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2.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 256-267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896935

RESUMO

Liaison and Diversion (L&D) has twin objectives: improving mental health outcomes and reducing re-offending. Early diversion from police custody seems promising, but evidence of benefit is required to sustain such programmes. To test the hypothesis that contact with L&D services while in police custody would lead to improved mental health outcomes and a reduction in type and level of offending, we used a pre-post service use design. National Health Service (NHS) records in two counties were searched for evidence that patients had been involved with L&D services while in police custody during the period July 2009-December 2017. We defined January 2009-July 2014 as the pre-intervention period and any time after contact as the post-intervention period. Data from the Police National Computer were gathered for each period for these individuals, to assess their pre-post L&D contact offending histories. NHS Trust data were similarly gathered to assess their pre-post use of mental health legislation. 4,462 individuals were identified who had used L&D services in police custody. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of offending following contact with the L&D service (whether one or two contacts), regardless of offence type. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in use of the four most commonly used legislative powers for detaining patients in hospital on mental disorder grounds, regardless of offending status (prolific/non-prolific). Our results indicate positive associations between the L&D interventions and change in offending and use of compulsory hospital detention. Whilst our research does not allow a direct causal relationship to be established in either area, the findings go beyond other impact assessments of L&D which have either been with small samples or relied only on qualitative data or expert opinion.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Aplicação da Lei , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Polícia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
3.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 182-189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965272

RESUMO

The article deals with issues related to the use of specialist medical knowledge by a specialist in the investigation of illegal medical activities. The procedural status of a specialist in criminal procedural legislation of Georgia, Ukraine and certain EU countries has been carried out. The analysis of forms and directions of the use of special knowledge in the course of interaction with the investigator, allows to establish a special value for the process of proving the involvement of a specialist in the field of medicine to conduct procedural actions. It was found that by means of special medical knowledge in the course of the investigation there will be more chances to establish the circumstances to be proven, to properly record the evidence and to increase the effectiveness of the procedural action. Based on the consultations with a medical specialist, in the course of organizational and technical cooperation with the investigator, it will help to identify all circumstances that will influence the qualification of the person's actions in conducting illegal medical activity. On the basis of comparison with the Ukrainian legislation, the role in the form of involvement in procedural actions is determined; coverage of procedural and forensic aspects of using specialist medical knowledge by a specialist. Emphasis is placed on procedural interactions between the investigator and the medical specialist by involving his investigative (search) actions, such as: review of scene of action, search, interrogation and investigative experiment. While characterizing the non-procedural form of interaction between the investigator and medical specialist, the role of the latter in providing consultations on the preparation and conduct of individual procedural actions, reference and advisory assistance regarding the availability of special medical knowledge and consequences resulting from treatment, as well as in formulating questions during the appointment of forensic investigations during the investigation of illicit medical activities has been established.


Assuntos
Criminosos , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Ucrânia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236764, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735624

RESUMO

Do people punish more than they would if the decision costs were more transparent? In two Internet-based vignette experiments, we tested whether juvenile sentencing recommendations among U.S. adults are responsive to variation in the salience of the taxpayer costs and public safety benefits of incarceration. Using a 2 Cost (present vs. absent) x 2 Benefit (present vs. absent) factorial design, Experiment 1 (N = 234) found that exposure to information about the direct costs of incarcerating the juvenile offender reduced sentencing recommendations by about 28%, but exposure to the public safety benefits had no effect on sentences. Experiment 2 (N = 301) manipulated cost-benefit salience by asking participants to generate their own list of costs of incarceration, benefits of incarceration, or an affectively neutral, unrelated word list. Results revealed a similar selective effect whereby sentencing recommendations were reduced in the cost condition relative to the benefits and control conditions, but sentences in the benefit condition did not differ from the control. This combined pattern suggests that laypeople selectively neglect to factor cost considerations into these judgments, thereby inflating their support for punishment, unless those costs are made salient. These findings contribute to the debate on transparency in sentencing.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Julgamento , Punição , Adolescente , Adulto , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
6.
Georgian Med News ; (302): 167-173, 2020 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672711

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility and basics for the applying medical expertise as a tool for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers of the Republic of Armenia. The object of the study was the data reflecting the activities of the medical commission (MC), the appeal to the Polyclinic and hospitalization in the hospital of the Medical Directorate of the Police (MDP) of the Republic of Armenia (RA). The analysis was conducted for the years 2011-2015. In the course of the study, generally accepted statistical methods were applied with the determination of the specific weight of the phenomenon, the frequency of distribution (medical expertise, appealability and hospitalization) of the phenomenon in the appropriate environment (police of the RA), the reliability of the difference in relative values, matching of the obtained data by applying the Pearson criterion. The activities of the MC of MDP in the RA are regulated by orders of the head of the police of the Republic. Volume indicators and nomenclature of work of the medical commission of the MDP encompass both curative, as well as medical expert evaluations of the work of the medical staff of the police, all police officers of the Republic of Armenia, entrants of the Academy and college of police; determining the causal relationship of the disease of police themselves and deaths of former police officers of the RA. The analysis shows that the solutions medical commission of the Medical Police Department are general indicators for assessing the state of health of the police of the RA and their further performance; viewed a certain incoherence in the activities of the three main structures of the MDP of the RA, due to the development of 15-20 years ago and the current orders and decisions of the Government of the RA. Thus, it should be emphasized that the need has ripened for the development of a new methodology and modern methods for assessing the quality of medical support for police officers, at the same time, medical expertise is a quite respective tool for assessing the medical support the police of the Republic of Armenia.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Polícia , Armênia , Hospitais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Addict Med ; 14(5): e144-e146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604133

RESUMO

: The imposition of new regulations can send industries scrambling to comply, fostering innovation in doing so. How we police and treat people with opioid use disorder (OUD), with recent widespread social unrest in reaction to police violence and systemic racism bringing the need for lasting structural changes to our justice system and social services into especially acute relief. Arbitrary laws and counterproductive policies previously subject to only incremental reform have given way to sweeping changes: people convicted of nonviolent drug crimes have been released from jails and prisons, the enforcement of drug laws has been cast aside as a priority, and the regulations surrounding addiction treatment medications and treating patients with OUD have been greatly loosened. These are changes many practitioners and advocates have sought for years if not decades, but they come with the reality that the old systems are culturally entrenched and likely to be resilient. It is critical that researchers evaluate these changes and synthesize the results with existing evidence in ways that empower efforts to make the most effective responses permanent. The COVID-19 pandemic makes for a challenging research environment, but its OUD-related interventions have created new regulatory systems that lend themselves to valuable opportunities for evaluation as natural experiments by the burgeoning field of legal epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Aplicação da Lei , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
9.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 104-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573745

RESUMO

In summer of 2017 in Charlottesville, Virginia, white nationalists clashed with counterprotestors, ultimately leading to the death of three people and leaving 34 more injured. Soon after, the same group was granted permission to speak on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. Despite our college town having limited resources and personnel, the comprehensive and extensive preparation preceding the event ensured a peaceful resolution for such a large and potentially volatile situation. The preparatory steps required joint efforts from local and state partners in law enforcement, emergency medical services, and emergency departments. We describe here the situation we faced, the pre-event preparations, the response in the field and in our emergency department, and the outcomes from an emergency and tactical medicine perspective. We hope our successful experience will impart knowledge for similar events.


Assuntos
Fala , Universidades , Violência/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Florida , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520961

RESUMO

The illegal import of wildlife and wildlife products is a growing concern, and the U.S. is one of the world's leading countries in the consumption and transit of illegal wildlife and their derivatives. Yet, few U.S. studies have analyzed the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) on a national or local scale. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have specifically examined the trends associated with IWT moving through personal baggage. This work aimed to better understand the magnitude of illegal wildlife importation into U.S. ports of entry by determining trends associated with illegal wildlife products from personal baggage seizures, using the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a specific case study. To identify the most influential factors determining the numbers and types of personal baggage seizures into PNW, we analyzed 1,731 records between 1999 and 2016 from the Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Law Enforcement Management Information System (LEMIS) database. We found five significant contributors: taxonomic classification of wildlife, categorical import date, wildlife product, source region, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) status. While wildlife seizures across taxonomic categories have generally decreased in the PNW since 2008, other findings provide a reason for concern. More specifically, mammals were identified as the largest animal group of seized wildlife, and temporal trends indicate increases in seizures for this and several other taxonomic groups. Many of the seizures originated from overseas, with East Asia serving as the largest source. Our PNW case study can be a model for how large-scale geographical seizure data can be used to inform about the major factors that have historically and presently contribute to IWT, with conservation implications globally.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Comportamento Criminoso , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Mamíferos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
13.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 86-89, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490756

RESUMO

The Act and the regulations. How long they might last. The suspension of the renewals. Enforcement and the role of the police. Protection of whistleblowers. The trial scene. The ultimate impact.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/tendências , Saúde Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Infecções/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Patologia Clínica/tendências , Pneumonia Viral
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13421-13427, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482858

RESUMO

Although the backlog of untested sexual assault kits in the United States is starting to be addressed, many municipalities are opting for selective testing of samples within a kit, where only the most probative samples are tested. We use data from the San Francisco Police Department Criminalistics Laboratory, which tests all samples but also collects information on the samples flagged by sexual assault forensic examiners as most probative, to build a standard machine learning model that predicts (based on covariates gleaned from sexual assault kit questionnaires) which samples are most probative. This model is embedded within an optimization framework that selects which samples to test from each kit to maximize the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) yield (i.e., the number of kits that generate at least one DNA profile for the criminal DNA database) subject to a budget constraint. Our analysis predicts that, relative to a policy that tests only the samples deemed probative by the sexual assault forensic examiners, the proposed policy increases the CODIS yield by 45.4% without increasing the cost. Full testing of all samples has a slightly lower cost-effectiveness than the selective policy based on forensic examiners, but more than doubles the yield. In over half of the sexual assaults, a sample was not collected during the forensic medical exam from the body location deemed most probative by the machine learning model. Our results suggest that electronic forensic records coupled with machine learning and optimization models could enhance the effectiveness of criminal investigations of sexual assaults.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Ciências Forenses/economia , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , DNA/análise , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Ciências Forenses/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , São Francisco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo de Espécimes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; 22 may. 2020. 110-120 p. tab.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada en Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 1).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1119189

RESUMO

Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las posibles vías de elaboración de vacunas basado en técnicas novedosas que, aunado al gran esfuerzo que se está realizando en otras áreas de la ciencia, podrían ser clave para mitigar los efectos de del COVI 19, tomando en cuenta la declaración que se hizo en Venezuela el 13 de marzo del 2020 por parte del Ejecutivo Nacional de las medidas del Aislamiento Social ante la pandemia declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud como consecuencia de la presencia del COVID-19. Lo anterior generó la necesidad de acceder a las cifras del índice delictivo de las cuatro semanas anteriores a la declaratoria del aislamiento social y relacionarlas al primer mes de la cuarentena social. Con estos datos centrados en el estado Miranda y aportados por la Secretaría Coordinadora de Seguridad y Paz Ciudadana de esta entidad en relación a los delitos de Homicidio, Robo y Hurto, como muestra de la realidad nacional, se realizaron comparaciones entre estos dos períodos. De este análisis se presenta como conclusión una disminución de un 79% de la incidencia delictiva acumulada en el primer mes del aislamiento social en relación con el mes anterior. Centrado en estas conclusiones se presentan las recomendaciones y aspectos de interés a ser monitoreados desde las capacidades científicas, tecnológicas y de innovación de los organismos de seguridad ciudadana(AU)


This essay seeks to provide recommendations for effective-ness and efficiency in police institutions, to make optimal use of available resources and to best adapt them to the specific realities faced in the social field where these organizations carry out their activities, under the current condition of Social Isolation, as a governance action taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The different environment situations to be faced by citizen security organiza-tions, determine the complexity of this, and the response mechanisms of these institu-tions constitute management models to the different varieties to be assumed and detailed in this work. The decree issued by the Venezuelan government on March 13, 2020, imposing Social Isolation because of the COVID-19 pandemic declared by the World Health Organization, created the need to access the crime rate figures of the four weeks prior to the declaration of social isolation, and link them to the first month of social quarantine. With this data focused on the Miranda State and provided by the Coordinating Secretary of Security and Citizen Peace of this entity in relation to the crimes of: Homicide, Robbery and theft, comparisons were made between these two periods. This analysis reflects a 79% decrease in the reported crime incidence in the first month of social isolation compared to the previous month, and focused on these findings, recommendations and aspects of interest are given, to be monitored from the scientific, technological and innovation capacities of citizen security agencies(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Medidas de Segurança/organização & administração , Isolamento Social , Venezuela , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, about 2.3 billion people are current alcohol drinkers, and 283 million have an alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use while driving is a major contributor to road traffic injuries (RTI). We need to understand the culture and perception of drink-driving in this setting to understand why people continue to drink drive and allow policymakers to develop more effective ways to address drink-driving behavior. This study aims to qualitatively determine what injury patients, their families, and community advisory board members in Tanzania believe about drink-driving to help inform policies to address this problem. METHODS: The semi-structured focus group was designed based on the grounded theory and assessed using thematic analysis. Focus groups participants were a convenience sample of injury patients, their families, and community advisory board (CAB) members. Analysis was iterative throughout the study. All transcripts were coded using a thematic narrative approach. Representative quotes for each theme were then selected based on comparative analysis of coding with input from research team members. RESULTS: A total of ten focus groups were conducted (4 patient, 4 family, and 2 CAB) with a total of 104 participants (37 females and 67 males). The normalization of drinking among drivers has allowed this behavior to become ingrained in the culture. Participants expressed notions that passengers are responsible for their own safety, rather than drivers being responsible for their passengers. Most participants believe it is a citizen's duty to inform the police of suspected drink-driving, however there were differing opinions about how effective informed police officers can be in practice. Focus group discussions between all three population types highlighted major themes of 'drinking is ingrained in boda boda driver culture', 'individuals have a personal responsibility to address drink-driving', and a 'police enforcement on drink-driving is necessary'. CONCLUSIONS: Normalization of drink-driving in commercial driver culture creates a dangerous environment for passengers which can be mitigated by education and health promotion. As most passengers already take personal responsibility for their own road traffic safety, they may be likely to make use of safe ride options, if available. While legislation is in place against drink-driving, police officers need to be empowered with appropriate training and funding to enforce them.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Dirigir sob a Influência/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Polícia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
20.
Public Health Rep ; 135(3): 393-400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264789

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delivering and receiving prompt medical care during an overdose are imperative to ensure survival. Good Samaritan laws encourage people to call 911 during an overdose by providing immunity from selected drug arrests (eg, low-level possession). However, it is unclear whether persons who inject drugs (PWID) are aware of and understand these laws and their implications. We examined awareness among PWID of the 2015 Good Samaritan law in Maryland and their beliefs about whether they could be arrested for calling 911 or having an overdose. METHODS: We surveyed 298 PWID in Baltimore, Maryland. We estimated the proportion who knew what the Good Samaritan law addressed and who believed they could be arrested for calling 911 or overdosing. We used a multivariate model to assess the association between harm-reduction services and knowledge of the Good Samaritan law or beliefs about getting arrested for calling 911 or overdosing. RESULTS: Of PWID, 56 of 298 (18.8%) knew what the Good Samaritan law addressed, 43 of 267 (16.1%) believed they could be arrested for calling 911, and 32 of 272 (11.8%) believed they could be arrested for having an overdose. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, accessing the syringe services program was associated with accurate knowledge and the belief that PWID could be arrested for calling 911; however, training in overdose reversal was not associated. CONCLUSIONS: Most PWID were unaware of the Good Samaritan law; this lack of awareness is a barrier to preventing overdose deaths. Educating PWID about Good Samaritan laws is essential, and such education should include police to ensure that law enforcement is congruent with Good Samaritan laws and does not perpetuate mistrust between police and PWID.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Aplicação da Lei , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto Jovem
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