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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929280, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19- related factors, the needs of school support, including material, psychological and information support, have seldom been discussed as factors influencing anxiety and depression among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 3351 college students from China were surveyed through questionnaires about their sociodemographic and COVID-19 characteristics, the needs of school support, and their experiences with anxiety and depression. RESULTS Anxiety and depression were reported by 6.88% and 10.50% of students, respectively. Married, higher education, non-medical, and urban students had significantly higher risks of anxiety or depression. Additionally, symptoms such as cough and fever, especially when following a possible contact with suspected individuals, quarantine history of a personal contact, going out 1-3 times a week, not wearing a mask, and spending 2-3 hours browsing COVID-19-related information were significantly associated with the occurrence of anxiety or depression. Those who used methods to regulate their emotional state, used a psychological hotline, and who had visited a psychiatrist showed higher anxiety or depression. Those who used online curricula and books, used preventive methods for COVID-19, and who had real-time information about the epidemic situation of the school showed lower anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19-related aspects, students' needs for psychological assistance and information from schools were also associated with anxiety and depression among college students.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , /prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Linhas Diretas/organização & administração , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Vet Rec ; 188(7): 242-243, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835590
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806105

RESUMO

To improve and plan regional suicide prevention programmes that utilise more cost-effective governmental financial support compared with previous programmes, the present study determined the effects of the amount of financial support provided for regional suicide prevention programmes, such as the Emergency Fund to Enhance Community-Based Suicide Countermeasures (EFECBSC), on the trends of suicide mortalities caused by six major suicide motives between 2009 and 2018, using forward multiple regression analysis. The ranking order of motives for male suicide was health, economy, family, employment, romance and school (in that order), whereas the ranking order for females was health, family, economy, romance, employment and school. Male suicide mortality caused by economy-related motives was significantly/inversely related to prefectural intervention programmes, whereas mortality caused by health-related motives was also significantly/inversely related to prefectural intervention programmes, but significantly/positively related to prefectural personal consultation support programmes. Contrary to males, female suicide mortality caused by health-related motives was significantly/inversely related to the municipal development programmes of leaders/listeners, whereas mortality caused by family- and school-related motives was significantly/positively related to prefectural and municipal telephone consultation support programmes, respectively. Contrary to our expectations, school-aged female suicide mortality caused by school-related motives was significantly/positively related to prefectural personal consultation support, enlightenment and municipal telephone consultation support programmes. These results indicate that Japanese regional suicide prevention programmes probably affect the suppression of male suicide mortality. However, these programmes are possibly ineffective, or at least partially, have an adverse effect, in regard to the suicide mortalities of female and school-aged populations. Therefore, we should work to improve regional suicide prevention programmes, making them more cost-effective and targeted towards female and school-aged populations in the future.


Assuntos
Motivação , Suicídio , Criança , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Governo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Telefone
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(4): 529-538, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686204

RESUMO

COVID-19 has prompted unprecedented government action around the world. We introduce the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), a dataset that addresses the need for continuously updated, readily usable and comparable information on policy measures. From 1 January 2020, the data capture government policies related to closure and containment, health and economic policy for more than 180 countries, plus several countries' subnational jurisdictions. Policy responses are recorded on ordinal or continuous scales for 19 policy areas, capturing variation in degree of response. We present two motivating applications of the data, highlighting patterns in the timing of policy adoption and subsequent policy easing and reimposition, and illustrating how the data can be combined with behavioural and epidemiological indicators. This database enables researchers and policymakers to explore the empirical effects of policy responses on the spread of COVID-19 cases and deaths, as well as on economic and social welfare.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Governo , Política Pública , Seguridade Social , Busca de Comunicante , Bases de Dados Factuais , Apoio Financeiro , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transportes , Viagem
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Crowdsourcing/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Financeiro , /economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Crowdsourcing/economia , Governo , Humanos , Narração , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244972, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507931

RESUMO

When people anticipate financial support, they may reduce preventive effort. We conjecture that the source of financial support can mitigate this moral hazard effect due to social preferences. We compare effort choices when another individual voluntarily provides financial support against effort choices under purely monetary incentives. When financial support is provided voluntarily by another individual, we expect recipients to exert more effort to avoid bad outcomes (level effect) and to reduce effort provision to a lesser degree as financial support becomes more generous (sensitivity effect). We conducted an incentivized laboratory experiment and find some evidence for the level effect and strong evidence for the sensitivity effect. This leads to significant gains in material efficiency with expected wealth being 5.5% higher and 37.3% less volatile.


Assuntos
Apoio Financeiro , Motivação , Comportamento Social , Altruísmo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Probabilidade , Assunção de Riscos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 208, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A child's long-term illness or disability is always a serious matter that impacts the whole family. Costs related to an illness can substantially affect a family's financial situation. To date, there is little research on how parents experience available support for financial assistance. Surveys in Finland have found that families of children with long-term illnesses and disabilities could experience financial struggle and perceive the state provided financial support system as too complex. This article aimed to explore how caregivers of children with long-term illnesses perceived their financial situation, need for financial support and experienced its provision by the state in the Helsinki greater region. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used. Participants were contacted through peer-support groups on Facebook. Eleven mothers of children with varying long-term illnesses and disabilities residing in the Helsinki greater region were interviewed using in-depth interviews. Recordings of the interviews were transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. An analytical framework was built to label the dataset, which was then charted. Lastly, themes were formed through descriptive analysis. RESULTS: The main findings showed how the burden of caring for a child with a long-term illness or disability causes fatigue, which affects a family's financial situation holistically. This affected both employment and financial management, but also receiving information about and applying for the state provided allowances. Mental resources were further depleted by seeking information and applying for allowances. This contributed to a vicious cycle between parental fatigue and financial struggle. Participants found the allocation of funds inequitable across the country. Finally, participants thought the allowance was insufficient in compensating for time spent caring for their child's illness and did not consider their mental strain. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a welfare state such as Finland, caregivers of children with long-term illnesses are at risk of poverty and struggle with the organization of state provided financial support. Policies should be designed to ensure equity across the country and consider how the parental fatigue should be addressed. The study has implications for achieving sustainable development goals on wellbeing and reducing poverty.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Mães , Criança , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Finlândia , Humanos , Pais , Percepção
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: MR000045, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised trials (also referred to as 'randomised controlled trials' or 'trials') are the optimal way to minimise bias in evaluating the effects of competing treatments, therapies and innovations in health care. It is important to achieve the required sample size for a trial, otherwise trialists may not be able to draw conclusive results leading to research waste and raising ethical questions about trial participation. The reasons why potential participants may accept or decline participation are multifaceted. Yet, the evidence of effectiveness of interventions to improve recruitment to trials is not substantial and fails to recognise these individual decision-making processes. It is important to synthesise the experiences and perceptions of those invited to participate in randomised trials to better inform recruitment strategies. OBJECTIVES: To explore potential trial participants' views and experiences of the recruitment process for participation. The specific objectives are to describe potential participants' perceptions and experiences of accepting or declining to participate in trials, to explore barriers and facilitators to trial participation, and to explore to what extent barriers and facilitators identified are addressed by strategies to improve recruitment evaluated in previous reviews of the effects of interventions including a Cochrane Methodology Review. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Epistemonikos, LILACS, PsycINFO, ORRCA, and grey literature sources. We ran the most recent set of searches for which the results were incorporated into the review in July 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included qualitative and mixed-methods studies (with an identifiable qualitative component) that explored potential trial participants' experiences and perceptions of being invited to participate in a trial. We excluded studies that focused only on recruiters' perspectives, and trials solely involving children under 18 years, or adults who were assessed as having impaired mental capacity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Five review authors independently assessed the titles, abstracts and full texts identified by the search. We used the CART (completeness, accuracy, relevance, timeliness) criteria to exclude studies that had limited focus on the phenomenon of interest. We used QSR NVivo to extract and manage the data. We assessed methodological limitations using the Critical Skills Appraisal Programme (CASP) tool. We used thematic synthesis to analyse and synthesise the evidence. This provided analytical themes and a conceptual model. We used the GRADE-CERQual (Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research) approach to assess our confidence in each finding. Our findings were integrated with two previous intervention effectiveness reviews by juxtaposing the quantitative and qualitative findings in a matrix. MAIN RESULTS: We included 29 studies (published in 30 papers) in our synthesis. Twenty-two key findings were produced under three broad themes (with six subthemes) to capture the experience of being invited to participate in a trial and making the decision whether to participate. Most of these findings had moderate to high confidence. We identified factors from the trial itself that influenced participation. These included how trial information was communicated, and elements of the trial such as the time commitment that might be considered burdensome. The second theme related to personal factors such as how other people can influence the individual's decision; and how a personal understanding of potential harms and benefits could impact on the decision. Finally, the potential benefits of participation were found to be key to the decision to participate, namely personal benefits such as access to new treatments, but also the chance to make a difference and help others. The conceptual model we developed presents the decision-making process as a gauge and the factors that influence whether the person will, or will not, take part. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative evidence synthesis has provided comprehensive insight into the complexity of factors that influence a person's decision whether to participate in a trial. We developed key questions that trialists can ask when developing their recruitment strategy. In addition, our conceptual model emphasises the need for participant-centred approaches to recruitment. We demonstrated moderate to high level confidence in our findings, which in some way can be attributed to the large volume of highly relevant studies in this field. We recommend that these insights be used to direct or influence or underpin future recruitment strategies that are developed in a participant-driven way that ultimately improves trial conduct and reduces research waste.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Seleção de Pacientes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048952

RESUMO

Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) play significant roles in most medical fields. However, little is known about the extent of financial Conflicts of Interest (FCOIs) related to pharmaceutical companies (Pharma) selling dermatology prescription products and dermatology CPG authors in Japan. The aims of this study were to elucidate the characteristics and distribution of payments from Pharma to dermatology CPG authors in Japan, and to evaluate the extent of transparency and accuracy in their FCOI disclosures. We analyzed the records of 296 authors from 32 dermatology CPGs published by the Japanese Dermatological Association from the beginning of 2015 to the end of 2018. Using the payment data reported by 79 Pharma between 2016-2017 in Japan, we investigated the characteristics of the CPG authors and the payments from the Pharma to them. Furthermore, we evaluated the transparency and accuracy of the FCOI disclosures of the individual CPG authors. Of the 296 CPGs authors, 269 authors (90.6%) received at least one payment from the Pharma. The total monetary value of payments for the 2-year period was $7,128,762. The median and mean monetary value of payments from the Pharma reporting were $10,281 (interquartile range $2,796 -$34,962) and $26,600 (standard deviation $40,950) for the two years combined. Of the 26 CPG authors who disclosed FCOIs due to the monies received from Pharma, only the atopic dermatitis CPG authors and the acne vulgaris CPG authors published their potential FCOIs. In Japan, most dermatology CPG authors received financial payments from Pharma. The transparency of the CPGs, as reported by the CPG authors, was inadequate, and a more rigorous framework of reporting and monitoring FCOI disclosure is required to improve the accuracy and transparency with relation to possible Conflicts of Interest.


Assuntos
Conflito de Interesses/economia , Dermatologia/economia , Revelação , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Autoria , Dermatologia/ética , Revelação/ética , Indústria Farmacêutica/ética , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro/ética , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Sociedades Médicas/economia , Sociedades Médicas/ética
14.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(9): 41-46, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126788

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the effects of existing health disparities throughout the United States. While Hispanic/Latino individuals account for only 16% of the Rhode Island (RI) population, Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH) data show that 45% of COVID-19 cases and 36% of individuals who have been hospitalized identify as Hispanic/Latino. Clínica Esperanza/Hope Clinic (CEHC) mobilized a comprehensive effort to offer telehealth visits, health education and accessible, walk-up COVID-19 testing for low-income, uninsured and Spanish-speaking individuals living in Rhode Island. With support from CEHC volunteers, the City of Providence, the State of Rhode Island, and local foundations, CEHC has administered 1,649 individual COVID-19 tests as of October 2020. The overall COVID-19 test positivity rate at CEHC was 23%, peaking in April at 48%. Additionally, CEHC has distributed more than 1,600 meal boxes to patients experiencing food insecurity, provided emergency financial resources, while rapidly scaling up healthcare services for the increasing numbers of uninsured individuals in RI.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Apoio Financeiro , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Rhode Island , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095814

RESUMO

Understanding the influence of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy and the Chinese government's emergency measures to ease the economic impacts of viral spread can offer urgently-needed lessons while this virus continues to spread across the globe. Thus, this study collected over 750,000 words upon the topic of COVID-19 and agriculture from the largest two media channels in China: WeChat and Sina Weibo, and employed web crawler technology and text mining method to explore the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural economy and mitigation measures in China. The results show that: (1) the impact of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy at the very first phase is mainly reflected in eight aspects as crop production, agricultural products supply, livestock production, farmers' income and employment, economic crop development, agricultural products sales model, leisure agriculture development, and agricultural products trade. (2) The government's immediate countermeasures include resuming agricultural production and farmers' work, providing financial support, stabilizing agricultural production and products supply, promoting agricultural products sale, providing subsidies, providing agricultural technology guidance and field management, and providing assistance to poor farmers to reduce poverty. (3) The order of government's immediate countermeasures is not all in line with the order of impact aspects, which indicates that more-tailored policies should be implemented to mitigate the strikes of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Fazendas/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Produção Agrícola/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendas/legislação & jurisprudência , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Gado , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the role of early public research funding regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: We examined the budget for research projects relating to the number of cases and deaths and the relationship between each federal unit, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and the national GDP per capita. RESULTS: Using data from the websites of official funding agencies and the Brazilian government, we found that, in the first four months since the first case in Wuhan, China (December 31, 2019), around US$ 38.3 million were directed to public funding for scientific investigations against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, only 11 out of 27 federal units provided funding during the initial stages of the outbreak, and those that did provide financing were not necessarily the units having the most inhabitants, highest GDP, or the greatest number of cases. The areas of research interest were also identified in the funding documents; the most common topic was "diagnosis" and the least common was "equipment for treatment." CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian researchers had access to funding opportunities for projects against COVID-19. However, strategies to minimize the economic impacts of COVID-19 are crucial in mitigating or avoiding substantial financial and social shortcomings, particularly in terms of an emerging market such as Brazil.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Apoio Financeiro , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos
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