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1.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(10): 876-882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130783

RESUMO

The incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality are higher in patients with preoperative malnutrition in esophageal cancer patients. Oral intake tends to decrease during preoperative chemotherapy, and nutritional status is likely to worsen. When nutrition intake decreases, catabolism increases and muscle mass can decrease. It has been reported that related to preoperative sarcopenia and the onset and prognosis of postoperative complications. It has been reported to be associated with preoperative sarcopenia and the incident of postoperative complications and prognosis. Early nutritional assessment and interventions should improve nutritional status before surgery. Amino acid intake and exercise therapy improve exercise capacity such as walking. It is expected that a synergistic effect on the improvement of long-term prognosis by nutrition therapy and exercise therapy. Our hospital has introduced a enhanced preoperative nutrition rehabilitation program for undernourished patients. Immuno-nutrition therapy, exercise therapy, and postexercise branched-chain amino acid preparations are administered. During surgery for such malnourished patient, it is necessary to minimize the surgical invasion and to avoid complications. It is important to have continuous nutritional evaluation, intervention and rehabilitation by various occupations from the initial diagnosis to the perioperative period as well as during outpatient follow-up after discharge.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Avaliação Nutricional , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
2.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(8): 511-517, nov. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193711

RESUMO

La infección por SARS-CoV-2 se relaciona con un riesgo alto de malnutrición, principalmente por el aumento de los requerimientos nutricionales y la presencia de un estado inflamatorio severo y universal. Los síntomas asociados contribuyen a la hiporexia, que perpetúa el balance nutricional negativo. Además, la disfagia, especialmente posintubación, empeora y hace poco segura la ingesta. Este riesgo es mayor en pacientes ancianos y multimórbidos. La inflamación en distinto grado es el nexo común entre la COVID-19 y la aparición de desnutrición, siendo más correcto hablar de desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE). La DRE empeora el mal pronóstico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, sobre todo en los casos más severos. Por ello es necesario identificar y tratar precozmente a las personas en riesgo, evitando la sobreexposición y el contacto directo con el paciente. No podemos olvidarnos del papel que juega la dieta saludable tanto en la prevención como en la recuperación tras el alta


SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a high risk of malnutrition, mainly due to increased nutritional requirements and the presence of a severe and universal inflammatory state. Associated symptoms contribute to hyporexia, which perpetuates the negative nutritional balance. Furthermore, dysphagia, especially post-intubation, worsens and makes intake unsafe. This risk is greater in elderly and multimorbid patients. Inflammation to varying degrees is the common link between COVID-19 and the onset of malnutrition, and it is more correct to refer to disease-related malnutrition (DRM). DRM worsens the poor prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in the most severe cases. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and treat people at risk early, avoiding overexposure and direct contact with the patient. We cannot forget the role that a healthy diet plays in both prevention and recovery after discharge


Assuntos
Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Inflamação/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos
4.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(11): 1017-1026, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065041

RESUMO

Patients with gastroparesis often have signs and symptoms including nausea, vomiting, epigastric discomfort, and early satiety, thus leading to inadequate food intake and a high risk of malnutrition. There is a considerable scarcity of data about nutritional strategies for gastroparesis, and current practices rely on extrapolated evidence. Some approaches include the modification of food composition, food consistency, and food volume in the context of delayed gastric emptying. If the patient is unable to consume adequate calories through a solid food diet, stepwise nutritional interventions could include the use of liquid meals, oral nutrition supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition. This Review discusses the role, rationale, and current evidence of diverse nutritional interventions in the management of gastroparesis.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Gastroparesia , Desnutrição , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Gastroparesia/complicações , Gastroparesia/dietoterapia , Gastroparesia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(19): 1096-1103, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104430

RESUMO

The following article was written after the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. On reflection of clinical practice during this time, it was noted by the ICU team that the majority of ventilated patients appeared to have lost weight during their stay. Unfortunately, there was no ability to weigh patients during the pandemic, so this weight loss was a subjective observation. Regardless, this observation lead the ICU dietitian to retrospectively audit prescribed versus delivered feed. It was found that only 10% of admissions received the prescribed daily volume of feed within the first 7 days of admission. A further 6% of admissions were within 10% of achieving daily prescribed target volumes. The main reasons for this were proning patients, high gastric residual volumes and the overwhelming nature of the pandemic. Three areas of practice have been highlighted that will improve feed delivery should a second wave occur. 1. A nasojejunal team comprising 20 members of the ICU multidiciplinary team will be established to insert bedside nasojejunal tubes in all ICU patients on admission. 2. All proned patients will be enterally fed and practice adjusted as per British Dietetic Association recommendations. 3. The international enteral feeding guidelines regarding hypocaloric feeding for the first 7 days will not be followed due to minimal clinical evidence for the ICU COVID-19 demographic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Apoio Nutricional/enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (10): 95-103, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047592

RESUMO

The article presents an algorithm for perioperative nutritional support of surgical patients operated on as planned. Today, planned surgical care is provided in accordance with the canons of the accelerated rehabilitation Program (ARP). The relevance of the problem of nutritional insufficiency, which is an important component of ARP, is due to the dependence of the results of surgical treatment on the initial nutritional status of the patient. Methods of screening for nutritional deficiency and options for correcting protein-energy disorders are described. The predominant method is the enteral delivery of nutrients and energy. Oral supplemental nutrition by sipping is a convenient way to correct nutritional disorders at all stages of the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Administração Oral , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Deficiências Nutricionais/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Estado Nutricional , Período Perioperatório
8.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(Sup8): S6-S10, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936703

RESUMO

The impact of nutrition on recovery from various illnesses is well recognised. Malnutrition can affect duration of hospitalisation and impede recovery, and therefore it is important to monitor this condition, especially in at-risk groups, such as older adults and those with chronic disease. Underlying malnutrition impairs the immune system, potentially making people more vulnerable to infections such as COVID-19 and impacting recovery. Patients recovering from severe illness are likely to have muscle wasting or feel weak and may have increased protein needs. In addition individuals who have been discharged from hospital may need ongoing nutritional rehabilitation. This article explores the range of symptoms of COVID-19 that can interfere with dietary intake, such as respiratory issues, loss of taste and smell and fatigue and weakness. It goes on to describe how community nurses can identify risk of malnutrition and dietary issues when working remotely. Additionally, it signposts to a range of resources developed to assist patients and carers in accessing appropriate dietary advice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
10.
Lancet ; 396(10252): 726-734, 2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891214

RESUMO

Acute pancreatitis is an unpredictable and potentially lethal disease. The prognosis mainly depends on the development of organ failure and secondary infection of pancreatic or peripancreatic necrosis. In the past 10 years, treatment of acute pancreatitis has moved towards a multidisciplinary, tailored, and minimally invasive approach. Despite improvements in treatment and critical care, severe acute pancreatitis is still associated with high mortality rates. In this Seminar, we outline the latest evidence on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute pancreatitis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Drenagem , Hidratação , Apoio Nutricional , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Pancreatite/terapia , Amilases/sangue , Colecistectomia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/terapia , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Cálculos Biliares/cirurgia , Humanos , Lipase/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pancreatite/sangue , Pancreatite/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/terapia , Pancreatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Alcoólica/terapia , Prevenção Secundária , Stents , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(2): 459-504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925078

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a severe infectious disease that has claimed >150,000 lives and infected millions in the United States thus far, especially the elderly population. Emerging evidence has shown the virus to cause hemorrhagic and immunologic responses, which impact all organs, including lungs, kidneys, and the brain, as well as extremities. SARS-CoV-2 also affects patients', families', and society's mental health at large. There is growing evidence of re-infection in some patients. The goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2-induced disease, its mechanism of infection, diagnostics, therapeutics, and treatment strategies, while also focusing on less attended aspects by previous studies, including nutritional support, psychological, and rehabilitation of the pandemic and its management. We performed a systematic review of >1,000 articles and included 425 references from online databases, including, PubMed, Google Scholar, and California Baptist University's library. COVID-19 patients go through acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine storm, acute hypercoagulable state, and autonomic dysfunction, which must be managed by a multidisciplinary team including nursing, nutrition, and rehabilitation. The elderly population and those who are suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia related illnesses seem to be at the higher risk. There are 28 vaccines under development, and new treatment strategies/protocols are being investigated. The future management for COVID-19 should include B-cell and T-cell immunotherapy in combination with emerging prophylaxis. The mental health and illness aspect of COVID-19 are among the most important side effects of this pandemic which requires a national plan for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Saúde Mental , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
12.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 754-757, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993261

RESUMO

Neoadjuvant therapy has been one of the standard therapies for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and locally advanced pancreatic cancer, but it may deteriorate these patients' nutritional status while controlling the progress of cancer, which inevitably influences these patients' postoperative outcomes and prognosis.In this article, we tried to answer this problem by reviewing other studies.And we found that neoadjuvant therapy would influence patients' postoperative outcomes and prognosis by deteriorating their nutritional status.But effective nutritional support can prevent it.It indicates that there is a need for these patients to receive nutritional support as soon as possible.However, in consideration of the limited number of relevant studies and their limitations, there is a need for more studies with strict design to answer this problem.And it can provide evidence for early nutritional support in pancreatic cancer patients who is going to undergo neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Período Pós-Operatório , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Prognóstico
13.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(3): 347-355, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762168

RESUMO

Nutritional support is an indispensable part in the treatment of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Critically ill COVID-19 patients are often in a state of high inflammation, high stress, high catabolism, and their energy consumption increases significantly. All critically ill patients with COVID-19 should be screened for nutritional risk with NRS-2002 or Nutric tool in the early stage. If there is a risk of malnutrition, subjective global assessment (SGA) or Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) are further used for malnutrition assessment. After assessment, the daily energy, protein, electrolyte and liquid quantity needed by the patients should be determined according to the actual condition. Then, according to the degree of gastrointestinal function impairment in patients, the oral nutrition supplement, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition or their combination are selected for nutritional support. For patients with normal gastrointestinal function who require prone position ventilation or receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment, enteral nutrition is recommended as the first choice. In addition, in the process of nutrition implementation, it is necessary to closely monitor the adverse reactions such as abdominal distention, diarrhea, regurgitation, phlebitis and liver function damage, timely adjust the nutrition program to ensure the smooth implementation of nutritional support. Based on the metabolic characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19, this paper makes a summary and suggestion on the following perspectives such as nutritional risk screening and assessment, target amount of nutritional treatment, nutritional intervention and treatment, nutritional support of special populations, and common adverse reactions in nutritional support treatment, so as to provide reference for individualized nutritional support therapy of critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estado Terminal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional
14.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 35(5): 792-799, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786117

RESUMO

Worldwide, as of July 2020, >13.2 million people have been infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from mild illness to critical illness in 5% of cases. The population infected with SARS-CoV-2 requiring an intensive care unit admission often requires nutrition therapy as part of supportive care. Although the various societal guidelines for critical care nutrition meet most needs for the patient with COVID-19, numerous factors, which impact the application of those guideline recommendations, need to be considered. Since the SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious, several key principles should be considered when caring for all patients with COVID-19 to ensure the safety of all healthcare personnel involved. Management strategies should cluster care, making all attempts to bundle patient care to limit exposure. Healthcare providers should be protected, and the spread of SARS-CoV-2 should be limited by minimizing procedures and other interventions that lead to aerosolization, avoiding droplet exposure through hand hygiene and use of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE should be preserved by decreasing the number of individuals providing direct patient care and by limiting the number of patient interactions. Enteral nutrition (EN) is tolerated by the majority of patients with COVID-19, but a relatively low threshold for conversion to parenteral nutrition should be maintained if increased exposure to the virus is required to continue EN. This article offers relevant and practical recommendations on how to optimize nutrition therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Betacoronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Nutrição Enteral/normas , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Pandemias
15.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(7): 696-698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744563

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Older adults, which frequently present multiple chronic comorbidities, are more susceptible to COVID-19 and experience more likely negative outcomes, in terms of disease severity and mortality. However, chronological age per se may not entirely explain the dramatic scenario described among the frailest and oldest persons. Comorbidities and functional status may indeed play a relevant role. Patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection are the same at risk of malnutrition, namely older adults and multimorbid individuals. In fact, COVID-19 can negatively impact on nutritional status, both in patients admitted to the hospital with the most severe manifestations of the infection, as well as in those who experience milder/asymptomatic forms of the disease. Despite being quite difficult in these emergency circumstances, nutritional status needs to be assessed in all COVID-19 patients upon admission and during hospital stay. Early nutritional support should be guaranteed in order to improve several malnutrition-related adverse outcomes. The evaluation of the nutritional status is today even more crucial than in normal times given the delicate status of older patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Idoso Fragilizado , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 39: 74-78, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: COVID-19 pandemic had resulted in a massive increase in the number of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This created significant organizational challenges including numerous non-specialist ICU caregivers who came to work in the ICU. In this context, pragmatic protocols were essential to simplify nutritional care. We aimed at providing a simple and easy-to-prescribe nutritional protocol and evaluated its usefulness with questionnaires sent to physicians involved in the care of ICU COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A simplified nutrition protocol was distributed to all physicians (n = 122) of the ICU medical team during COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical dieticians estimated energy targets for acute and post-acute phases at patient's admission and suggested adaptations of nutrition therapy. More complex situations were discussed with clinical nutrition doctors and, if required, a clinical evaluation was performed. To further facilitate the procedure, a chart with prescription aids was also distributed to the whole medical ICU team. At the end of the current pandemic wave, a 13-item questionnaire was emailed to the ICU medical team to obtain their opinion on the suggested nutritional therapy. RESULTS: Answers were received from 81/122 medical doctors (MDs) (66% response rate), from intensive care physicians (41%), anaesthesiologists (53%) and MDs from other specialties (6%). Thirty-two percent of MDs felt that their knowledge of nutrition management was insufficient and 45% of the physicians surveyed did not face nutrition management in their daily practice prior to the pandemic. The initially proposed nutritional protocol, the chart with prescription aids and the suggested nutritional proposals were considered as useful to very useful by the majority of physicians surveyed (89.9, 90.7 and 92.1% respectively). The protocol was followed by 92% of MDs, and almost all participants (95%) were convinced that adaptations of nutritional therapy had beneficial effects on patients' outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional therapy in critically ill COVID-19 patients is a challenge and the implementation of this specific pandemic simplified nutritional protocol was assessed as useful by a great majority of physicians. Pragmatic and simplified protocols are useful for ensuring the quality of nutritional therapy and could be used in future studies to assess its actual impact on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prescrições , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21569, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the effect of early enteral nutrition support (EENS) for the management of acute severe pancreatitis (ASP). METHODS: This study will search Cochrane Library, PUBMED, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CNKI, and WANGFANG from their inception to the present without language limitations. In addition, this study will also search clinical trial registry and reference lists of included trials. Eligible comparators will be standard care, medications, and any other interventions. Two authors will independently scan all citations, titles/abstracts, and full-text studies. The study methodological quality will be appraised using Cochrane risk of bias tool. If it is possible, we will pool out data and perform meta-analysis. Strength of evidence for each main outcome will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. RESULTS: This study will summarize the most recent evidence to assess the effect of EENS for the management of ASP. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will help to determine whether EENS is effective for patients with ASP. STUDY REGISTRATION: INPLASY202070009.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Nutrição Enteral/normas , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Pancreatite/dietoterapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Pancreatite/fisiopatologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3 Suppl 1): S1-S107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829751

RESUMO

The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) has provided evidence-based guidelines for nutrition in kidney diseases since 1999. Since the publication of the first KDOQI nutrition guideline, there has been a great accumulation of new evidence regarding the management of nutritional aspects of kidney disease and sophistication in the guidelines process. The 2020 update to the KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Nutrition in CKD was developed as a joint effort with the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy). It provides comprehensive up-to-date information on the understanding and care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in terms of their metabolic and nutritional milieu for the practicing clinician and allied health care workers. The guideline was expanded to include not only patients with end-stage kidney disease or advanced CKD, but also patients with stages 1-5 CKD who are not receiving dialysis and patients with a functional kidney transplant. The updated guideline statements focus on 6 primary areas: nutritional assessment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT), dietary protein and energy intake, nutritional supplementation, micronutrients, and electrolytes. The guidelines primarily cover dietary management rather than all possible nutritional interventions. The evidence data and guideline statements were evaluated using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. As applicable, each guideline statement is accompanied by rationale/background information, a detailed justification, monitoring and evaluation guidance, implementation considerations, special discussions, and recommendations for future research.


Assuntos
Terapia Nutricional/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(3): 622-630, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603180

RESUMO

Introduction: The current COVID-19 pandemic mainly affects older people, those with obesity or other coexisting chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and high blood pressure. It has been observed that about 20 % of patients will require hospitalization, and some of them will need the support of invasive mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Nutritional status appears to be a relevant factor influencing the clinical outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Several international guidelines have provided recommendations to ensure energy and protein intake in people with COVID-19, with safety measures to reduce the risk of infection in healthcare personnel. The purpose of this review is to analyze the main recommendations related to adequate nutritional management for critically ill patients with COVID-19 in order to improve their prognosis and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Nutrição Enteral/efeitos adversos , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Metanálise como Assunto , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Nutricional , Necessidades Nutricionais , Apoio Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome da Realimentação/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
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