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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(1): 13-19, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-186142

RESUMO

Background: Head and neck cancer patients have a high rate of complications during the postoperative period that could increase their morbidity rate. Arginine has been shown to improve healing and to modulate inflammation and immune response. The aim of our study was to assess whether use of arginine-enriched enteral formulas could decrease fistulas and length of stay (LoS). Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients who had undergone head and neck cancer surgery and were receiving enteral nutrition through a nasogastric tube in the postoperative period between January 2012 and May 2018. The differences associated to use of immunoformula vs. standard formulas were analysed. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, and nutritional intervention variables, as well as nutritional parameters, were recorded during the early postoperative period. Occurrence of complications (fistulas), length of hospital stay, readmissions, and 90-day mortality were recorded. Results: In a univariate analysis, patients who received nutritional support with immunonutrition had a lower fistula occurrence rate (17.91% vs. 32.84%; p = 0.047) and a shorter mean LoS [28.25 (SD 16.11) vs. 35.50 (SD 25.73) days; p = 0.030]. After adjusting for age, energy intake, aggressiveness of surgery and tumour stage, fistula occurrence rate and LoS were similar in both groups irrespective of the type of formula. Conclusions: Use of arginine-enriched enteral nutrition appears to decrease the occurrence of fistulas in the postoperative period in patients with head and neck cancer, with a resultant reduction in length of hospital stay. However, the differences disappeared after adjusting for age, tumour stage, or aggressiveness of the surgery


Introducción: El postoperatorio de los pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello presenta una alta tasa de complicaciones. Esta circunstancia podría aumentar la morbilidad en estos pacientes. La arginina ha demostrado mejorar la curación y modular la inflamación y la respuesta inmune. Nuestro planteamiento es valorar si el uso de fórmulas de alimentación enteral enriquecidas con arginina podría reducir la aparición de fístulas y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en pacientes intervenidos de cáncer de cabeza y cuello que recibieron nutrición enteral a través de una sonda nasogástrica en el periodo postoperatorio entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2018. Se analizaron las diferencias asociadas a la utilización de inmunofórmula vs. fórmulas estándar. Se recogieron variables sociodemográficas, antropométricas, de intervención nutricional y de parámetros nutricionales durante el postoperatorio inmediato, así como la aparición de complicaciones (fístulas), la duración de la estancia hospitalaria, los reingresos y la mortalidad a 90 días. Resultados: En el análisis univariante los pacientes que recibieron apoyo nutricional con inmunonutrición presentaron menor tasa de aparición de fístulas (17,91 vs. 32,84%; p = 0,047) y menor estancia hospitalaria (28,25 [DE 16,11] vs. 35,50 [DE 25,73] días; p = 0,030). Después de ajustar por edad, aporte calórico, agresividad de la cirugía y estadio del tumor, la incidencia de fístula y la estancia hospitalaria fueron similares entre los grupos, independientemente del tipo de fórmula. Conclusiones: El uso de nutrición enteral enriquecida con arginina en pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello intervenidos podría reducir el desarrollo de la fístula y la duración de la estancia hospitalaria; sin embargo, las diferencias observadas desaparecen después de ajustar por edad, estadio tumoral o agresividad de la cirugía


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/dietoterapia , Alimentos Formulados , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo de Internação , Arginina
2.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 45(1): 100391, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318107

RESUMO

The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase. Although glucose uptake is fundamental to cardiomyocyte function, an excessive intracellular glucose level is detrimental. Insulin plays a fundamental role in maintaining myocardial efficiency and in reducing glycemia and inflammation; this is particularly evident in obese and type-2 diabetic patients. An excess of F availability increase fat deposition within cardiomyocytes and reduces glucose oxidation. In patients with high body mass index, a restricted diet or starvation have positive effects on cardiac metabolism and function while, in patients with low body mass index, restrictive diets, or starvation have a deleterious effect. Thus, weight loss in obese patients has positive impacts on ventricular mass and function, whereas, in underweight heart failure patients, such weight reduction adds to the risk of heart damage, predisposing to cachexia. Nutrition plays an essential role in the evolution of cardiovascular disease and should be taken into account. An energy-restricted diet improves myocardial efficiency but can represent a potential risk of heart damage, particularly in patients affected by cardiovascular disease. Micronutrient integration has a marginal effect on cardiovascular efficiency.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxirredução
3.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(11): 1016-1020, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770831

RESUMO

Chronic critical illness (CCI) refers to a group of critically ill patients who survive the acute phase of intensive care, but with persistent organ dysfunction, thus entering a chronic period of continuous dependence on life support system, and still need to stay in intensive care unit (ICU) for a long time. Persistent inflammatory response-immunosuppression-catabolic syndrome (PICS) is the main pathophysiological feature of CCI. Three factors interact to form a vicious circle, leading to poor prognosis. Nutritional support therapy is a key link in the comprehensive treatment of CCI. Enteral nutrition (EN) should be started as soon as possible if conditions permit. If EN can not be implemented, temporary or transitional parenteral nutrition (PN) should be used, and EN should be added gradually in time. At the same time, the amount of PN should be gradually reduced. When EN meets more than 60% of patients' energy and protein requirements, PN can be considered to be discontinued. The main strategies and functions of CCI nutritional support therapy are as follows: strengthening high protein supply to correct negative nitrogen balance and inhibit catabolism, selecting branched chain amino acids (BCAA) to promote anabolism, using immunomodulators (arginine, ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) to improve immune suppression and inflammatory response, supplementing micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) to counteract the decrease in intake and the increase in consumption, and adding probiotics to maintain the intestinal microecological balance, and so on. Reasonable nutritional support therapy not only improve malnutrition of CCI patients, but also help to reduce complications, thus speeding up rehabilitation, improving prognosis, shortening ICU hospitalization time, and even reducing mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Doença Crônica , Humanos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e16755, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577695

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe brain injury often induces a state of malnutrition due to insufficient caloric and protein input. If left untreated, it will have a negative impact on rehabilitation. Nutritional therapy provides caloric and the nutritional support necessary to cover the daily needs and help contrast hospital infections. Our hypothesis is that integration of natural foods in the daily diet can enhance the recovery of the state of malnutrition and increase rehabilitation outcomes. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present the case of a young man with traumatic brain injury caused by a car accident. Who underwent tracheostomy and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) procedures, had severe consciousness disorder, was severely malnourished and therefore underweight. DIAGNOSIS: He was severely underweight, malnourished, with a severe consciousness disorder that necessitated the tracheostomy and the PEG. INTERVENTIONS: Our approach included caloric implementation of artificial nutrition and the gradual introduction of semi-liquid natural foods administered through PEG. OUTCOMES: The patient was followed for a year during which the metabolic/nutritional pattern and the blood tests improved, normal weight restored, and consciousness regained. CONCLUSION: Nutritional intervention integrated with natural foods, has allowed a gradual increase in weight, a better recovery of the lean mass and the stabilization of the metabolic-nutritional framework.Nutritional approach used has contributed to the reduction of recovery times, making the therapeutic path more effective.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/etiologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Gastrostomia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Traqueostomia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto Jovem
5.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 49(11): 1009-1015, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the risk factors of laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival and nutritional support dependence over 12 months in patients with unresectable locally advanced head and neck carcinomas who received chemoradiotherapy in a phase II trial of JCOG0706 (UMIN000001272). METHODS: Forty-five patients received radiation therapy for a total of 70 Gy/35fr concurrently with S-1 and cisplatin. Risk factors of laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival and nutritional support dependence over 12 months were analyzed using Cox regression models and logistic regression models, respectively, with consideration to patient laboratory data just before chemoradiotherapy. Radiation fields were reviewed to analyze the relationship between the extent of the irradiated field and functional outcome. RESULTS: With a median follow-up period of 3.5 years, 3-year laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival was 48.9%. For laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival, hazards ratio of 2.35 in patients with nutritional support at registration (vs. without nutritional support; 95% confidence interval 0.96-5.76). For nutritional support dependence over 12 months, odds ratio was 6.77 in patients with hemoglobin less than the median of 13.4 g/dl (vs. higher than or equal to the median; 95% confidence interval 1.24-36.85) and was 6.00 in patients with albumin less than the median of 3.9 g/dl (vs. higher than or equal to the median; 95% confidence interval 1.11-32.54). Primary sites in disease-free patients with nutritional support dependence over 12 months were the oropharynx (N = 2) or hypopharynx (N = 1), and all pharyngeal constrictor muscles were included in irradiated fields with a curative dose. CONCLUSIONS: This supplementary analysis showed that pretreatment severe dysphagia requiring nutritional support, anemia and hypoalbuminemia might have a negative prognostic impact on long-term functional outcomes after curative chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/dietoterapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/dietoterapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Oxônico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Oxônico/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Tegafur/efeitos adversos , Tegafur/uso terapêutico
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(3): 235-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515982

RESUMO

The role of dietitians is to counsel patients on special dietary modifications, develop dietary plans and provide dietary advice for healthy lifestyle in order to promote health and prevent disease. As lifestyle changes have become a primary reason for the increasing prevalence of non-communicable diseases in recent decades, it appears that nutritional therapy should play an important role in the multidisciplinary healthcare system. The aim of the review was to evaluate the role of nutritional support provided by dietitians in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in terms of its clinical and cost-effectiveness, according to their range of activity and qualifications. The evaluation was based on the review of the current literature. The costs of the treatment of non-communicable diseases encompass the costs of the treatment of the disease itself, costs of its complications and costs resulting from the decline of the productivity of patients. The results of studies indicate that nutritional support provides not only clinical but also cost benefits in the prevention and treatment of various non-communicable diseases. Every €1 spend on dietary counseling of patients with obesity or obesity-related diseases approximately returns a net €14 to €63 over a period of five years. Dietitians appear to be more effective in counseling overweight or obese patients with present risk factors compared to other specialists, however the barriers to accessing a qualified dietitian and problems with the reimbursement for services still exist. As adequate professional qualifications of dietitians appear to be an important factor determining the effectiveness of implemented dietary care, an additional training courses for dietitians and enhanced cooperation of hospitals and medical universities are needed.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Nutricionistas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 117-123, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563078

RESUMO

Advanced cancer patients with cachexia and their families can suffer from eating-related distress. This complex entity encompasses patients' struggle to nourish themselves, emotional and social consequences of their inability to maintain food intake, and profound disturbance in family relationships. With evidence-based nutritional care, as well as symptom management to enable food intake, cachexia can be mitigated to some degree. In addition, patients and families require psychosocial support and education to understand and cope with this condition. Only by taking an integrated approach can health care teams alleviate eating-related distress, improve quality of life (QOL), reduce interpersonal conflicts, and alter perceptions of nutritional neglect for patients and families. However, few studies have investigated eating-related distress among patients and families. The aim of this narrative review is to describe what is known about eating-related distress and the roles of integrated palliative, supportive, and nutritional care in improving QOL of patients and families.


Assuntos
Caquexia/terapia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Caquexia/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/psicologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
8.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 09 13.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556503

RESUMO

Optimal nutrition is an important condition for optimal recovery from illness, both in and outside the hospital setting. In addition, in developed countries hospital-related malnutrition remains a major problem which can lead to complications, longer hospital stays and increased costs. The EFFORT study investigated if individualised nutritional support targeted at reaching protein and caloric goals, would reduce the risk of adverse outcomes. Achieving optimal nutrition is difficult due to illness-induced anorexia, inadequate education of medical doctors and little financial incentive. Guidelines focus on protein and energy, negating those illness-induced anorexia and individual patient aspects such as taste, portion size and eating habits. Although the EFFORT study showed benefit on the composite and individual endpoints, we should point out that the intervention group received standard care. Malnutrition needs multidisciplinary and transmural care including physiotherapy/exercise. As such, a more holistic approach is needed; optimal care as described by the EFFORT study should be the standard.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/etiologia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
9.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(9): 847-853, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389113

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of the present study was to collate examples of end-of-life care guidelines from various counties, examine their contents, and gain an overall picture of how end-of-life care guidance is offered to physicians and care providers internationally. METHODS: In this study, eight researchers worked independently to source and examine national-level end-of-life care guidelines from different countries and regions. Data collected by each researcher were gathered into a unified table. The items in the table included basic information (publisher, year, URL etc.) and more specific items, such as the presence/absence of legal information and family's role in decision-making. These data were then used to identify trends, and examine the mechanics and delivery of guidance on this topic. RESULTS: A total of 54 guidelines were included in the study. All the guidelines were published between 2000 and 2016, and 60% (n = 33) were published after 2012. The length of the guidelines varied from two to 487 pages (median 38 pages), and had different target audiences - both lay and professional. A total of 38 (70%) of the guidelines included information about the relevant laws and legal issues, 47 (87%) offered advice on withholding and withdrawing treatment, 46 (85%) discussed the family's role in decision-making and 46 (85%) emphasized the teamwork aspect of care. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings show that end-of-life care guidelines are generally made reactively in response to the trend toward patient-centered care, and that to create effective guidelines and implement them requires multilevel cooperation between governmental bodies, healthcare teams, and patients and their families. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 847-853.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Assistência Terminal , Suspensão de Tratamento , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Hidratação/métodos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Relações Profissional-Família , Assistência Terminal/ética , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Assistência Terminal/tendências , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Suspensão de Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443186

RESUMO

In critically ill patients, malnutrition is known to increase morbidity and mortality. We investigated the relationship between nutritional support and 28-day mortality using the modified NUTrition RIsk in the Critically ill (NUTRIC) score in patients with sepsis. This retrospective cohort study included patients with sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2011 and June 2017. Nutritional support for energy and protein intakes at day 7 of ICU admission were categorized into <20, 20 to <25, and ≥25 kcal/kg and <1.0, 1.0 to <1.2, and ≥1.2 g/kg, respectively. NUTRIC scores ≥4 were considered to indicate high nutritional risk. Among patients with low nutritional risk, higher intakes of energy (≥25 kcal/kg) and protein (≥1.2 g/kg) were not significantly associated with lower 28-day mortality. In patients with high nutritional risk, higher energy intakes of ≥25 kcal/kg were significantly associated with lower 28-day mortality compared to intakes of <20 kcal/kg (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.569, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.339-0.962, p = 0.035). Higher protein intakes of ≥1.2 g/kg were also significantly associated with lower 28-day mortality compared to intakes of <1.0 g/kg (aHR: 0.502, 95% CI: 0.280-0.900, p = 0.021). Appropriate energy (≥25 kcal/kg) and protein (≥1.2 g/kg) intakes during the first week may improve outcomes in patients with sepsis having high nutritional risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Sepse/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Nutricional/efeitos adversos , Apoio Nutricional/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7_Supple_C): 17-21, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256648

RESUMO

AIMS: To date, no study has demonstrated an improvement in postoperative outcomes following elective joint arthroplasty with a focus on nutritional intervention for patients with preoperative hypoalbuminaemia. In this prospective study, we evaluated differences in the hospital length of stay (LOS), rate of re-admission, and total patient charges for a malnourished patient study population who received a specific nutrition protocol before surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An analytical report was extracted from the electronic medical record (EMR; Epic, Verona, Wisconsin) of a five-hospital network joint arthroplasty patient data set between 2014 and 2017. A total of 4733 patients underwent joint arthroplasty and had preoperative measurement of albumin levels: 2220 at four hospitals and 2513 at the study hospital. Albumin ≤ 3.4 g/l, designated as malnutrition, was found in 543 patients (11.5%). A nutritional intervention programme focusing on a high-protein, anti-inflammatory diet was initiated in January 2017 at one study hospital. Hospital LOS, re-admission rate, and 90-day charges were compared for differential change between patients in study and control hospitals for all elective hip and knee arthroplasty patients, and for malnourished patients over time as the nutrition intervention was implemented. RESULTS: Malnourished patients with nutritional intervention at the study hospital had shorter hospital LOS beginning in 2017 than malnourished patients at control hospitals during the same period (p = 0.04). Similarly, this cohort had significantly lower primary hospitalization charges, charges associated with hospital re-admissions, and 90-day total charges (p < 0.001). Inclusion of covariant potential confounders (age, anaemia, diabetes, and obesity) did not alter the conclusions of the primary statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: Joint arthroplasty outcomes were positively affected in study patients with low albumin when a high-protein, anti-inflammatory diet was encouraged. Elective surgery was neither cancelled nor delayed with a malnutrition designation. While the entire network population experienced improved postoperative outcomes, malnourished control patients did not experience this improvement. This study demonstrated that education on malnutrition can benefit patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B(7 Supple C):17-21.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Desnutrição/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Desnutrição/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/complicações , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16290, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277161

RESUMO

Patients who become malnourished during hospitalization because of illness or treatment often receive intervention from a nutrition support team (NST). The NST intervention not only enhances the nutritional status but also decreases medical expenses and catheter-related complications. However, the impact of the NST intervention on the home discharge of hospitalized community-dwelling older adults remains unclear. Hence, this study aims to investigate factors related to home discharge in malnourished community-dwelling older adults.In this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, examined 191 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years (108 males; mean age: 80.9 ±â€Š7.8 years) who received the NST intervention. All participants were categorized into two groups based on whether they were home discharged or not (home discharge group and non-home discharge group). We performed intergroup comparisons using serum albumin (Alb) as an index of the nutritional status and functional independence measure (FIM: motor and cognitive items) as an index of activities of daily living (ADL). Furthermore, we constructed a prognostic model of home discharge using the logistic regression analysis.The home discharge group had 94 participants, with a home discharge rate of 50.8%. Baseline body mass index (BMI), motor-FIM score, and cognitive-FIM score were significantly higher in the home discharge group compared with the non-home discharge group (P = .002, P < .001, P < .001, respectively). In the home discharge group, BMI declined significantly, Alb elevated significantly, and both motor-FIM and cognitive-FIM score enhanced significantly by the completion of the NST intervention (P < .001, P < .001, P < .001, P = .005, respectively). The adjusted logistic regression analysis extracted the baseline BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.146; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.034-1.270), baseline motor-FIM score (OR, 1.070; 95% CI: 1.036-1.105), and extent of change in the motor-FIM score (OR, 1.061; 95% CI: 1.026-1.098) as independent factors that predict home discharge.This study highlights the significance of higher baseline BMI, higher baseline ADL level, ADL enhancements, and improvements in the nutritional status by the NST intervention in malnourished community-dwelling older adults considering home discharge.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Desnutrição/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(8): 733-740, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347405

RESUMO

Introduction: Cachexia is frequent in chronic diseases and especially during cancer development. Multiple definitions of cachexia have been proposed; it may be considered a multifactorial complex syndrome that presents with progressive unintentional weight loss and wasting of muscle mass and adipose tissue. Area covered: This article covers phase-I and phase-II clinical trials of investigational drugs for cancer cachexia. We performed a search on PubMed with keywords as cancer cachexia, phase-I/phase-II trial, drug, identifying articles relevant to this review. Studies were conducted using compounds, including anabolic agents such as ghrelin analogs, selective androgen receptor modulators, as well as anti-inflammatory drugs such as thalidomide, OHR, anti-interleukin antibody, cannabinoids, and omega-3 supplements. We also describe the mechanisms of action of these molecules and their phase-I and phase-II study design. The major outcomes were appetite stimulation, weight gain, improvement of muscle mass and function, modulation of inflammation, and quality of life. Expert opinion: The molecules discussed act on molecular pathways involved in cancer cachexia; they modulate appetite, anabolic effects, inflammation and direct interaction with muscle. Considering the multifactorial aspects of the cachexia syndrome, the combination of these drugs with metabolic and nutritional interventions may represent the most promising therapeutic approach to cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia/tratamento farmacológico , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
Curr Gastroenterol Rep ; 21(8): 38, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289936

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the prevalence of malnutrition in cirrhosis, metabolic functions of the liver and alterations in cirrhosis, malnutrition screening tools, and common macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies encountered in individuals with chronic liver disease and their impact on morbidity and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Several meta-analyses and international society guidelines recommend malnutrition screening and nutrition interventions to improve outcomes in all patients with chronic liver disease given their high risk of malnutrition which is often under recognized. Malnutrition is common in individuals with chronic liver disease and has a significant impact on patient outcomes. Thus, it is critical that validated malnutrition screening tools are used routinely in this patient population in order to identify high-risk patients and implement nutrition and exercise interventions early.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Desnutrição/etiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/dietoterapia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos
16.
Neurology ; 93(5): e485-e496, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of muscle-targeted nutritional support on the functional outcomes of multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) or parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, bicentric, randomized (1:1), assessor-blind controlled trial (Protein, Leucine and Vitamin D Enhancing Rehabilitation [PRO-LEADER]; April 2017 to January 2018) in cognitively intact patients with PD or parkinsonism and undergoing a 30-day MIRT. Patients (n = 150) received a standard hospital diet with or without a whey protein-based nutritional supplement enriched with leucine and vitamin D twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the increase in the distance walked during a 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Secondary endpoints were changes in 4-meter walking speed, Timed Up and Go test (TUG), Berg balance scale, handgrip strength, Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale, body weight, and skeletal muscle mass (SMM). RESULTS: Nutritional support resulted in greater increase in the distance walked during 6MWT (mean 69.6 meters [95% confidence interval (CI) 60.7-78.6]) than no support (51.8 meters [95% CI 37.0-66.7]): center-adjusted mean difference, 18.1 meters (95% CI 0.9-35.3) (p = 0.039). Further adjustment for changes in dopaminergic therapy and SMM yielded consistent results: mean difference, 18.0 meters (95% CI 0.7-35.2) (p = 0.043). A meaningful effect was also found for the following secondary endpoints: 4-meter walking speed (p = 0.032), TUG (p = 0.046), SMM, and SMM index (p = 0.029). Six patients discontinued the nutritional therapy due to mild side effects. CONCLUSION: The consumption of a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D with MIRT improved lower extremity function and preserved muscle mass in patients with PD or parkinsonism.Clinicaltrials.gov IDENTIFIER: NCT03124277. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with parkinsonism undergoing intensive rehabilitation, a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D increased distance walked on the 6MWT.


Assuntos
Leucina/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aminoácidos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/reabilitação , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada , Velocidade de Caminhada
17.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 222, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the initial phase of critical illness, the association between the dose of nutrition support and mortality risk may vary among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) because the prevalence of malnutrition varies widely (28 to 78%), and not all ICU patients are severely ill. Therefore, we hypothesized that a prognostic model that integrates nutritional status and disease severity could accurately predict mortality risk and classify critically ill patients into low- and high-risk groups. Additionally, in critically ill patients placed on exclusive nutritional support (ENS), we hypothesized that their risk categories could modify the association between dose of nutrition support and mortality risk. METHODS: A prognostic model that predicts 28-day mortality was built from a prospective cohort study of 440 patients. The association between dose of nutrition support and mortality risk was evaluated in a subgroup of 252 mechanically ventilated patients via logistic regressions, stratified by low- and high-risk groups, and days of exclusive nutritional support (ENS) [short-term (≤ 6 days) vs. longer-term (≥ 7 days)]. Only the first 6 days of ENS was evaluated for a fair comparison. RESULTS: The prognostic model demonstrated good discrimination [AUC 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.82), and a bias-corrected calibration curve suggested fair accuracy. In high-risk patients with short-term ENS (≤ 6 days), each 10% increase in goal energy and protein intake was associated with an increased adjusted odds (95% CI) of 28-day mortality [1.60 (1.19-2.15) and 1.47 (1.12-1.86), respectively]. In contrast, each 10% increase in goal protein intake during the first 6 days of ENS in high-risk patients with longer-term ENS (≥ 7 days) was associated with a lower adjusted odds of 28-day mortality [0.75 (0.57-0.99)]. Despite the opposing associations, the mean predicted mortality risks and prevalence of malnutrition between short- and longer-term ENS patients were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Combining baseline nutritional status and disease severity in a prognostic model could accurately predict 28-day mortality. However, the association between the dose of nutrition support during the first 6 days of ENS and 28-day mortality was independent of baseline disease severity and nutritional status.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Mortalidade/tendências , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 246-251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The participation of a nutrition support pharmacist (NSP) in a multidisciplinary team (MDT) for patients receiving nutrition support therapy (NST) may lead to more favourable outcomes and fewer complications and adverse events. However, few studies have demonstrated the role of NSPs in MDTs in China. To investigate pharmacy interventions and physician acceptance of these interventions for patients receiving NST in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study over a 12-month period was conducted in an ICU at an academic hospital in China. Interventions were documented and divided into the following categories: indication of NST, parenteral nutrition (PN) prescription and delivery, enteral nutrition (EN) route and formulation, fluids and electrolytes, laboratory test monitoring, nutritional supplements, and other medication-related problems. Data regarding the intervention categories, timing, acceptance rates, and methods of communication to discuss pharmacy interventions were collected. RESULTS: In total, 247 interventions for 120 patients were identified. The overall acceptance rate of interventions was 85.0% (210/247), and more than half of the interventions (143, 57.9%) were performed during daily follow-up. The most common intervention categories were PN prescription and delivery (81/247, 32.8%), EN route and formula (33/247, 13.4%), indication of NST (33/247, 13.4%), and nutritional supplements (30/247, 12.1%). The most accepted intervention category was PN prescription and delivery (79/81, 97.5%), and the most common method of communication was oral communication during MDT rounds (201/247, 81.4%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the unique perspectives offered and importance of having pharmacists as members of MDTs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Crit Care ; 23(Suppl 1): 139, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200741

RESUMO

Critically ill patients require adequate nutritional support to meet energy requirements both during and after intensive care unit (ICU) stay to protect against severe catabolism and prevent significant deconditioning. ICU patients often suffer from chronic critical illness causing an increase in energy expenditure, leading to proteolysis and related muscle loss. Careful supplementation and modulation of caloric and protein intake can avoid under- or overfeeding, both associated with poorer outcomes. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred method for assessing resting energy expenditure and the appropriate caloric and protein intake to counter energy and muscle loss. Physical exercise may have favorable effects on muscle preservation and should be considered even early in the hospital course of a critically ill patient. After liberation from the ventilator or during non-invasive ventilation, oral intake should be carefully evaluated and, in case of severe dysphagia, should be avoided and replaced by enteral of parenteral nutrition. Upon transfer from the ICU to the ward, adequate nutrition remains essential for long-term rehabilitation success and continued emphasis on sufficient nutritional supplementation in the ward is necessary to avoid a suboptimal nutritional state.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/psicologia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tempo de Internação , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
20.
Rev. clín. med. fam ; 12(2): 93-96, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186262

RESUMO

La clínica del síndrome de la arteria mesentérica superior se basa en los siguientes síntomas: dolor epigástrico postpandrial, saciedad temprana, náuseas o vómitos biliosos, sobre todo en pacientes con una pérdida significativa de peso reciente o con una intervención quirúrgica previa, en la mayoría de ocasiones por escoliosis. En nuestro trabajo presentamos el caso de un varón de 83 años con antecedentes de fibrilación auricular y EPOC e intervenido por colecistitis litiásica crónica y ulcus péptico, que acude al servicio de urgencias con dolor abdominal intenso junto con vómitos y ausencia de ventoseo y deposición. Debemos pensar en este síndrome una vez descartadas las causas más frecuentes de dolor abdominal. Mediante la sospecha clínica y la realización del TC conseguimos un diagnóstico temprano, y evitamos complicaciones posteriores como alteraciones electrolíticas, perforación gástrica o gas venoso portal


The symptoms of superior mesenteric artery syndrome are: postprandial epigastric pain, early satiety, nausea or bilious vomiting, particularly in patients with significant recent weight loss or with previous surgery, most often scoliosis. We present the case of an 83-year-old man with a history of atrial fibrillation and COPD and previous surgeries due to peptic ulcer and chronic calculous cholecystitis, who arrives in the Emergency Department with severe abdominal pain, vomiting, not passing gas and constipation. We must think about this syndrome once the most frequent causes of abdominal pain have been ruled out. Thanks to clinical suspicion and CT scan we can obtain an early diagnosis and avoid later complications such as electrolyte imbalance, gastric perforation or portal venous gas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Síndrome da Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Aderências Teciduais/diagnóstico , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Analgesia/métodos
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