RESUMO

Saponarin{5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-6-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]-7-[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxychromen-4-one}, a flavone found in young green barley leaves, is known to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and skin-protective effects of saponarin were investigated to evaluate its usefulness as a functional ingredient in cosmetics. In lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 (murine macrophage) cells, saponarin (80 µM) significantly inhibited cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Saponarin (80 µM) also inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. Saponarin (40 µM) significantly inhibited ß-hexosaminidase degranulation as well as the phosphorylation of signaling effectors (Syk, phospholipase Cγ1, ERK, JNK, and p38) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, COX-2, and FcεRIα/γ) in DNP-IgE- and DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia) cells. In addition, saponarin (100 µM) significantly inhibited the expression of macrophage-derived chemokine, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (ERK, p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [STAT1]) in TNF-α- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte) cells. Saponarin (100 µM) also significantly induced the expression of hyaluronan synthase-3, aquaporin 3, and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (LL-37) in HaCaT cells, which play an important role as skin barriers. Saponarin remarkably inhibited the essential factors involved in the inflammatory and allergic responses of RAW264.7, RBL-2H3, and HaCaT cells, and induced the expression of factors that function as physical and chemical skin barriers in HaCaT cells. Therefore, saponarin could potentially be used to prevent and relieve immune-related skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
5.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 710: 108995, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289381

RESUMO

Failing pancreas and subsequent loss of pancreatic ß cells worsen diabetic conditions which are further alleviated by the mounting up of glucose levels. Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the kidney responsible for glucose reabsorption strikingly reduces blood glucose levels. Bioactive swertisin showed a promising glucose-lowering effect. Hence, we aimed to mechanistically dissect the glucose lowering property of swertisin. A systematic in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approach was directed for target analysis of swertisin. Molecular docking was performed with Swertisn-hSGLT2 complex. Glucose uptake assay and protein expression for SGLT2 and regulatory proteins were performed under swertisin effect. Various physiological and metabolic parameters were evaluated in STZ induced BALB/c mice using swertisin treatment. SGLT2 expression was evaluated in the kidney tissue of mice. Swertisn-hSGLT2 molecularly docked complex showed similar binding energy compared to the Canagliflozin-hSGLT2 complex. Swertisin inhibited glucose uptake and decreased expression of SGLT2 in HEK293 cells. Swertisin does not affect GLUT mediated glucose transport. Swertisin treated diabetic mice demonstrated remarkable improvement in overall glucose homeostasis. Reduced expression of SGLT2 was found in kidney tissue along with reduced PKC expression which is one of the key regulators of SGLT2. Our study explored SGLT2 as a selective target of swertisin for its swift glucose-lowering action which not only inhibits SGLT2 but also reduces its expression in diabetic condition. Thus, the potential property of swertisin as a glucose-lowering agent is remarkable which points towards the likelihood of a wider avenue of diabetes therapy.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Fitoterapia , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/química , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
6.
Phytomedicine ; 89: 153603, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apigenin (API) is a naturally occurring plant-derived flavone, which is abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables, and shows little or no toxicity of daily diet. The treatment of colorectal cancer is limited by high recurrence rate and multidrug resistance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the potential therapeutic effect and possible mechanisms of API on colorectal cancer cells. METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of human colon cancer cell line HCT116 was assessed after API treatment. A comprehensive transcriptome profile of API-treated HCT116 cells was acquired by high-throughput sequencing. The regulation of miRNA215-5p and E2F1/3 were identified by bioinformatics analyses. An inhibitor of miRNA215-5p, inhibitor 215, was applied to confirm the role of this microRNA played in the anti-cancer effect of API. Luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to identify targeting relationship between miRNA215-5p and E2F1/3. RESULT: API significantly promoted cell apoptosis and anti-proliferation of HCT116 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Bioinformatics analyses identified several altered miRNAs among which the expression of miRNA-215-5p showed markedly increased. Meanwhile, the expression of E2F1 and E2F3 was decreased by API, which was associated with miRNA215-5p. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed miRNA-215-5p could directly bind to 3' UTR of E2F1/3. Inhibition of miRNA-215-5p significantly inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase induced by API. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study confirmed the anti-cancer effect of API on human colorectal cancer cells and investigated the underlying mechanism by a comprehensive transcriptome profile of API-treated cells.


Assuntos
Apigenina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Fator de Transcrição E2F1 , MicroRNAs , Apigenina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/genética , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(8): e2100049, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118114

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the impact of apigenin on LOX-1, Bcl-2, and Bax expression in hyperlipidemia rats and explore the possible molecular pathological mechanism of apigenin in improving hyperlipidemia and preventing atherosclerosis. In hyperlipidemia models, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and the LOX-1 protein expression were apparently increased (P<0.01), while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were reduced significantly (P<0.01) in comparison with the standard control group. After the treatment of apigenin, the levels of TC, TG, LDL-c, and the LOX-1 protein expression were noticeably decreased (P<0.01), while the levels of HDL-c and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were increased (P<0.01). The intima was thickened and had protrusions in the hyperlipidemia model group compared to the normal control group. In comparison with the atherosclerosis model group, the degree of aortic lesions in the low-dose, middle-dose, high-dose groups was alleviated. Apigenin can reduce the level of blood lipid, improve hyperlipidemia, and prevent atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia rats. The molecular mechanism may be related to inhibiting LOX-1 gene expression and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
8.
Phytomedicine ; 87: 153585, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is characterized by abnormal serum uric acid (UA) levels and demonstrated to be involved in renal injury leading to hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN). Apigenin (API), a flavonoid naturally present in tea, berries, fruits, and vegetables, exhibits various biological functions, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of API treatment in HN and to reveal its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The mice with HN were induced by potassium oxonate intraperitoneally and orally administered for two weeks. The effects of API on renal function, inflammation, fibrosis, and uric acid (UA) metabolism in mice with HN were evaluated. The effects of API on urate transporters were further examined in vitro. RESULTS: The mice with HN exhibited abnormal renal urate excretion and renal dysfunction accompanied by increased renal inflammation and fibrosis. In contrast, API reduced the levels of serum UA, serum creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and renal inflammatory factors in mice with HN. Besides, API ameliorated the renal fibrosis via Wnt/ß-catenin pathway suppression. Furthermore, API potently promoted urinary UA excretion and inhibited renal urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) in mice with HN. In vitro, API competitively inhibited URAT1 and GLUT9 in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 0.64 ± 0.14 µM and 2.63 ± 0.69 µM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: API could effectively attenuate HN through co-inhibiting UA reabsorption and Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, and thus it might be a potential therapy to HN.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Apigenina/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibrose , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperuricemia/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Nefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite/patologia , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Ácido Oxônico/toxicidade , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
9.
Life Sci ; 279: 119641, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043992

RESUMO

AIMS: Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is one of the subclasses of flavonoids and has various pharmacological effects. The present work was carried out to study the effect of apigenin on ethylene glycol-induced kidney damage in male Wistar rats. MAIN METHODS: We evaluated the effects of apigenin orally administrated in normal and urolithiatic rats. Animals were assigned to nine groups in random: normal control; apigenin alone (0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 g/kg bw); urolithiatic control (0.75% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride in drinking water); apigenin (0.005, 0.01, and 0.02 g/kg bw) plus ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride; and cystone (0.75 g/kg bw) plus ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride. At the end of 28th day of treatment, animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological assays. KEY FINDINGS: Our results indicated that the apigenin treatment decreased the formation of urinary stones in urolithiatic rats. Also, apigenin reduced the generation of malondialdehyde and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities in the kidney homogenate of rats. It also caused a significant decrease in the calcium oxalate crystals numbers in urinary sample of rats with ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluria. These findings were supported by histopathological examinations. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the results obtained, apigenin attenuate ethylene glycol-related kidney damage in male Wistar rats. Although the underlying mechanism of apigenin effect has not been determined, reduction of urinary levels of stone-producing constituents, antioxidant activities, and inhibition of TGF-ß signaling may be involved.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Etilenoglicol/toxicidade , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Urolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Urolitíase/metabolismo , Urolitíase/patologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985696

RESUMO

The potential of apigenin (APG) to enhance cisplatin's (CDDP) chemotherapeutic efficacy was investigated in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 liver cancer cell lines. The presence of 20 µM APG sensitized all cell lines to CDDP treatment (degree of sensitization based on the MTT assay: HepG2>Huh7>Hep3B). As reflected by sister chromatid exchange levels, the degree of genetic instability as well as DNA repair by homologous recombination differed among cell lines. CDDP and 20 µM APG cotreatment exhibited a synergistic genotoxic effect on Hep3B cells and a less than additive effect on HepG2 and Huh7 cells. Cell cycle delays were noticed during the first mitotic division in Hep3B and Huh7 cells and the second mitotic division in HepG2 cells. CDDP and CDDP + APG treatments reduced the clonogenic capacity of all cell lines; however, there was a discordance in drug sensitivity compared with the MMT assay. Furthermore, a senescence-like phenotype was induced, especially in Hep3B and Huh7 cells. Unlike CDDP monotherapy, the combined treatment exhibited a significant anti-invasive and anti-migratory action in all cancer cell lines. The fact that the three liver cancer cell lines responded differently, yet positively, to CDDP + APG cotreatment could be attributed to variations they present in gene expression. Complex mechanisms seem to influence cellular responses and cell fate.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3848-3860, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792992

RESUMO

Random skin flap is widely used in plastic surgery. However, flap necrosis caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury limits its clinical applications. Apigenin, a naturally occurring flavonoid mainly derived from plants, facilitates flap survival. In this study, we explored the effects of apigenin on flap survival and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 54 mice having a dorsal random flap model were randomly divided into control, apigenin, and apigenin +3-methyladenine groups. These groups were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide solution, apigenin, and apigenin +3-methyladenine, respectively. The animals were then euthanized to assess angiogenesis, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and autophagy levels through histological and protein analyses. Apigenin promotes survival of the skin flap area and reduces tissue edema. In addition, apigenin enhanced angiogenesis, attenuated apoptosis, alleviated oxidative stress, and activated autophagy. Interestingly, 3-methyladenine reversed the effects of apigenin on flap survival, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and oxidative stress through inhibition of autophagy. The findings of this study show that apigenin promotes angiogenesis, inhibits cell apoptosis, and lowers oxidative stress by mediating autophagy, thus the improving survival rate of random skin flaps.


Assuntos
Apigenina , Autofagia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Indutores da Angiogênese , Animais , Apigenina/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Phytother Res ; 35(7): 3936-3944, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856723

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are a common frequently psychiatric symptom in patients that lead to disruption of daily life. Scutellarin (Scu) is the main component of Erigeron breviscapus, which has been used as a neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. However, the potential effect of Scu on the stress-related neuropsychological disorders has not been clarified. In this study, Anxiety-like behavior was induced by acute restraint stress in mice. Scu were injected intraperitoneally (twice daily, 3 days). Results showed that Scu exhibited good protective activity on mice by decreasing transmitter release levels. Restraint stress caused significant anxiety like behavior in mice. Treatment of Scu could significantly improve the moving time of open arms in Elevated Plus Maze and central time on open field test. Scu treatment suppressed action potential firing frequency, restored excessive presynaptic quantal release, and down-regulated glutamatergic receptor expression levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of stressed mice. GABAA Rα1 and GABAA γ2 expression in the brain PFC tissues of mice were nearly abrogated by Scu treatment. In stress-induced anxiety mice, stress can increase the frequency of mini excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC), which can be reversed by Scu treatment. Therefore, Scu has a potent anxiolytic activity and may be valuable for the treatment of stress-induced anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Apigenina , Glucuronatos , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Apigenina/farmacologia , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Camundongos
13.
Phytomedicine ; 86: 153562, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis is a common urinary disease with a high recurrence rate of secondary stone formation. Several mechanisms are involved in the onset and recurrence of nephrolithiasis, e.g., oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Vitexin, a flavonoid monomer derived from medicinal plants that exert many biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects, has not been investigated in nephrolithiasis studies. Moreover, pyroptosis, a form of programmed cell death resulting from inflammasome-associated caspase activation, has not been studied in mice with nephrolithiasis. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of vitexin in nephrolithiasis, and the related role of pyroptosis in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Mouse models of nephrolithiasis were established via intraperitoneal injection of glyoxylate, and cell models of tubular epithelial cells and macrophages were established using calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Crystal deposition and kidney tissue injury were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin, and von Kossa staining. Renal oxidative stress indexes including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT), were analyzed. The renal expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), gasdermin D (GSDMD), osteopontin (OPN), CD44, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and EMT-related proteins in renal tubular epithelial cells was assessed. Cell viability and the apoptosis ratio were evaluated. RESULTS: In vivo, vitexin alleviated crystal deposition and kidney tissue injury, and decreased the level of MDA, and increased the levels of SOD, GSH, and CAT. Vitexin also reduced the levels of the pyroptosis-related proteins GSDMD, NLRP3, cleaved caspase-1, and mature IL-1ß, which were elevated in mice with nephrolithiasis, and repressed apoptosis and the expression of OPN and CD44. Moreover, vitexin mitigated F4/80-positive macrophage infiltration and MCP-1 expression in the kidneys. Furthermore, an in vitro study showed that vitexin increased the viability of HK-2 cells and THP-1-derived macrophages, which was impaired by treatment with COM crystals, decreased the medium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and inhibited the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins in HK-2 cells and macrophages. Vitexin repressed EMT of HK-2 cells, with increased expression of pan-cytokeratin (Pan-ck) and decreased expression of Vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and downregulated the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Moreover, vitexin suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1ß mRNA expression, which was upregulated by COM in macrophages. CONCLUSION: Vitexin exerts protective effects against nephrolithiasis by inhibiting pyroptosis activation, apoptosis, EMT, and macrophage infiltration. In addition, GSDMD-related pyroptosis mediates nephrolithiasis.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxalato de Cálcio/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glioxilatos/toxicidade , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nefrolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Nefrolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrolitíase/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Piroptose/fisiologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915741

RESUMO

As an important zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) can cause a variety of diseases both in human and animals, especially Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS), which commonly appears in severe S. suis infection. STSLS is often accompanied by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which is the main cause of host death. Therefore, it is urgent to find a new strategy to relieve the damage caused by STSLS. In this study, we found, for the first time, that apigenin, as a flavonoid compound, could combine with ampicillin to treat severe S. suis infection. Studies found that apigenin did not affect the growth of S. suis and the secretion of suilysin (SLY), but it could significantly inhibit the hemolytic activity of SLY by directly binding to SLY and destroying its secondary structure. In cell assays, apigenin was found to have no significant toxic effects on effective concentrations, and have a good protective effect on S. suis-infected cells. More importantly, compared with the survival rate of S. suis-infected mice treated with only ampicillin, the survival rate of apigenin combined with an ampicillin-treated group significantly increased to 80%. In conclusion, all results indicate that apigenin in combination with conventional antibiotics can be a potential strategy for treating severe S. suis infection.


Assuntos
Ampicilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus suis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ampicilina/química , Ampicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Apigenina/química , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920405

RESUMO

The bioassay-guided fractionation of a CHCl3-MeOH extract from the stems of Cissus trifoliata identified an active fraction against PC3 prostate cancer cells. The treatment for 24 h showed an 80% reduction in cell viability (p ≤ 0.05) by a WST-1 assay at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The HPLC-QTOF-MS analysis of the fraction showed the presence of coumaric and isoferulic acids, apigenin, kaempferol, chrysoeriol, naringenin, ursolic and betulinic acids, hexadecadienoic and octadecadienoic fatty acids, and the stilbene resveratrol. The exposure of PC3 cells to resveratrol (IC25 = 23 µg/mL) for 24 h induced significant changes in 847 genes (Z-score ≥ ±2). The functional classification tool of the DAVID v6.8 platform indicates that the underlying molecular mechanisms against the proliferation of PC3 cells were associated (p ≤ 0.05) with the process of differentiation and metabolism. These findings provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential of C. trifoliata as a promising natural source of anticancer compounds.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cissus/química , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Transcriptoma , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apigenina/química , Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonas/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Proteínas de Neoplasias/classificação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células PC-3 , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/isolamento & purificação , Resveratrol/farmacologia
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107357, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715980

RESUMO

The increased resistance and toxicity have become the main causes of chemotherapy failure for treating lung cancer. The combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with other agents has been recognized as a promising strategy to overcome these difficulties. Isovitexin (IVT) is a well-known flavone C-glycoside found in many plants and has attracted wide attention due to its obvious antitumor and antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of IVX and cisplatin (DDP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 and H1975 cells. The results showed that the combined treatment with IVT and DDP markedly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of the two NSCLC cells. Using a mouse model of A549 xenograft, IVT potentiated the inhibition of DDP on tumor growth, but reduced DDP-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice. Remarkedly, IVT promoted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and lectin- stimulated splenocyte proliferation, and enhance cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell activities as well as the production of IL-2 and TNF-α. Furthermore, IVT significantly reduced glucose uptake, lactate production, and ATP production, and downregulated the protein expressions of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)-mediated pathway in both A549 and H1975 cells. After the over-expression of PKM2 in the NSCLC cells, the synergistic antitumor effect of IVT and DDP was markedly weakened. Therefore, IVT not only inhibited cell proliferation and glucose metabolism via downregulating the expression of PKM2 to enhance the antitumor activity of DDP against lung cancer cells, and improved DDP-induced immunotoxicity in mice. It also presented a novel strategy to enhance the anti-tumor effect of platinum-based chemotherapy against NSCLC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos Nus , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/imunologia
17.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(6): 1-7, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724625

RESUMO

The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) toward the mitochondria of the kidney is not fully recognized and still needs further research. Apigenin (APG) is known as a flavonoid compound and natural antioxidant. The purpose of this study was to assess the ameliorative role of APG against multiwall CNT (MWCNT)-induced kidney toxicity in rats. The animals were administrated with APG (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks and then were exposed to MWCNTs (5 mg/m3 ) in pure and impure forms (10 and 100 nm) for 5 h/day and 5 days/week. Then, mitochondria were isolated from the kidney tissue and mitochondrial toxicity parameters were measured. Decreases in succinate dehydrogenase activity have been reported in all groups exposed to MWCNTs. Results indicated that MWCNTs in both forms and sizes were able to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species, decline mitochondrial membrane potential, induce mitochondrial swelling, and release cytochrome c in isolated kidney mitochondria. The pretreatment of APG decreased all the abovementioned mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress parameters induced by both pure and impure MWCNTs. Our results showed that MWCNTs have the ability to enter the body, subsequently, cross cellular barriers, and reach the kidney as a sensitive organ, which can result in mitochondrial damage in kidney cells including renal tubular cells. In addition, APG can be an effective nutritional antioxidant regimen against MWCNT-induced kidney damage.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(5): 1183-1193, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704405

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the most critical risk factors for diabetes mellitus and plays a significant role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present investigation aimed to evaluate the possible mechanism of action of vitexin on obesity-induced DN in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed experimental C57BL/6 mice model. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by chronic administration of HFD, and mice were concomitantly treated with vitexin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, p.o.). HFD-induced increased renal oxido-nitrosative stress and proinflammatory cytokine levels were significantly inhibited by vitexin. The Western blot analysis suggested that alteration in renal NF-κB, IκBα, nephrin, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation levels was effectively restored by vitexin treatment. Histological aberration induced in renal tissue after chronic administration of HFD was also reduced by vitexin. In conclusion, vitexin suppressed the progression of obesity-induced DN via modulation of NF-κB/IkBα and AMPK/ACC pathways in an experimental model of HFD-induced DN in C57BL/6J mice.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Trigonella/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2291-2297, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675467

RESUMO

Apigenin is a flavonoid with antioxidant and anticancer effects. It has been reported that apigenin inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion and induces apoptosis in cultured lung cancer cells. However, there is little information on the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in its effects. miRNA microarray analysis and polymerase-chain-reaction analysis of miRNAs revealed that treatment of human lung cancer A549 cells with apigenin up-regulated the level of miR-34a-5p. Furthermore, mRNA microarray analysis and the results of three microRNA target prediction tools showed that Snail Family Transcriptional Repressor 1 (SNAI1), which inhibits the induction of apoptosis, had its mRNA expression down-regulated in A549 cells treated with apigenin. Our findings suggest that apigenin might induce apoptosis by down-regulation of SNAI1 through up-regulation of miR-34a-5p in A549 cells.


Assuntos
Apigenina/farmacologia , Apoptose/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Modelos Biológicos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
20.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(3): 677-703, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704029

RESUMO

To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Scutellarin (SCU) on neurite growth and neurological functional recovery in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) rats. Primary cortical neurons were cultured to detect the effect of SCU on cell viability of neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Double immunofluorescence staining of Tuj1 and TUNEL then observed the neurite growth and cell apoptosis in vitro,and double immunofluorescence staining of NEUN and TUNEL was performed to examine the neuronal apoptosis and cell apoptosis in brain tissues after HI in vivo. Pharmacological efficacy of SCU was also evaluated in HI rats by neurobehavioral tests, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Nissl staining. Astrocytes and microglia expression in damaged brain tissues were detected by immunostaining of GFAP and Iba1. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot were applied to investigate the genetic expression changes and the protein levels of autophagy-related proteins in the injured cortex and hippocampus after HI. We found that SCU administration preserved cell viability, promoted neurite outgrowth and suppressed apoptosis of neurons subjected to OGD both in vitroand in vivo. Meanwhile, 20 mg/kg SCU treatment improved neurological functions and decreased the expression of astrocytes and microglia in the cortex and hippocampus of HI rats. Additionally, SCU treatment depressed the elevated levels of autophagy-related proteins and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in both cortex and hippocampus. This study demonstrated the potential therapeutic efficacy of SCU by enhancing neurogenesis and restoring long-term neurological dysfunctions, which might be associated with p75NTR depletion in HI rats.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apigenina/farmacologia , Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Glucuronatos/farmacologia , Glucuronatos/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento/metabolismo
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