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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134443, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655455

RESUMO

Worldwide, billions of people are at risk from viruses, parasites and bacteria transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, fleas and other vectors. Over exploitation of chemical pesticides to overcome the mosquito borne diseases led to detrimental effects on environment and human health. The present research aims to explore bio-fabrication of metal silver nanomaterials using Rhazya stricta extract against deadly mosquito vectors and microbial pathogens. The phytochemical profile of the R. stricta extracts was studied by HPLC-MS and 1H NMR. Further, confirmation of the bio-fabricated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy and characterization through FTIR, TEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. The R. stricta-fabricated AgNPs showed acute toxicity on key mosquito vectors from two different country (India and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA) strains, notably, with LC50 values of 10.57, 11.89 and 12.78 µg/ml on malarial, dengue and filarial key Indian strains of mosquito vectors, respectively, and 30.66 and 38.39 µg/ml on KSA strains of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens, respectively. In mosquito adulticidal activity, R. stricta extract alone exhibited LC50 values ranging from 304.34 to 382.45 µg/ml against Indian strains and from 738.733 to 886.886 against Saudi Arabian strains, while AgNPs LC50 boosted from 9.52 to 12.16 µg/ml and from 30.66 to 38.39 µg/ml, respectively. Moreover, it was noticed that at low concentration the tested AgNPs showed high growth retardation of important pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi with inhibition zone diameters from 11.86 to 22.92 mm. In conclusion, the present study highlighted that R. stricta-fabricated AgNPs could be a lead material for the management of mosquito vector and microbial pathogens control.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Apocynaceae , Inseticidas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Índia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
2.
Phytochemistry ; 168: 112127, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550672

RESUMO

Five undescribed C21 pregnane glycosides, epigycosides D-H, together with four known analogues, two lignans, and a flavonoid have been isolated from the stems of Epigynum cochinchinensis. The structures of pregnane glycosides were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques and acid hydrolysis. The in vitro immunological activities were assessed against Con A-stimulated proliferation of mice splenocytes. The C21 pregnane glycosides showed immunosuppressive activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, epigycoside E exhibited a potent immunosuppressive effect, and the IC50 value on Con A-stimulated mice splenocytes was 22.1 ±â€¯6.4 µM. Epigycoside E also caused G0/G1 arrest, and inhibited TNF-α and IL-2 production.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Pregnanos/isolamento & purificação , Pregnanos/farmacologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicosídeos/química , Imunossupressores/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Caules de Planta/química , Pregnanos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104354, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473334

RESUMO

Four new alkaloids, melodinines W1-W4 (1-4), together with twenty one known alkaloids (5-25) were isolated from Melodinus henryi. The structures with absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as the single crystal X-ray diffraction and ECD calculations. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities to five human cancer cell lines. Many compounds showed certain cytotoxicities to five human cancer cell lines with an IC50 range of 1.4-29.4 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Casca de Planta/química , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/isolamento & purificação
4.
Microsc Res Tech ; 82(11): 1891-1902, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415132

RESUMO

Herbal medicines frequently suffer with quality controversies because of similar species or varieties. This often leads to sophistication or admixture of the crude drug as they share various look alike physical features. Commercially, stalks of Caralluma edulis are commonly adulterated with other species because of their analogous morphology. In the present research, the microscopic standardization of the drug was performed by structural, histological, and anatomical features. Pharmacognostical characterization was carried out by physicochemical (moisture content, swelling index, pH value, ash values, and extractive values) and fluorescence analysis. The chemical characterization by UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography was also performed that disclosed the chief phytoconstituents of the herbal drug. The above mentioned constraints, being reported for the first time in C. edulis, are substantial in establishing the microscopic and pharmacopoeial standards for future identification and authentication.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/anatomia & histologia , Preparações de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Apocynaceae/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Farmacognosia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104347, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470065

RESUMO

Five new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, melotenuines A-E (1-5), along with 18 known indole alkaloids, were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Melodinus tenuicaudatus. The structures of the new alkaloids were determined by a combination of MS, NMR and ECD analysis. Melotenuine A (1) represents the first example of aspidosperma-meloscandonine type bisindole alkaloids characterized by a methylene bridge between the two monomers, while melotenuine B (2) possessed a rare eburnamine-melsocandonine skeleton. All of the new indole alkaloids were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Among them, alkaloid 4 showed specific cytotoxicity against HL-60 cell line with IC50 value (5.15 ±â€¯0.16 µM) comparable with that of positive control.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/isolamento & purificação
6.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330950

RESUMO

Wildly grown in most regions of the world, Carissa edulis is a highly underutilised fruit with significant antioxidant characteristics. The phyto and physicochemical properties of C. edulis berries at different stages of ripening are evaluated in this work. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity were determined spectrophotometrically, while concentration of polyphenols was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Results showed that antioxidant activity was lowest (18.36 ± 0.12 mg TE/g) in RS3 and decreased with TPC upon increased ripening. Conversely, TF increased with ripening progression with TF found to be highest in RS3 (5.92 ± 0.03 mg CE/g). Identified phenolic acids in C. edulis were quinic acid, protocatechuoyl-hexose, neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid and dicaffeoylquinic acid. Identified flavonoids included rutin, catechin, procyanidin dimer, procyanidin trimer, quercetin-3-O-glucosyl-xyloside, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-OH-3-methylglutaryl-glucoside. Physicochemical properties of C. edulis varied among samples with sugar/acid ratio of C. edulis ranging from 25.70 for RS1 to 50.36 for RS3. Ripening stage of C. edulis undoubtedly affects the phyto and physicochemical properties of C. edulis.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Polifenóis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(3): 64-66, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304709

RESUMO

Introduction: Suicide is a major public health challenge in Kerala. Majority of adult poisoning is intentional. Most of those who attempt 'deliberate self harm' are young adults and many a time the reason is trivial. Objectives: To find out the pattern of poisoning, prognostic factors in different type of poisoning, precipitating factors for deliberate self harm and to suggest preventive measures. Methodology: This was a prospective observational study conducted among patients admitted with history of poisoning in a tertiary care centre in Kerala. Detailed history, physical examination, relevant lab investigations were done in all the patients. Psychiatric assessment and counselling was done in all survivors. Results: A total of 195 patients were included in this study-109 males and 86 females. The intention of poisoning was suicidal in 98.82% of cases. The mortality rate was 13.33%. Common poisons consumed were odollam, drugs, pesticides and rodenticides. Majority of deaths were due to organophosphorous compounds (42.31%) followed by odollam (38.46%). The common precipitating factors were family problems, personal stressors and marital discord in both sexes. Psychiatric assessment showed adjustment disorder as the commonest problem followed by impulsive act. Conclusion: The common poisons ingested are organophosphorous compounds, drugs and odollam. Organophosphorous and odollam carries higher mortality. Pesticide regulation, use of less toxic pesticides in agriculture, early management and quick referral to well equipped hospitals will help in reducing mortality. Suicide prevention programmes like psychosocial support and counselling, raising public awareness about deliberate self harm and alcohol de-addiction programmes will help in reducing the incidence of deliberate self harm.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Praguicidas , Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Suicídio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ideação Suicida , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(5): 59-63, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304908

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a common chronic disease of the central nervous system that can last for years or even decades, causing serious adverse effects on the body, mind, and psychology of patients. Traditional antiepileptic drugs can effectively control seizures, but because of large individual differences, serious adverse reactions, narrow therapeutic window and other shortcomings, more effective, new treatment drugs are looked for. Streptocaulon griffithii is a plant of Asclepiadaceae. 16-O-acetyldigitoxigenin (ACE) is a strong cardiac glycoside isolated from methanol extract of Streptocaulon griffithii. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiepileptic effect of ACE on Pilocarpine (Pilo) induced epilepsy in mice, and to explore the effect of mTOR signaling pathway on its antiepileptic effect. The results showed that ACE had antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects on Pilo induced epilepsy mice. ACE attenuates Pilo induced seizures by inhibiting the activation of p-mTOR/p-70S6K pathway, and inhibits Pilocarpine induced brain damage by inhibiting mTOR signaling pathway. These results suggest that ACE has a promising future in the treatment of epilepsy and other nervous system diseases.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Digitoxigenina/análogos & derivados , Digitoxigenina/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Apocynaceae/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Digitoxigenina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Pilocarpina/administração & dosagem , Pilocarpina/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 90-kDa/metabolismo , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314740

RESUMO

Background We investigated the effects of a polyherbal formulation prepared from the extracts of Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae), Dracaena arborea (Dracaenaceae), and Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) (MDB) on the sexual behavior of normal rats (NR) and prediabetic rats (PR). Methods Male Wistar rats were administered with drinking fructose solution (21%) or tap water for 16 weeks. After induction of prediabetic status, NR (n = 30) and PR (n = 30) were randomly distributed into 10 groups of six animals each and orally treated with distilled water (10 mL/kg), sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg), or MDB (50, 100, or 500 mg/kg) for 21 days. Sexual behavior parameters per series (S) of ejaculation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Results Drinking fructose solution (21%) induced prediabetic status in rats, characterized by a significant (p < 0.01) increase in glycemia by 43.41% compared with the control group. MDB improved sexual performances of NR and PR by increasing the mount frequency (MF) and the intromission frequency (IF) as well as the number of rats capable of ejaculating. For instance, the MF and the IF were significantly increased in animals administered with MDB for 7 (50 mg/kg, S1 and S2), 14 (100 mg/kg, S3), or 21 days (100 or 500 mg/kg, S2). This increase was more pronounced on days 7 and 14 in NR and PR treated with sildenafil citrate or MDB extracts, respectively. Conclusions The mixture of MDB improved sexual activity in NR and PR. This result may further justify the traditional use of these plants as sexual performance enhancers.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Dracaena/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 31, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, indigo-yielding plant species were important cash crops from Central Asia to the southern United States and Central America. Indigo-dyed textiles were widely traded along the legendary Silk Road that linked China to Europe. Today, due to the labor-intensive nature of indigo extraction at the household level, lifestyle changes and the widespread availability of commercially produced indigo paste, traditional indigo extraction methods have declined in villages. Yet Li textile weavers on Hainan Island are internationally recognized as producers of indigo-dyed textile using warp ikat techniques. In contrast, Hainan Miao weavers produce indigo-dyed textiles using batik (wax resist) techniques. The aim of this study was to document the indigenous knowledge on indigo-yielding plant species used by both Hainan Miao and Li people on Hainan Island, China. METHOD: Ethnic uses were documented during three field surveys, through a questionnaire survey of 193 respondents, comprising 144 Hainan Miao and 49 Li traditional dyers. Mention index (QI), Availability index (AI), and Preference ranking (PR) of each indigo-yielding plant species were calculated to screen out plant resources with potential development value. RESULTS: Five indigo-yielding plant species (from four plant families and four genera) were historically used by Hainan Miao and Li dyers. However, just four species are still in use. Strobilanthes cusia was the main indigo source for Hainan Miao dyers. Li dyers also commonly use Indigofera species (I. tinctoria and I. suffruticosa) for indigo extraction. Wrightia laevis is less commonly used as a contemporary indigo source. Indigo extraction by steeping in water to which lime is added to increase the pH is sharing by the five indigo-yielding plant species. Strobilanthes cusia had the highest QI, AI and PR values in Hainan Miao villages. Indigofera tinctoria had the highest QI and AI values, but Indigofera suffruticosa was preferred by Li dyers. CONCLUSION: In the process of modernization and urbanization, some Hainan Miao and Li dyers retain the traditional indigo extraction methods. We found that Strobilanthes cusia and Indigofera tinctoria have the most potential for sustainable indigo production in the future. Furthermore, this study documents the details of extraction method from Wrightia laevis for the first time and the use of Ricinus communis seeds in that process. As one of the last places globally where Wrightia laevis is still used for indigo production, the may also be a nice market among textile collectors and museums that keeps the tradition of Wrightia laevis production and use for indigo extraction alive.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae , Apocynaceae , Corantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Indigofera , Polygonaceae , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104258, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284017

RESUMO

Four new indole alkaloids (1-4) and twenty known compounds (5-24) were isolated from the leaves and stems, and fruits of Kopsia officinalis. Their structures were confirmed by means of spectroscopic methods. All these isolates were evaluated for their antagonizing high glucose-evoked podocyte injury activity for the first time, and compounds 5-8 showed potent activity with EC50 values of 3.0-12.0 µM.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China , Frutas/química , Glucose , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 41(8-9): 1043-1050, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the enzymatic properties of asclepain f, a plant cysteine protease isolated and purified from the latex of Asclepias fruticosa, and to investigate its potential application to hydrolyze soybean proteins. RESULTS: Kinetic parameters were determined by hydrolysis of p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA). The Km value for asclepain f was 6 to 8 times higher than those achieved for papain, bromelain and ficin, the main plant cysteine proteases. Asclepain f showed 12 cut-off points toward the oxidized B chain insulin, revealing that the enzyme possesses broad substrate specificity. The cut specificity was governed by the presence of hydrophobic residues (F, L, V) in the P2 position. Asclepain f was able to selectively hydrolyze soybean proteins at pH 10, employing an enzyme/substrate ratio of 0.2% (w/w). The enzymatic hydrolysis allowed a strong increase in the solubility, water and oil holding capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Asclepain f was revealed as a successful enzyme for biocatalysis of protein hydrolysis processes at alkaline pH. This new plant protease has a broad substrate specificity and is capable of selectively degrading the fractions of soy proteins and improving its functional properties.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/enzimologia , Cisteína Proteases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteólise , Especificidade por Substrato
13.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(7): 1995-2001, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350956

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the antitumor effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres with adsorbed Hancornia speciosa ethanolic extract (HSEE) on blood mononuclear (MN) cells co-cultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methods: PEG microspheres were adsorbed with HSEE and examined by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. MCF-7 and MN cells obtained from volunteer donors were pre-incubated alone or co-cultured (MN and MCF-7 cells) for 24 h with or without HSEE, PEG microspheres or PEG adsorbed with HSEE (PEG-HSEE). Cell viability, superoxide release and superoxide dismutase were determined. Results: Fluorescence microscopy showed that PEG microspheres were able to absorb HSEE throughout their surface. Irrespective of the treatment, the viability index of MN cells, MCF-7 and their co-culture was not affected. Superoxide release increased in co-cultured cells treated with HSEE, adsorbed or not onto PEG microspheres. In co-cultured cells, SOD levels in culture supernatant increased in the treatment with HSEE, adsorbed onto PEG microspheres or not. Conclusion: HSEE has direct effects on MN cells co-cultured with MCF-7 cells. The results suggest the benefits of Hancornia speciosa fruit consumption by women at risk of breast cancer. In addition, because PEG-HSEE maintained oxidative balance in co-cultured cells, it is a promising alternative for the treatment of tumor cells.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Microesferas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150781

RESUMO

Acute and subacute toxicities of the ethanol extract from Epigynum auritum (EAE) wereperformed by oral administration in pathogen-free mice. Acute toxicity study was performed at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days, while subacute toxicity test was conducted by daily oral administration of EAE at doses of 312, 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg for 28 days. Acute toxicity study showed that LD50 of EAE was over 5000 mg/kg. The results of subacute toxicity showed no significant adverse effect of EAE at 312 mg/kg. Moreover, EAE exhibited toxicities to liver, spleen and kidney in mice determined by hematological, serum biochemical and histological analyses during daily oral administration of 1250 mg/kg and 2500 mg/kg EAE. The results revealed that the dose of EAE lower than 625 mg/kg can be regarded as safe.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/química , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Potássio/sangue , Sódio/sangue , Baço/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 152, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leaves of Gongronema latifolium Benth. have long been recognized traditionally as a remedy for a variety of ailments in Africa. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety profile of the ethanolic extract of G. latifolium (GLES) leaves through a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study in male and female of Sprague Dawley rats. METHODS: GLES was orally administered at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day consecutively for 90 days. RESULTS: No behavioral or physiological changes and mortality were observed. GLES did not have a marked impact on general hematological parameters and did not precipitate nephrotoxicity. However, compared to the control, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were lower and white adipose tissue paired retroperitoneal fat depots were depleted in male rats treated with GLES3 by the end of the experiment. The liver was significantly enlarged in GLES-treated rats of both sexes. Negative gender-specific alterations were observed with the highest dose. Adverse risk was evident in the female rats mainly due to marked body weight gain and cerebrum weight reduction. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to reach more specific conclusions about to the safety of ingesting high doses of GLES for long periods of time.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
Food Chem ; 293: 499-510, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151641

RESUMO

This study aims to link morphological and physico-chemical parameters with maturity stages of Natal plum (Carissa macrocarpa), an edible southern African fruit. Harvesting via an integrative holistic approach is recommended for optimal quality and functional compounds. Fruits at dark green (M1), light green (M2), colour break or pink (M3), red (M4), dark red (M5) stages were harvested in 2016 and 2017 seasons. The principal component analysis illustrated the colour value a* (redness), fruit weight, size (length and width), sugars (glucose and fructose), ascorbic acid content, cyanidin derivatives (cyanidin-3-O-pyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-ß-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside), naringenin 4'-O-glucoside, and antioxidant property (FRAP) were higher in the following order of maturity stages M5 > M4 > M3 > M2 > M1. Quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl galactoside and glucoside were higher in green (h° higher) firm M1 to M3 stages. A strong correlation exists between fruit weight, size, a* value and cyanidin derivatives or naringenin 4'-O-glucoside or ascorbic acid content or antioxidant activity. Thus, the M4 and M5 stages of Natal plum can serve as functional food.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Apocynaceae/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dissacarídeos/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional/análise , Glucosídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Açúcares/análise
17.
Life Sci ; 231: 116535, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175857

RESUMO

Latex proteins from P. pudica (LPPp) have anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, LPPp was evaluated to protect animals against inflammatory ulcerative colitis (UC). UC was induced by intracolonic instillation of a 6% acetic acid solution and the animals received LPPp (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route 1 h before and 17 h after acetic acid injection. Eighteen hours after instillation of acetic acid, the mice were euthanized and the colons were excised to determine the wet weight, macroscopic and microscopic lesion scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL1-ß levels, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results revealed that LPPp treatment (40 mg/kg) had a protective effect on acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing the wet weight, macroscopic and microscopic scores of intestinal lesions and colonic MPO activity. Additionally, LPPp inhibited tissue oxidative stress, since decreases in GSH consumption, MDA concentration and SOD activity were observed. The treatment with LPPp reduced the levels of cytokine IL-1ß, contributing to the reduction of colon inflammation. Biochemical investigation showed that LPPp comprises a mixture of proteins containing proteinases, chitinases and proteinase inhibitors. These data suggest that LPPp has a protective effect against intestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine release and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Látex/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Acético , Animais , Apocynaceae/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Látex/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(13): 1134-1146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vernacular name 'Harmal' is used for two plant species in Saudi Arabia, i.e. Peganum harmala L. and Rhazya stricta Decne. Both are important medicinal plants which offer interesting pharmacological properties. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity among different populations of harmal based on chemical variations of alkaloids and molecular polymorphism. METHODS: Total alkaloids were extracted from plants of three populations of each species and estimated by using spectrophotometer and the chemical compounds were analyzed by Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Molecular polymorphism was estimated by using the Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) fingerprints. RESULTS: The results showed that the alkaloids content of R. stricta was higher than P. harmala populations. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of (65-53) compounds in R. stricta and P. harmala, and the percentage of polymorphism was found to be 93.2%. Sixteen ISSR primers produced 170 scorable bands with an average of 9.6 bands per primer and 75%-100% polymorphism. The cluster analysis using the unweighted pair-group method of the arithmetic average (UPGMA) method based on combined data of GC-MS and ISSR markers divided the six harmal genotypes into two major groups. CONCLUSION: The existence of variations in chemical and genetic markers is useful for the selection of potential genotypes for medicinal use, and for breeding lines for medicinal substances production to spare wild plants from uncontrolled harvesting for folk medicine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Apocynaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Peganum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Apocynaceae/química , Biomarcadores/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Peganum/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Arábia Saudita
19.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(8): 679-688, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, Solenostemma argel effervescent tablets were prepared from Argel methanolic extract. METHODS: The tablets were examined for their ability to impede carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced lipid peroxidation in mice liver. The antioxidant activities of the enzymes; super-oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GS-PX) along with malondialdehyde level were tested in liver tissues. RESULTS: The obtained results indicated that the antioxidant enzyme activities were remarkably reduced while the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), which shows lipid peroxidation, and the activity of alanine aminotransferase (a liver function test) were remarkably intensified following intra-peritoneal i.p injection with the single sub-lethal hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 compared to the control. A necrotic lesion in the liver of mice injected with CCl4 was observed by the histopathological examination. The damaging influence of CCl4 was improved by the retreatment with Argel or BHT, which could also be observed in the normal appearance of the liver tissue. CONCLUSION: In this study, it was concluded that S. Argel and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) could be effective by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, Argel might be applied as a hepatoprotective agent without any side effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/enzimologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Comprimidos
20.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 965-972, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250411

RESUMO

Three previously undescribed cardenolides, acovenosigenin A 3-O-α-L-acofriopyranoside (1: ), 14-anhydroacovenosigenin A 3-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″→4')-O-α-L-acofriopyranoside] (2: ), and 14-anhydroacovenosigenin A 3-O-[ß-D-glucopyranosyl-(1″→4')-O-α-L-acovenopyranoside] (3: ), together with the two already known ones, 14-anhydrodigitoxigenin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (4: ) and acospectoside A (5: ), were isolated from the leaves of Acokanthera oblongifolia. The influence of cardenolides 1:  - 3: and acovenoside A (found in the Acokanthera genus) on three cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, and AGS) was also investigated. The most promising results, in comparison with oxaliplatin, were obtained for compound 1: , which was found to be highly cytotoxic for all tested cell lines, HT29 (IC50 = 63.49 nM), HCT116 (IC50 = 67.35 nM), and AGS (IC50 = 80.92 nM). Unfortunately, 1: also showed similar toxicity towards normal lymphocytes (IC50 = 98.03 nM).


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Cardenolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
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