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1.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 527-534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006371

RESUMO

The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the latest research pertinent to nutritional management in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and discuss the effectiveness of dietary interventions, nutritional approaches, and supplementation in ASD. To date, the best conventional treatments for autism have been based on a combination of pharmacotherapy, behavioral treatments, and nutritional/dietary therapy, leading many parents and caregivers to opt for specific dietary interventions in the hope of alleviating the symptoms of their children and helping them cope with this disorder. Thus, the role of a registered dietitian and a nutrition specialist is crucial in planning specific nutritional and dietary interventions tailored to individual needs, to make sure the child's nutritional needs for growth and development are being met. In addition, a careful monitoring of the nutritional status and the positive or negative outcomes pertinent to the planned intervention is a must. Furthermore, numerous studies have also discussed how the maternal diet and specific dietary supplements might affect the behavioral development of children in the first few years of life. A review of the abovementioned nutrition-related key points is discussed in this chapter.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Dieta , Apoio Nutricional , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18506, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the occurrence of refeeding syndrome (RFS), a metabolic condition characterized by electrolyte shifts after initiation of nutritional therapy, has a negative impact on clinical outcomes remains ill-defined. We prospectively investigated a subgroup of patients included in a multicentre, nutritional trial (EFFORT) for the occurrence of RFS. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a randomized-controlled trial investigating the effects of nutritional support in malnourished medical inpatients, we prospectively screened patients for RFS and classified them as "RFS confirmed" and "RFS not confirmed" based on predefined criteria (i.e. electrolyte shifts, clinical symptoms, clinical context, and patient history). We assessed associations of RFS and mortality within 180 days (primary endpoint) and other secondary endpoints using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 967 included patients, RFS was confirmed in 141 (14.6%) patients. Compared to patients with no evidence for RFS, patients with confirmed RFS had significantly increased 180-days mortality rates (42/141 (29.8%) vs 181/826 (21.9%), adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.29), P < .05). Patients with RFS also had an increased risk for ICU admission (6/141 (4.3%) vs 13/826 (1.6%), adjusted OR 2.71 (95% CI 1.01 to 7.27), P < .05) and longer mean length of hospital stays (10.5 ±â€Š6.9 vs 9.0 ±â€Š6.6 days, adjusted difference 1.57 days (95% CI 0.38-2.75), P = .01). CONCLUSION: A relevant proportion of medical inpatients with malnutrition develop features of RFS upon hospital admission, which is associated with long-term mortality and other adverse clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed to develop preventive strategies for RFS in this patient population.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Apoio Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Síndrome da Realimentação/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome da Realimentação/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
3.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(4): 627-632, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800193

RESUMO

51 patients with operated colorectal cancer T1N0M0, T3N1M0 and T4N0M1 at the age of 67±2,3 years receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and nutritional support (NS) were examined. Nutritional status was assessed using alimentazione-volume diagnosis to the points on L.N.Kostyuchenko, nutritional risk - with NRI, body composition - with bioimpedance method, the iron metabolism - with basic markers (serum ferritin, transferrin saturation with iron, erythrocyte indices: erythrocyte saturation of iron, the average concentration of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, etc.), traditional settings, the staging of tumors - according to TNM. Iron deficiency before the development of anemia can be corrected with NS. Upon the occurrence of anemia requires additional pharmacological treatment iron supplementation, preferable with iron III hydroxide olygoisomaltazat 1000 + NS) for the prevention of toxic-metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Neoplasias Colorretais , Apoio Nutricional , Idoso , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Ferritinas , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/administração & dosagem , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Síndrome
7.
Br J Nurs ; 28(22): 1442-1449, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835938

RESUMO

Malnutrition is linked to poor outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and reduced fat free mass and low BMI are independent risk factors for increased mortality. However, weight loss is not inevitable and can be prevented or reversed so screening for malnutrition is essential. The latest guidelines for managing malnutrition in COPD recommend first-line nutritional support. In particular, patients with a BMI <20 kg/m2 should be prescribed oral nutritional supplements (ONS), which have been shown to significantly improve outcomes. However, this guidance is often not implemented locally, increasing the likelihood of malnutrition, hospital admission and increased healthcare costs. Ready-prepared, low-volume, high-protein, high-energy drinks can improve compliance with ONS, particularly in people who are unable to tolerate high volumes. ONS therefore play an important role in managing malnutrition in COPD, helping to reduce its physiological and economic effects.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
8.
Rev Infirm ; 68(256): 28-29, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870475

RESUMO

The nutrition of the severely burned patient is one of the pillars of his or her care, from the first few hours after the accident to rehabilitation. When properly conducted, there is a recognized beneficial effect on morbidity and even mortality.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Apoio Nutricional , Queimaduras/complicações , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
9.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(11): 1016-1020, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770831

RESUMO

Chronic critical illness (CCI) refers to a group of critically ill patients who survive the acute phase of intensive care, but with persistent organ dysfunction, thus entering a chronic period of continuous dependence on life support system, and still need to stay in intensive care unit (ICU) for a long time. Persistent inflammatory response-immunosuppression-catabolic syndrome (PICS) is the main pathophysiological feature of CCI. Three factors interact to form a vicious circle, leading to poor prognosis. Nutritional support therapy is a key link in the comprehensive treatment of CCI. Enteral nutrition (EN) should be started as soon as possible if conditions permit. If EN can not be implemented, temporary or transitional parenteral nutrition (PN) should be used, and EN should be added gradually in time. At the same time, the amount of PN should be gradually reduced. When EN meets more than 60% of patients' energy and protein requirements, PN can be considered to be discontinued. The main strategies and functions of CCI nutritional support therapy are as follows: strengthening high protein supply to correct negative nitrogen balance and inhibit catabolism, selecting branched chain amino acids (BCAA) to promote anabolism, using immunomodulators (arginine, ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to improve immune suppression and inflammatory response, supplementing micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) to counteract the decrease in intake and the increase in consumption, and adding probiotics to maintain the intestinal microecological balance, and so on. Reasonable nutritional support therapy not only improve malnutrition of CCI patients, but also help to reduce complications, thus speeding up rehabilitation, improving prognosis, shortening ICU hospitalization time, and even reducing mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Doença Crônica , Humanos
10.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(11): 1027-1033, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770833

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of chronic critical illness (CCI) in China. Methods: The clinical data of 472 adult patients admitted to ICU in 53 hospitals, including basic information, disease-related data, nutrition program, etc., were collected on May 10, 2019, by means of multi-center cross-sectional study. If surgical intervention was needed or the occurrence of the disease was directly related to the surgery, ICU patients were regarded as surgical ICU cases (n=211). In this study, the diagnostic criteria for CCI were: (1) admission to ICU >14 days;(2) combined with persistent organ dysfunction. The prevalence,distribution and treatment of CCI and surgery-related CCI were recorded and analyzed. The Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test or Fisher exact test were used for comparative analysis. Results: Among the 472 ICU patients from 53 hospitals, 326 were male (69.1%) and 146 were female (30.9%). The prevalence of CCI was 30.7% (145/472). Among 211 surgery-related ICU patients, 57 developed CCI with a prevalence of 27.0%. As compared to non-CCI patients, higher APACHE II score [median (IQR) 13.5 (10.0, 18.3) vs. 11.0 (7.0, 16.0), U=2970.000, P=0.007], higher Charlson comorbidity index [median (IQR) 4.0 (2.0, 7.0) vs. 3.0 (1.0, 5.0), U= 3570.000, P=0.036] and higher ratio of breath dysfunction [68.4% (39/57) vs. 48.1% (74/154), χ(2)=6.939, P=0.008] and renal dysfunction [42.1% (24/57) vs. 18.2% (28/154), χ(2)=12.821, P<0.001] were found in surgery-related CCI patients. While SOFA score, Glasgow coma score and other visceral function were not significantly different between surgery-related CCI and non-CCI patients (all P>0.05). NUTRIC score showed that surgery-related CCI patients had higher nutritional risk [43.9% (25/57) vs. 26.6%(41/154), U=5.750, P=0.016] and higher ratio of mechanical ventilation [66.7% (38/57) vs. 52.3% (79/154), χ(2)=3.977, P=0.046] than non-CCI patients. On the survey day, the daily caloric requirements of 50.2% (106/211) of surgery-related ICU patients were calculated according to the standard adult caloric intake index (104.6 to 125.5 kJ·kg(-1)·d(-1), 1 kJ=0.239 kcal), and the daily caloric requirements of 46.4% (98/211) of patients were calculated by physicians according to the severity of the patient's condition. 60.2% (127/211) of nutritional support therapy was enteral nutrition (including a combination of enteral and parenteral nutrition), while the remaining patients received parenteral nutrition (24.6%, 52/211), simple glucose infusion (9.0%, 19/211), or oral diet (6.2%, 13/211). The target calorie of CCI group was 104.6 (87.9, 125.5) kJ·kg(-1)·d(-1), and the actual calorie intake accounted for 0.98 (0.80, 1.00) of the target calory. In the non-CCI group, the target calorie was 104.6 (87.9, 125.5) kJ·kg(-1)·d(-1), and the actual calorie consumed accounted for 0.91 (0.66, 1.00) of the target calorie. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups (P=0.248, P=0.150). Conclusion: The prevalence of CCI and surgery-related CCI in ICU is high, along with severe complications, respiratory and renal dysfunction and mechanical ventilation. Surgical patients admitted to ICU are at high nutritional risk, and active and correct nutritional support is essential for such patients.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Apoio Nutricional/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos
11.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192267, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778394

RESUMO

Surgical approach is the main form of treatment for several diseases of the abdominal cavity. However, surgical procedure itself is a stressor that may lead to adverse effects unrelated to the treatment goal. Prehabilitation has emerged as a multifactorial preoperative health conditioning program, which promotes improvement in functional capacity and postoperative evolution. The present study reviews literature using MEDLINE, Ovid, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases in order to determine the concept of prehabilitation program and the indications and means of patient selection for it, as well as to suggest ways to implement this program in cases of major abdominal surgeries.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Apoio Nutricional , Período Pós-Operatório , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e16755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577695

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe brain injury often induces a state of malnutrition due to insufficient caloric and protein input. If left untreated, it will have a negative impact on rehabilitation. Nutritional therapy provides caloric and the nutritional support necessary to cover the daily needs and help contrast hospital infections. Our hypothesis is that integration of natural foods in the daily diet can enhance the recovery of the state of malnutrition and increase rehabilitation outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a young man with traumatic brain injury caused by a car accident. Who underwent tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) procedures, had severe consciousness disorder, was severely malnourished and therefore underweight. DIAGNOSIS: He was severely underweight, malnourished, with a severe consciousness disorder that necessitated the tracheostomy and the PEG. INTERVENTIONS: Our approach included caloric implementation of artificial nutrition and the gradual introduction of semi-liquid natural foods administered through PEG. OUTCOMES: The patient was followed for a year during which the metabolic/nutritional pattern and the blood tests improved, normal weight restored, and consciousness regained. CONCLUSION: Nutritional intervention integrated with natural foods, has allowed a gradual increase in weight, a better recovery of the lean mass and the stabilization of the metabolic-nutritional framework.Nutritional approach used has contributed to the reduction of recovery times, making the therapeutic path more effective.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Gastrostomia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Traqueostomia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto Jovem
13.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(13): 863-868, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571539

RESUMO

Nutritional Therapy in the Elderly - What Do We Know Today? Abstract. Malnutrition in the elderly has a high prevalence and is a strong and independent risk factor for complications and high mortality. Early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention have demonstrated positive effects on the risk for complications and morbidity/mortality. The nutritional therapy should be individually tailored to meet patients' needs and nutritional goals. Associated factors and diseases need to be taken into account while deciding on the nutritional therapy and nutritional targets. A big interprofessional effort is needed to address this specific problem. However, the latest EFFORT study showed: The expenditure is worthwhile!


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Idoso , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1001-010, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184619

RESUMO

Background: nutritional support (NS) is a core element in the treatment of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Objective: to analyze the adherence of NS prescriptions to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for AN patients and to compare the effectiveness, safety, and cost of NS according to adherence. Methods: this retrospective observational study included AN patients admitted to an Eating Disorders Unit between January 2006 and December 2009 and followed until December 2014. NS prescriptions were compared with guidelines published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption (SMHC). Adherence was defined as percentage of hospitalizations that followed all recommendations. Results: adherence to APA and NICE/SMHC was observed in 10.2% and 73.4%, respectively, of the total of 177 hospitalizations. Body weight and body mass index were higher at admission in the NICE/SMHC adherence versus non-adherence group (p < 0.001). Weight gain rate during hospitalization was higher (p = 0.009) in "APA adherence" (135.5 g/day) versus "non-adherence" (92.1 g/day) group. Hospital stay was significantly shorter (p = 0.025) in "NICE/SMHC adherence" (39.5 days) versus "non-adherence" group (50.0 days). NICE/SMHC adherence was associated with lower costs (p = 0.006). Conclusions: NS prescriptions for anorexic patients more frequently followed NICE/SMHC than APA recommendations. Over the short-term, APA adherence was associated with improved weight gain. Patients adhering to NICE/SMHC recommendations had shorter hospital stay and reduced costs, likely due to their more favorable nutritional status at admission


Introducción: el soporte nutricional (SN) es un elemento clave en el tratamiento de la anorexia nerviosa (AN). Objetivo: analizar la adecuación de las prescripciones de SN en pacientes con AN a las guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y comparar la efectividad, seguridad y coste según la adecuación. Métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes con AN ingresados en una Unidad de Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2009. Se hizo seguimiento hasta diciembre de 2014. Se compararon las prescripciones de SN con las GPC publicadas por la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (APA), el Instituto Nacional de Excelencia Clínica (NICE) y el Ministerio Español de Sanidad y Consumo (MSC). Se definió adecuación como porcentaje de ingresos que cumplieron todas las recomendaciones. Resultados: el grado de adecuación a APA y NICE/MSC fue del 10,2% y 73,4%, respectivamente. El peso corporal y el índice de masa corporal al ingreso fueron mayores en el grupo "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC versus "no-adecuación" (p < 0,001). La tasa de ganancia ponderal fue superior (p = 0,009) en el grupo "sí-adecuación" a APA (135.5 g/día) versus "no-adecuación" (92,1 g/día). La estancia hospitalaria fue menor (p = 0,025) en "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC (39,5 días) versus "no-adecuación" (50,0 días). La adecuación al NICE/MSC fue asociada con menores costes (p = 0,006). Conclusiones: las prescripciones de SN se ajustaron en mayor grado al NICE/MSC que a la APA. La adecuación a APA parece relacionarse con mayor tasa de ganancia ponderal. Los pacientes que se adecuaron al NICE/MSC presentaron menores estancias hospitalarias y costes, probablemente relacionado con su estado nutricional más favorable al ingreso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Apoio Nutricional , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adesão à Medicação , Anorexia Nervosa/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Tempo de Internação/economia
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1019-1026, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184621

RESUMO

Introducción: la desnutrición en el paciente neurológico presenta una alta prevalencia, aumentando las complicaciones y disminuyendo la calidad de vida. La nutrición artificial minimiza el riesgo de malnutrición. En los últimos años, en Murcia, se pone en marcha una vía clínica de adecuación a la Guía Nacional de Nutrición Enteral Domiciliaria (NED) para optimizar este recurso y reducir la variabilidad de prescripción. Objetivo: analizar las características de la NED en el paciente neurológico, de un área de salud de Murcia, antes y después de la adecuación a las directrices nacionales. Método: diseño observacional de corte transversal. Análisis y comparación de las muestras NED de adultos del Área 1 de salud de Murcia, en 2010 y 2014. Resultados: la patología más asociada a las prescripciones de NED fue la neurológica. La vía de administración más utilizada fue la oral, aunque desciende en la muestra de 2014 a favor de la sonda de nutrición y ostomía. El tipo de fórmula más usado en 2010 fue la no específica. Tras la vía clínica se reduce el uso de fórmulas específicas, disminuyendo especialmente las fórmulas hiperproteicas y/o hipercalóricas. Conclusiones: la implementación de una vía clínica de adecuación a la Guía Nacional NED ha provocado un cambio en la realidad de este tipo de nutrición artificial en el Área 1 de salud del Servicio Murciano de Salud, consiguiendo normalizar su uso bajo criterios unificados y profesionales especializados. Finalmente, estos logros se han generalizado a toda la región


Introduction: malnutrition in patients with neurological disease is very prevalent, worsening their complications and diminishing their quality of life. For that reason, nutritional support can provide a reduction in comorbidities. Over the past years, in Murcia (southeast of Spain), a clinical pathway has been stablished in accordance to the National Home Enteral Nutrition guide (HEN) to optimize this resource and reduce the prescription gap. Objective: to analyze the HEN characteristics in neurological patients in an area of Murcia, before and after the adequacy of the national recommendations. Method: observational cross-sectional study. Analysis and comparison of HEN in health area no. 1 in Murcia in 2010 and 2014. Results: the most prevalent cause for HEN was neurological disease. In 2010, oral nutrition was the most used way compared with 2014, when it had changed to enteral nutrition through feeding tube or ostomy. Non-specific formula was the most frequently used in 2010. However, after the establishment of the clinical pathway there was a reduction in specific enteral formula use, specially hypercaloric and hyperproteic. Conclusions: the implementation of a clinical pathway according to the National HEN guide has caused a change in the reality of artificial nutrition in health area no. 1 in Murcia (Spain), which means a standardization of its use under unified criteria made by specialized professionals. Finally, due to these results, this clinical pathway has been generalized to the rest of the region


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Terapia por Infusões no Domicílio/métodos , Apoio Nutricional , Qualidade de Vida , Alimentos Formulados , Estudos Transversais , Estomia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/dietoterapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/dietoterapia , Demência/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1150-1156, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184639

RESUMO

Objetivo: evaluar el impacto de la inmunonutrición oral preoperatoria y postoperatoria en la prevención de la desnutrición y las complicaciones posquirúrgicas en cáncer colorrectal. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo observacional con una única cohorte. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes sometidos a cirugía por cáncer colorrectal desde junio de 2014 a diciembre de 2015, sin ningún criterio de exclusión. En un pequeño número de casos (28 pacientes) no se suministró suplementación nutricional oral y se consideran pérdidas del estudio. Se realizó una evaluación del estado nutricional preoperatorio (NSR-2002). Se pautó inmunonutrición durante los cinco o diez días previos a la intervención en función del resultado. En el postoperatorio, se añadió inmunonutrición al tercer día postoperatorio hasta el séptimo o hasta el alta hospitalaria. Los pacientes con albúmina < 2,5 g/dl o íleo prolongado recibieron nutrición parenteral. El análisis de los datos se realizó con el paquete estadístico SPSS 21.0. Resultados: se incluyeron 220 pacientes con cáncer colorrectal, de los cuales 28 fueron pérdidas del estudio. La suplementación preoperatoria mejoró significativamente las cifras de prealbúmina y transferrina al ingreso. En el postoperatorio recibieron nutrición enteral 121 pacientes y 41 nutrición parenteral. Los pacientes que no tomaron suplementos nutricionales preoperatorios tuvieron más complicaciones (50% vs. 28,1%; p = 0,019) y la estancia media fue superior (14,64 ± 11,86 vs. 9,36 ± 5,5; p < 0,005). Los pacientes que no tomaron suplementos en el postoperatorio tuvieron más complicaciones (24% vs. 18,2%; p < 0,005), destacando más infección de herida (1,9% vs. 0,8%) y más dehiscencia anastomótica (1,9% vs. 0,8%). Tuvieron también una estancia media superior (9,15 ± 4,6 vs. 7,57 ± 2,5 días; p = 0,021). Conclusión: la administración de suplementos nutricionales orales previo a la intervención y en el postoperatorio en la cirugía del cáncer colorrectal se ha asociado a menos complicaciones y estancia media


Introduction: the aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of preoperative and postoperative oral nutritional therapy in the prevention of malnutrition and postsurgical complications in colorectal cancer Patients and methods: patients who underwent oncological colorectal surgery between June 2014 and December 2015 are included. An evaluation of preoperative nutritional status is performed. Patients received IMPACT(R) (2/day) for 5-10 days previous surgery. In the postoperative period, patients received IMPACT(R)/24h from 3rd to 7th postoperative day. Patients with low rates of albumin (< 2.5) or postoperative ileus received parenteral nutrition. Data were analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 21.0. Results: two hundred and twenty colorectal cancer patients were included. Twenty-eight patients did not take the preoperative oral supplements. Following the intake of nutritional supplements, an improvement of prealbumin and transferrin was noticed. One hundred and twenty-one patients received oral nutrition and 41 received parenteral nutrition in the postoperative period. There were more postoperative complications among patients without preoperative nutritional supplements (50% vs 28.1%; p = 0.019), and hospital stay was higher 14.64 ± 11.86 vs 9.36 ± 5.5; p < 0.005). There were more complications among patients without postoperative oral nutritional supplements (24% vs 18.2%; p < 0.005), with more wound infection (1.9% vs 0.8%) and leaks (1.9% vs 0.8%). They also had a higher average stay (9.15 4.6 vs 7.57 2.5 days; p = 0.021). Conclusion: in our study, patients that received oral nutritional supplements prior and following colorectal surgery had a lower rate of complications and a shorter hospital stay


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Cirurgia Colorretal , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Apoio Nutricional , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral , Desnutrição/imunologia
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1231-1234, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184649

RESUMO

Introducción: la esclerodermia es una enfermedad sistémica adquirida poco frecuente, con una patogenia compleja que compromete a numerosos órganos. El abordaje nutricional no está claramente establecido debido a su baja prevalencia. Caso clínico: presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años diagnosticada de esclerodermia difusa con amplia afectación gastrointestinal, pérdida de 40% de peso desde el diagnóstico y anemia grave. A pesar de la toma de suplementos orales, la nutrición a través de gastrostomía y el uso de octreótide, no se alcanzan los requerimientos nutricionales, por lo que se plantea el uso de nutrición parenteral domiciliaria junto al resto de tratamientos. Discusión: esta paciente, la progresión de la afectación digestiva debida a la esclerodermia hizo necesario recurrir al aporte parenteral debido a la intolerancia oral a causa de la pseudooclusión intestinal. En estos casos, la ausencia de tratamiento etiológico hace que la nutrición parenteral domiciliaria juegue un papel importante en el soporte nutricional


Background: systemic sclerosis is a rare systemic acquired disease with a complex pathogenesis which compromises multiple organs. The nutritional approach to treat patients with this disease is not clearly stablished due to its low prevalence. Case report: we present the case of a 37-year-old woman diagnosed with systemic sclerosis with gastrointestinal compromise, 40% weight loss since diagnosis and severe anemia. Despite oral supplementation, placement of a gastrostomy feeding tube and medical therapy with octreotide, her nutritional requirements are not achieved, so we suggest home parenteral nutrition to complete the nutritional support. Discussion: the severe intestinal affection in this patient made it necessary to turn to the parenteral access because of the oral intolerance secondary to the intestinal pseudo-obstruction. In these cases, the lack of etiological treatment makes home parenteral nutrition play an important role in the nutritional approach


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Esclerodermia Difusa/dietoterapia , Esclerodermia Difusa/diagnóstico , Apoio Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Obstrução Intestinal/complicações , Nutrição Parenteral no Domicílio/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Energética
18.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 09 13.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556503

RESUMO

Optimal nutrition is an important condition for optimal recovery from illness, both in and outside the hospital setting. In addition, in developed countries hospital-related malnutrition remains a major problem which can lead to complications, longer hospital stays and increased costs. The EFFORT study investigated if individualised nutritional support targeted at reaching protein and caloric goals, would reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Achieving optimal nutrition is difficult due to illness-induced anorexia, inadequate education of medical doctors and little financial incentive. Guidelines focus on protein and energy, negating those illness-induced anorexia and individual patient aspects such as taste, portion size and eating habits. Although the EFFORT study showed benefit on the composite and individual endpoints, we should point out that the intervention group received standard care. Malnutrition needs multidisciplinary and transmural care including physiotherapy/exercise. As such, a more holistic approach is needed; optimal care as described by the EFFORT study should be the standard.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/etiologia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
19.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 117-123, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563078

RESUMO

Advanced cancer patients with cachexia and their families can suffer from eating-related distress. This complex entity encompasses patients' struggle to nourish themselves, emotional and social consequences of their inability to maintain food intake, and profound disturbance in family relationships. With evidence-based nutritional care, as well as symptom management to enable food intake, cachexia can be mitigated to some degree. In addition, patients and families require psychosocial support and education to understand and cope with this condition. Only by taking an integrated approach can health care teams alleviate eating-related distress, improve quality of life (QOL), reduce interpersonal conflicts, and alter perceptions of nutritional neglect for patients and families. However, few studies have investigated eating-related distress among patients and families. The aim of this narrative review is to describe what is known about eating-related distress and the roles of integrated palliative, supportive, and nutritional care in improving QOL of patients and families.


Assuntos
Caquexia/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Caquexia/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/psicologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(18): 1267-1274, 2019 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514217

RESUMO

Liver disease and nutritional status affect each other mutually. Hepatic function is impaired by malnutrition and can be improved by nutrition therapy. Liver cirrhosis leads to prognostically relevant malnutrition in a stage dependent manner. Protein depletion and sarcopenia are its key features. Patients with liver cirrhosis should undergo systematic screening for risk of malnutrition and if positive sarcopenia should be assessed and a nutrition plan devised. In cirrhotic patients, spontaneous food intake frequently does not meet requirements and prolonged (> 12 h) periods of fasting must be avoided. In a stepwise fashion nutritional counseling, oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition as third-line-therapy should be used. In cirrhotic patients, nutrition therapy can improve morbidity and mortality by ensuring the adequate provision of energy, protein and micronutrients.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática , Apoio Nutricional , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/dietoterapia , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Fígado , Desnutrição , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sarcopenia
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