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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 36, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422159

RESUMO

The evolution and contemporary challenges of health research (HR) in Madagascar are poorly documented. We aim to gain insights on the factors that shape Madagascar's National Health Research System (NHRS) to better understand their influence. We conducted a qualitative case study, which included a documentary review and semi-structured interviews with 38 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis and used the WHO/AFRO NHRS Barometer to structure the presentation of the results. There is no legislative framework to support HR activities and institutions. There is, however, a policy document outlining national priorities for HS. Human resources for HR are insufficient, due to challenges in training and retaining researchers. International collaboration is almost the only source of HR funding. Collaborations contribute to developing human and institutional capacity, but they are not always aligned with research carried out locally and the country's priority health needs. Incomplete efforts to improve regulation and low public investment in research training and research implementation reflect an insufficient commitment to HR by the government. Negotiating equitable international partnerships, the availability of public funding, and aligning HR with national health priorities would constitute a solid basis for the development of the NHRS in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Entrevistas como Assunto , Madagáscar , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração
3.
Am J Law Med ; 47(2-3): 157-175, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405779

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed myriad and complex challenges for our national health care system spanning preparedness, response, access, costs, infrastructure, coordination, and medical innovation. These challenges implicate federal, state, and local agencies and actors, as well as international collaborative bodies. One constant throughout the pandemic has been the pressing need for safe and effective diagnostics, prophylactic vaccines, and drug treatments to counter the virus.1 Inarguably, significant problems with the multi-faceted system of drug and vaccine innovation and regulation manifested long before the COVID-19 pandemic.2 The pandemic, however, has laid bare the inextricable connections among federal funding, patents, product review and approval mechanisms, and the eventual medical products and resulting costs.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/economia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Aprovação de Drogas/legislação & jurisprudência , Órgãos Governamentais , Patentes como Assunto , Terapias em Estudo/economia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Propriedade Intelectual , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
5.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(8): 896-897, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196670

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging vision scientists who have yet to be awarded their first independent funding may have their research careers disproportionately affected by early COVID-19-related disruptions. In September 2020, the Alliance for Eye and Vision Research convened a panel of 22 such scientists (nominated by their academic institutions) to communicate to the US Congress about the importance of vision research. As part of the effort, interviews were conducted with scientists about the effect of the pandemic on their research. Observations: Qualitative areas of adverse consequences from the early months of COVID-19 disruptions included striking interruptions of patient-based research, limits on other types of clinical research, loss of research time for scientists with young children (especially women), challenges with animal colonies and cell cultures, impediments to research collaborations, and loss of training time. Conclusions and Relevance: The early months during the COVID-19 pandemic increased career stress on many early-stage investigators in the vision field and delayed (and may potentially derail) their ability to attract their first independent research funding grant. As a result, federal and private granting agencies may need to take these factors into account to retain talented, early-stage vision researchers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , COVID-19/complicações , Escolha da Profissão , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Pesquisadores/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmologia/educação , Quarentena/psicologia , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(7): 499-503, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263876

RESUMO

Access to vaccines against covid-19 is a very topical issue. On the one hand, we are suffering from supply problems and inadequate availability of doses both nationally and internationally. On the other hand, public health needs do not coincide with those of the market economy: the need to vaccinate the entire world population to overcome the pandemic cannot be satisfied due to market rules and limits in production processes. The result is a radical inequality in access to vaccines. We are aware of the delicate balance between health and economy: the latter cannot ignore the former. Also for this reason, the demand for greater equity in access to vaccines is growing: the race for innovation may not be hindered by a targeted relaxation of the rules on intellectual property during a pandemic health emergency.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Propriedade Intelectual , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/economia , Difusão de Inovações , Saúde Global , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Patentes como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia , Cobertura Vacinal
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3429, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103514

RESUMO

Neuroscience research in Africa remains sparse. Devising new policies to boost Africa's neuroscience landscape is imperative, but these must be based on accurate data on research outputs which is largely lacking. Such data must reflect the heterogeneity of research environments across the continent's 54 countries. Here, we analyse neuroscience publications affiliated with African institutions between 1996 and 2017. Of 12,326 PubMed indexed publications, 5,219 show clear evidence that the work was performed in Africa and led by African-based researchers - on average ~5 per country and year. From here, we extract information on journals and citations, funding, international coauthorships and techniques used. For reference, we also extract the same metrics from 220 randomly selected publications each from the UK, USA, Australia, Japan and Brazil. Our dataset provides insights into the current state of African neuroscience research in a global context.


Assuntos
Neurociências/tendências , Publicações/tendências , África , Autoria , Internacionalidade , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Neurociências/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
15.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(2): 161-167, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984405

RESUMO

Kidney disease is an important US public health problem because it affects over 37 million Americans, and Medicare expenditures for patients with chronic kidney disease now alone exceed $130 billion annually. Kidney disease is characterized by strong racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities, and reducing kidney disease incidence will positively impact US health disparities. Due to the aging of the US population and an unabated obesity epidemic, the number of patients receiving treatment for kidney failure is anticipated to increase, which will escalate kidney disease health expenditures. The historical and current investment in kidney-related research via the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has severely lagged behind ongoing expenditures for kidney disease care. Increasing research investment will identify, develop, and increase implementation of interventions to slow kidney disease progression, reduce incidence of kidney failure, enhance survival, and improve quality of life. This perspective states the urgent reasons why increasing investment in kidney-related research is important for US public health. The National Kidney Foundation and the American Society of Nephrology are working together to advocate for increased funding for the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The long-term goal is to reduce the burden of kidney disease in the US population and improve the quality of life of patients living with kidney disease.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hemodiálise no Domicílio , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Medicare/economia , Nefrologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
16.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(1): 25-29, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966644

RESUMO

Just as tariffs lead to economic distortions and provide incentives for corruption, so do patent monopolies on prescription drugs, except the impact is often an order of magnitude larger.


Assuntos
Comércio , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Patentes como Assunto , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Revelação/normas , Competição Econômica/normas , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto
18.
Acad Med ; 96(6): 836-841, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031305

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has prioritized efforts to increase diversity in the biomedical research workforce. NIH-funded institutional career development awards may serve as one mechanism to facilitate these efforts. In 2013, the Duke University KL2 program, an internal career development program funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, set a goal to increase the number of investigators from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups (UREGs) to ≥ 50% of KL2 awardees. From 2013 to 2019, 133 KL2 applications were received, 38% from UREG investigators. Of the 21 scholars selected, 10 (47.6%) were UREG investigators; all were Black/African American. This represents a threefold increase in the proportion of UREG applications and a sixfold increase in the proportion of UREG KL2 scholars compared with Duke's previous KL2 cycles (2003-2012), during which only 13% of applicants and 8.3% of funded scholars were UREGs. Of the 12 KL2 scholars (7 UREG) who completed the program, 5 have received NIH funding as principal investigators of an external K award or R01, and 4 of them are UREG investigators; this constitutes a post-KL2 NIH funding success rate of 57% (4/7) for UREG scholars. Achieving this programmatic priority was facilitated by institutional support, clear communication of goals to increase the proportion of UREG KL2 awardees, and intentional strategies to identify and support applicants. Strategies included targeted outreach to UREG investigators, partnerships with other institutional entities, structured assistance for investigators with preparing their applications, and a KL2 program structure addressing common barriers to success for UREG investigators, such as lack of consistent mentorship, protected research time, and peer support. The authors' experience suggests that KL2 and other internal career development programs may represent a scalable, national strategy to increase diversity in the biomedical research workforce.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Diversidade Cultural , Grupos Étnicos , Pesquisadores/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/economia , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , North Carolina , Estados Unidos , Universidades
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